Community-acquired and healthcare-related urosepsis: a multicenter prospective study
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KeywordsBlood Culture Good Prognosis Sepsis Severity Empirical Approach Positive Blood Culture
Urinary infections are the third focus of infection in sepsis. In this study we describe the epidemiology and microbiology of community-acquired urosepsis, to determine the associated crude mortality and to identify independent predictors of mortality.
A prospective, multicentered, cohort study on community-acquired urosepsis cases admitted to Portuguese ICUs from 1 December 2004 to 30 November 2005 with a follow-up until discharge.
Seventeen units entered the study from the north to south of Portugal, corresponding to 41% of all mixed national ICU beds. Over this period 4,142 patients were admitted to the study – 897 (22%) had community-acquired sepsis, and of these 65 (7%) had urosepsis.
Compared with other focuses of infection, urosepsis was more frequent in women (66% vs 33% in nonurosepsis, P < 0.001), and associated with shorter ICU length of stay (7 days vs 9 days, P = 0.002). No significant differences were observed regarding severity of illness (SAPS II, sepsis severity) or crude mortality. The isolation rate was 68% with 41% positive blood cultures. All isolations, except one, were Gram-negative and no fungus was isolated; Escherichia coli dominated the microbiological profile (63% of all isolations).
Healthcare-related infection (HCRI) was found in 31% of these patients: E coli represents 58% of all isolations but the resistance profile was different, with resistance to ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazol increasing from 9% (in community-acquired sepsis) to 25% (in HCRI). The 28-day mortality was higher in the non-HCRI group (29%) than in the HCRI group (15%), although not statistically significant.
Although described as being the focus of infection with better prognosis we could not confirm this for community-acquired urosepsis in the present study. HCRI patients are a particular group with a similar microbiological profile but different resistance profile requiring a different empirical approach.