Genome Biology

, 11:I2 | Cite as

Reading and writing genomes

  • George Church
Invited speaker presentation


Stem Cell Immune Response Human Genome Global Health Pluripotent Stem Cell 

The human genome draft published in 2004 was a milestone, but achieved at a cost of $3 billion it is inapplicable to diagnostics for global health. We have reduced the cost of sequencing by over a million times in the past six years. The next step is integrating Genome + Environment = Trait (GET) data on large diverse cohorts enabled by a new consent mechanism ( in a globally shareable, unrestricted form ( This includes time-series studies of microbiomes and immune responses to such microbes, allergens, vaccines and allele-specific expression in pluripotent stem cells. To move from correlations to causations and cures requires a similar million-fold improvement in DNA writing technology - via use of DNA synthesized on chips and Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE). Applications include metabolic engineering and multivirus resistant cells.

Copyright information

© Church; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Church
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolNRB Rooms 232 & 238BostonUSA

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