Impairment of Wnt11 function leads to kidney tubular abnormalities and secondary glomerular cystogenesis
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Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open. The presence of Wnt11 in the emerging tubular system suggests that it may have certain roles later in the development of the epithelial ductal system.
The Wnt11 knockout allele was backcrossed with the C57Bl6 strain for several generations to address possible differences in penetrance of the kidney phenotypes. Strikingly, around one third of the null mice with this inbred background survived to the postnatal stages. Many of them also reached adulthood, but urine and plasma analyses pointed out to compromised kidney function. Consistent with these data the tubules of the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mice appeared to be enlarged, and the optical projection tomography indicated changes in tubular convolution. Moreover, the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mice developed secondary glomerular cysts not observed in the controls. The failure of Wnt11 signaling reduced the expression of several genes implicated in kidney development, such as Wnt9b, Six2, Foxd1 and Hox10. Also Dvl2, an important PCP pathway component, was downregulated by more than 90 % due to Wnt11 deficiency in both the E16.5 and NB kidneys. Since all these genes take part in the control of UB, nephron and stromal progenitor cell differentiation, their disrupted expression may contribute to the observed anomalies in the kidney tubular system caused by Wnt11 deficiency.
The Wnt11 signal has roles at the later stages of kidney development, namely in coordinating the development of the tubular system. The C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mouse generated here provides a model for studying the mechanisms behind tubular anomalies and glomerular cyst formation.
KeywordsEpithelial mesenchyme tissue interactions Wnt signaling Tubule morphogenesis Glomerular cysts
Dolichos biflorus agglutinin
Embryonic day 16.5
Lotus tetragonolobus lectin
Thiazide-sensitive NaCl co-transporter
Optical projection tomography
Planar cell polarity
Polycystic kidney disease
Transmission electron microscopy
Tyramid signal amplification
The Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in several distinct processes during mammalian development including nephrogenesis . Wnt11 is implicated in early kidney development since its absence leads to kidney hyperplasia due to reduced ureteric bud (UB) branching . Whether Wnt11 has other roles in the embryonic or adult kidney remains unknown at present, but the fact that it is expressed in the UB tip of the maturing kidney is in line with the hypothesis of a possible role later in kidney development. It should be also noted that other members of the Wnt family have been implicated in kidney tubule development and tubular diseases leading to cystogenesis. The underlying mechanisms may stem from the roles of Wnts such as Wnt9b and Wnt7b in controlling the tubular luminal diameter and length via the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, since its deregulation is considered to be a cause of cystogenesis [3, 4, 5].
The glomerulocystic kidney (GCK) disease is one of human renal cystic disorders which could be both sporadic and inherited , and has a higher occurrence in infants than in adults . Manifestation of this disease depends on the timing of exposure to the poorly characterized predisposing or causal factors influencing kidney development and function. Certain epigenetic modifiers may also contribute to the development of GCK disease  but the detailed molecular pathology behind remains poorly characterized. Although GCK disease may be caused by defects within the glomeruli, it is more typical for the cysts to develop as a secondary consequence to the anomalies in the tubules. Such anomalies can be connected not only with components of the Wnt signaling pathway, but also with HNF1β transcription factor, which is involved in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and the polycystic complex proteins [3, 4, 9, 10, 11].
Because of the high mortality of Wnt11 knockout mice (or Wnt11 −/− ) in a SV129 background in utero, this model is not appropriate for studying the roles of Wnt11 at later stages in kidney development . In the present study SV129 mice with the Wnt11 null allele were backcrossed with mice from the C57Bl6 genetic background, which can differ notably from SV129 mice in their anatomical features and physiological functions . Analysis of these C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mice revealed that unlike the Wnt11 −/− SV129 mice some of them survived to adulthood, although they demonstrated prominent glomerular cysts and changes in kidney performance. The kidney tubules of the survivors were also enlarged and their convolution deviated from that of the controls. The Wnt11-dependent reduction of the expression of Wnt9b, Six2 and certain stromal markers might point to a mechanism by which Wnt11 contributes to the development of the kidney tubular system. Thus C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mice may serve as a model for human glomerulocystic disease.
C57Bl6 Wnt11−/− mice
The generation of the Wnt11 −/− 129SV mouse model has been previously described in . The Wnt11 −/− SV129 mice for the present work were crossed with C57Bl6 genetic background mice for a minimum of 10 generations. All the animal experimentation was authorized by the Finnish National Animal Experiment Board (ELLA) (62/2006) as being compliant with the EU guidelines for animal research and welfare.
Histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy
Kidneys were prepared from E16.5 embryos, newborn (NB) and adult mice (4–5 months old), fixed in 4 % paraformaldehyde and processed for tissue sections as described in . Immunohistochemistry with the anti-Wnt11 antibody (Abcam) was performed using the tyramid signal amplification (TSA) kit (Perkin Elmer) as described in . The Apoptosis TUNEL assays (Promega) were performed according to the manufacturer’s instruction as reported earlier . Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1, Millipore), Aquaporin-2 (AQP-2, Sigma-Aldrich), thiazide-sensitive NaCl co-transporter (NCC, Millipore), acetylated α-tubulin (AT, Sigma-Aldrich), Phospho-Histone H3 (P-H3, Millipore) primary antibodies and Lotus Tetragonolobus Lectin (LTL, fluorescein labeled, Vector Laboratories), Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin (DBA, rhodamine labeled, Vector Laboratories) lectins were used according to the manufacturers’ recommendations. Alexa Fluor 488 and 546-conjugated antibodies (Invitrogen) served as the secondary antibodies. DAPI (Sigma Pharmaceuticals) was used to stain the nuclei of the cells in the tissue sections. Electron microscopy samples were prepared as previously described  and examined using Phillips CM100 transmission electron microscope.
Epithelial tubular cell and glomerular number
Epithelial tubular cells were quantified as previously described, with some modifications . The numbers of epithelial cells per tubular cross-section were counted in 10 μm thick cryosections generated from the kidneys of the Wnt11 −/− and control (WT) NB mice stained with DBA, LTL and DAPI. Those tubules that appeared to be round in shape were selected for the counting. 4–6 mice were used for making the sections, and nine slides were selected to represent key domains of the kidney (at least 100 μm between sections). Around 50 tubules per kidney were counted, representing groups to be analyzed when categorized by age (NB and adult) and genotype. For the number of glomeruli in WT and Wnt11 −/− (NB and adult), three mouse kidneys were sectioned and three sections were selected from each mouse for counting. Only glomeruli with intact shape and sectioned in the middle were recorded. The data were presented as the number of glomeruli per kidney section.
RNA purification and quantitative RT-PCR
Total RNA was extracted from the kidneys of NB mice with the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen). cDNA was synthesized from 1 μg of total RNA with the First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific). A sample from the cDNA library (2 μl at 1:10 dilution) in Brilliant II SYBR® Green QPCR Master Mix (Agilent Technologies) was subjected to qRT-PCR using the Mx3005P qRT-PCR System (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The primers for the qRT-PCR are described in Additional file 1: Table S1. GAPDH served as the reference for normalizing the qRT-PCR results. The PCR experiments were carried out in triplicates. Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Results were considered to be statistically significant when p < 0.05.
Optical projection tomography
The three-dimensional organization of the kidneys was analyzed by optical projection tomography (OPT) according to Short et al. (2010)  at the developmental stages indicated in the results section. The ureteric tree of the kidney was stained with the anti-Troma-1 (Hybridoma Bank) antibody against cytokeratin, and detected with the Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody (Molecular Probes). A Bioptonics 3001 OPT scanner (Bioptonics, Edinburgh, UK) was used for image capture at a wavelength of 480 nm. The programs to analyze the OPT data and to generate the 3D images were ImageJ, Imaris 64 7.5.2 (Bitplane A.G.) and the filament-tracing tool of the Drishti V2.0.
In situ hybridization
The protocol for the in situ hybridization was described by Wilkinson, 1992 . The digoxigenin–labeled probes for Wnt11 [13, 18], Hox10 (a, c, d) and Foxd1 , Six2 and Wnt9b  were previously described.
Biochemical tests using mouse plasma and urine
Four to five-months-old mice were placed in metabolic cages for 24 h, their urine and blood was collected, and biochemical assays (n = 8–10 animals/genotype) were performed in the Harwell Medical Research Council core laboratory (https://www.har.mrc.ac.uk/). Student’s t-test (n = 4–6) was used for the statistical analysis. Results were considered to be statistically significant when p < 0.05.
Wnt11 is expressed in the epithelial tubular cells of the nephron and collecting duct during organogenesis
C57Bl6 Wnt11−/− mice can survive to adulthood
The in utero lethality of Wnt11 knockout observed in the SV129 genetic background prevented targeting of the putative later roles of Wnt11. In an effort to bypass this embryonic lethality, the null allele was transferred to the C57Bl6 background mice by backcrossing SV129 Wnt11 −/− mice with the C57Bl6 ones for a minimum of ten generations prior to analysis.
Strikingly, genotyping of the embryonic and NB progeny of the C57Bl6 Wnt11 +/− intercrosses revealed genotypes that were in accordance with the Mendelian ratio 50 % (+/−), 25 % (+/+) and 25 % (−/−) (n = 260). We conclude that the presence of the Wnt11 null allele in the C57Bl6 background partially overcome the in utero lethality reported in the SV129 background .
However, the number of the surviving Wnt11 −/− mice had dropped by around 50 % (32/65, n = 65, P < 0.001) by the age of 4–6 weeks. An additional reduction of 10 % had taken place by the age of 12 months. The proportion of female to male C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− survivors remain unchanged. Since the penetrance of the Wnt11 −/− is less marked in C57Bl6 than in SV129, the generated C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mouse line could be a novel model for addressing the putative later roles of Wnt11.
Wnt11−/− influences kidney tubular system development in C57Bl6 mice
We also studied by qRT-PCR the changes in expression of two major markers, GDNF and Ret, which were previously shown to cooperate with Wnt11 signals in regulating ureteric branching morphogenesis at early stages of embryo development in SV129 mice . We found that Ret expression was significantly downregulated at E16.5 in C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− kidneys (n = 4, p ≤ 0.05), while GDNF was downregulated moderately (n = 4). In NB no significant differences in Ret and GDNF expression were observed (Fig. 2o). In summary, the Wnt11 deficiency in the C57Bl6 mice influenced the organization of the kidney epithelial tubular system.
Wnt11-deficient kidneys are hypoplastic and glomerulocystic, with expanded tubules
Around 25 % (16/65) of the E16.5, NB and adult Wnt11 deficient mice analyzed had severe kidney hypoplasia associated with the presence of relatively large glomerular and tubular cysts (Fig. 2d, h arrow, j, k, m, n, Additional file 3: Figure S2). The Wnt11 −/− tubular cysts were lacking primary cilia (Additional file 3: Figure S2I, J, arrows), while the non-cystic Wnt11 −/− tubules showed a normal appearance of the primary cilia (Additional file 3: Figure S2, compare f with b). Occasional collecting ducts (CD) cysts (Additional file 3: Figure S2H, arrows) could also be detected though it is a very rare phenomenon. In the Wnt11 −/− kidneys, the Bowman space was around 2–3 times larger than in the controls (Fig. 2, compare l, n, with i, k, star, Additional file 2: Figure S1, compare D, E, F, G with A, B, C, arrows) in line with the microcystic type characteristic for GCK disease . To identify possible primary glomerular abnormalities that could lead to glomerular cyst formation we investigated noncystic glomerular structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM showed no significant differences in precystic Wnt11 −/− glomeruli relative to the controls (Additional file 2: Figure S1, compare H with I).
The organization of the podocytes within the cystic glomeruli differed from the controls (Fig. 2, compare n with k, area encircled by the dotted line). The acetylated tubulin (AT) [21, 22] was also more prominent than in the controls (Fig. 2, compare m, n with j, k, in red). The glomeruli of the Wnt11 −/− kidneys had hypertrophied glomerular cysts as compared with the controls (Additional file 2: Figure S1C, F, G, black arrow), a finding that is in line with the reported resistance of C57Bl6 mice to this condition [23, 24]. Cysts were noted to be distributed throughout the cortexes, indicating that both later and earlier assembled glomeruli can be affected by cystic formation. Interstitial fibrosis is detected in the severe kidney tubular anomalies of the Wnt11-deficient mice (Additional file 2: Figure S1F, empty arrow).
Given the Wnt11 deficiency dependent changes in the kidney tubular system we also examined possible changes in the genes encoding the “core” PCP pathway and certain other genes (e.g. TCS2, PDK1 and HNF1b) involved in cystic kidney diseases by qRT-PCR using E16.5 and NB kidneys. It has been shown that the expression of some of these genes such as TCS2 was regulated by Wnt11 [25, 26, 27]. The qRT-PCR data revealed age-dependent and Wnt11 −/− dependent changes in the expression of several of the examined genes (Additional file 4: Figure S3). Dvl2, an important PCP pathway component, was downregulated by more than 90 % due to Wnt11 deficiency in both the E16.5 and NB kidneys. Expression of the Six2 and Wnt9b was reduced at E16.5, but not in the NB mice.
Taken together, our results indicate that the Wnt11 deficiency in the C57Bl6 mice disturbs the organization of the kidney tubular system and leads to glomerular cysts formation. The Wnt11 signal plays a role in the spatial arrangement of the tubular epithelial cells, partly by controlling the PCP pathway genes. However, since Wnt11 is not expressed in the glomerular cells (Fig. 1), the glomerular anomalies noted here are apparently secondary to the Wnt11 knockout-dependent changes in the tubular cells of the nephron and collecting duct.
Wnt11 deficiency influences tubular convolution and the organization of the kidney pelvis
We next used optical projection tomography (OPT) technology to address the question if the Wnt11 deficiency would influence any of three-dimensional parameters of the kidney. Analysis of the OPT data indicated a 34 % reduction in the volume of the Wnt11-deficient kidneys relative to that of the controls (376 ± 23 μm3 vs. 595 ± 81 μm3, n = 6-8, p < 0.05). Also the volume of the kidney pelvis (279 ± 11 μm3 vs. 418 ± 32 μm3, n = 6-8, p < 0.05) (Additional file 5: Figure S4A), its 3D appearance and relative size (Fig. 4a, b, d, e) were all changed when compared to control. The cortical-medullary axis was about 10 % smaller (1455 ± 115 μm vs. 1686 ± 101 μm, n = 6-8, p < 0.05) and the dorso-ventral axis was 56 % smaller (361 ± 15 μm vs. 634 ± 75 μm, n = 6-8, p < 0.05) in the absence of Wnt11 function as compared with the controls (Fig. 4).
Computer-based reconstruction of the OPT images in the form of a 3D model also highlighted an increase in tubular convolution and length from the control values due to Wnt11 deficiency (1751 ± 125 μm vs. 1520 ± 160 μm, n = 40, p < 0.05). One representative OPT-reconstructed tubule derived from the kidneys immunostained with the Troma-1 using whole mount technique (Additional file 5: Figure S4B-C´) is shown in Fig. 4g-j (in red). These results provide further support for the conclusion that Wnt11 signaling may be involved in some aspect of the organization of the kidney tubular system.
Wnt11 signaling is involved in tubular organization
The histological inspection indicated that the size of the tubular lumen in the Wnt11 −/− kidneys was enlarged compared with the controls (Fig. 5a–h). Quantification of cell number in the tubular segments of the Wnt11-deficient kidneys showed notably higher variation in the total numbers of cells in both the PT and the medullary CD tubules (Fig. 5i, j). Around 40 % PTs of the NB Wnt11-deficient kidneys had 6–8 cells/cross-section, while the controls had only 4–5 cells/cross-section (Fig. 5i). This difference was even more apparent in the adults, where around 60 % of the PTs of the Wnt11-deficient kidneys had 6–8 or 9–10 cells/cross-section, while the corresponding values for the control sections were 4–5 cells/cross-section (Fig. 5i). Similar changes in the tubular cell count were found in the CD (Fig. 5j) in line with the roles of Wnt11 in cellular organization of the tubular epithelia.
Wnt11 influences tubular development by reducing cell proliferation, Wnt9b and Six2 expression
Wnt11 deficiency compromises kidney function
We were particularly interested in studying whether the changes noted in the kidney tubular system due to Wnt11 deficiency would indeed be reflected by kidney functional performance in the adult mice. Creatinine clearance was reduced by around 52 % in the Wnt11 deficient kidneys (n = 10, p < 0.05; Additional file 6: Figure S5A and Additional file 7: Table S2). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was higher relative to the concentration of plasma creatinine (n = 10, p < 0.05; Additional file 8: Table S3), whereas daily urine production was reduced in response to Wnt11 knockout (Additional file 5: Figure S5C). Together these results indicate that Wnt11 deficiency leads to a moderate degree of kidney failure and indicates a role for Wnt11 in the assembling of a functional kidney.
Wnt11 signal coordinates kidney tubular system and lack of it promotes glomerular cyst development
The fact that some C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mice survive to adulthood provided a unique model for studying the roles of Wnt11 at later stages in the kidney development and maturation. Wnt11 is expressed in kidney epithelial cells and its absence changed the morphology of the tubules by altering their diameter and convolution as observed by histochemistry and OPT. Unlike the Wnt7b and Wnt9b knockout models [3, 4], tubular cysts are not the predominant cystic phenotype in the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− model, but all the surviving mice had glomerular cysts and compromised glomerular function. Blood and urine analyses of Wnt11 −/− mice indicated moderate kidney failure.
Indeed, the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− kidney phenotypes show a definite correspondence to the characteristic of human GCK diseases [7, 8, 30, 31]. As within the Wnt11 knockout, the HNF1 gene mutation leads to hypoplastic GCK disease with an enlarged collecting duct lumen, which may point to synergistic roles for Wnt11 and HNF1 [30, 32, 33]. What could be the common ground for these phenotypes? Both Wnt11 and HNF1d are expressed not only in the UB but also in the developing nephron, where they are functional. Moreover, since the UB initially induces the nephrogenesis program through Six2+ mesenchyme cells, the changes in the degree of UB bifurcation associated to its inductive signaling via Wnt9b, for example, may be reflected reciprocally in the number of eventually formed nephrons during kidney development. Since the Six2+ cell lineage, which was influenced by the Wnt11 knockout also generates glomerular cells, cystogenesis could be promoted initially by Wnt11-dependent changes in the behavior of the nephron progenitor cells as well.
Our results obtained from the novel C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− model and some other related ones [7, 8, 30, 31] raise the possibility that the compromised glomerular structure and function may occur secondarily to the primary changes that take place in the kidney tubules. In any case, the severity of these developmental anomalies in Wnt11 −/− kidneys depends to a dramatic extent on the genetic background of the mouse line. Our findings provide a valuable basis for identifying putative genetic modifiers that may eventually be relevant to the development of human cystic kidney disease [7, 8, 30, 31, 34]. Hence the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mouse line reported here may serve as a novel Wnt model for addressing the detailed mechanisms of tubulogenesis and glomerular cyst development that are associated with human GCK diseases.
Wnt11 is involved in the organization of kidney tubules through the planar cell polarity pathway
Apart from direct transcriptional control of target genes, Wnts are also known to modulate the PCP pathway that participate in various morphogenetic processes . The Wnt11 expression pattern found in the nephron and the collecting duct tubules correlates with that of Wnt9b, a PCP signal pathway involved in kidney tubulogenesis . Like the kidneys of Wnt9b −/− mice [4, 20, 29], the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− ones demonstrated an increased tubular diameter of the PT and the CD. Based on these data, we speculate that Wnt11 signaling may have a role in later nephron developmental stages being in part mediated via the Wnt9b.
Wnt11 deficiency also changed the overall convolution of the tubules, as revealed by the OPT. Elongation and expansion of the tubules involve so-called “convergent extension” (CE) movements and oriented cell divisions. These are considered critical for the establishment of the tubular organization during kidney development . It has been shown in other systems that Wnt11 signaling is connected with the control of CE movements as well [36, 37, 38].
Wnt11 signaling may also take part in fine-tuning of nephrogenesis
The regulation of Wnt9b by Wnt11 appears to be reciprocal, since Wnt11 can be reduced by impairment of Wnt9b function in the kidney [4, 20, 28, 29, 39]. Indeed, the close relationships between Wnt11 and Wnt9b may provide a mechanism by which Wnt11 influences nephrogenesis. Expression of Six2 is downregulated in the absence of either Wnt9b or Wnt11. How could Wnt11 deficiency allow the maintenance of nephrogenesis, and simultaneously compromise the robustness of the process? We hypothesize that Wnt11 takes part in the fine-tuning of the Wnt9b concentration either by self-renewal of the Six2+ nephron progenitor cells or by induction of this population to proceed towards nephrogenesis in a well-coordinated manner [29, 40, 41, 42, 43]. Thus, Wnt11 may fine-tune the output of Wnt9b signaling and in this way coordinate the self-renewal or commitment of the nephron progenitor cells in addition to controlling the Six2 gene.
Wnt11 signaling may have a role in the differentiation of stromal progenitor cells, since the markers of this cell lineage, Hox10 and Foxd1, were altered in the absence of Wnt11 function. Hox10 contributes to integration of the Foxd1+ progenitor into the kidney stroma in the developing kidney cortex but Foxd1 also has an impact on nephron progenitor cell differentiation [19, 44]. Hence Wnt11 may even have a broader role in coordinating the overall organization of the nephron and stromal progenitor cell layers during kidney development.
It should be noted that despite partial downregulation of Wnt9b, Six2, Hox10 and Foxd1 expression in Wnt11 −/− mice, the phenotype of Wnt11 −/− kidneys differs from the phenotypes described for the other knockout mice. Homozygous embryos for the Wnt9b allele die shortly after birth and have only rudimentary kidneys since Wnt9b transcription factor is essential for the development of mesonephric and metanephric tubules . Also the inactivation of Six2 gene results in premature differentiation of mesenchymal cells into epithelia and depletion of this progenitor cell population leads to severe renal hypoplasia . On the other hand, conditional overexpression of Wnt9b in Six2-positive cells leads to formation of kidney tubular cysts and severe organ failure . The observed defects in Hox10 mutants include aberrant ureter branching, decreased nephrogenesis and a loss of kidney capsule formation . The deletion of Foxd1 causes striking developmental abnormalities such as pelvic fused kidneys likely due to the failure of the renal capsule formation . Thus these genes are apparently only partially regulated by Wnt11 signaling.
One of the possible reasons for pathogenesis of cyst-like tubular structures in mice may by ureteral obstruction . However, ureteral blockage in NB mice leads to gross enlargement of the kidney pelvis  while in our study the pelvis is smaller in Wnt11 −/− as compared to WT. On the other hand, the abnormal convolution of the kidney tubules with a decreased lumen size of the papillary tubules in C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− kidney might impair the urine flow, which at the end could cause an increase in the upstream pressure in the glomerulus. We suggest that observed adult phenotype in our study results both from primary developmental kidney defects and chronic kidney diseases due to glomerular cysts, which has secondary impact on kidney development. However, in order to interpret the origin of the observed adult phenotype, various Wnt11 conditional knockout models should be used in the future to specifically dissect Wnt11 functions during development and after birth, when kidney pelvis and tubules grow and mature.
In summary, the novel C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mouse model introduced here revealed that the Wnt11 signaling pathway serves as an organizer of the UB, pretubular and stromal cells since the markers Six2, Wnt9b, and Foxd1/Hox10 were reduced in its absence. Wnt11 also contributes to the spatial organization of the tubular epithelial cells in the assembling nephron in addition to taking part in the control of early UB branching. Dysfunction of Wnt11 signaling during tubule morphogenesis leads to the formation of glomerular cysts and secondarily to the impairment of glomerular function. These results point out that the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mouse can be a useful model for gaining a better molecular understanding of the pathogenesis of human glomerulocystic kidney diseases [7, 30].
We thank Paula Haipus, Hannele Härkman, Tiina Jokela and Johanna Kekolahti-Liias for their excellent technical assistance, Raija Sormunen for electron microscopy.
This work was supported financially by the Academy of Finland (206038, 121647, 250900 & 260056), Centre of Excellence grant 2012–2017 of the Academy of Finland (251314), the Sigrid Jusélius, Novonordisk, and Finnish Cancer Research Foundations and the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013; grant FP7-HEALTH- F5-2012-INNOVATION-1 EURenOmics 305608). FN was supported by a fellowship from Academy of Finland (243014583).
Availability of data and materials
All the data supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the main manuscript and Additional files.
IN planned the experiments, conducted them and wrote the manuscript, QX performed the experiments, analyzed the samples and wrote the manuscript, FN analyzed the sections and OPT, NA performed and analyzed samples notably for kidney vasculature and participated in the manuscript correction, IM performed electron microscopy, AS finalized and wrote the manuscript, SV generated the Wnt11 -/- mice, helped to plan the project and provided the funding. All the authors have read and approved the manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All the animal experimentation was authorized by the Finnish National Animal Experiment Board (ELLA) (62/2006) as being compliant with the EU guidelines for animal research and welfare.
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