Earth, Planets and Space

, Volume 52, Issue 10, pp 721–726 | Cite as

Improving the velocity field in South and South-East Asia: The third round of GEODYSSEA

  • M. Becker
  • E. Reinhart
  • Soeb Bin Nordin
  • D. Angermann
  • G. Michel
  • C. Reigber
Open Access


In the framework of the GEODYnamics of South and South-East Asia (GEODYSSEA) project a network of 42 stations was observed by GPS during two field campaigns in 1994 and 1996. BKG and GFZ realized a third observation of the complete network in 1998. The data was analyzed independently by two analysis centers and a precision of the coordinate solutions was found to be 4–7 mm for the horizontal, and 10 mm for the vertical component. Subsequently, these campaign solutions were merged into one unique solution, which was accurately mapped into the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 1997 (ITRF97). The global accuracy of this solution with respect to ITRF97 is of the order of 10 mm, while the resolution of the relative horizontal velocities is estimated to be at the level of 2–3 mm/yr. Comparison of the new solution with the previously published GEODYSSEA solution indicates, that improved results for the motion of Sundaland, South China and the overall deformation in the area could be found. Improvements are due to the increased time span and due to a better connection to and the advances in the ITRF reference frame. The new set of coordinates and velocities is used as the basis for scientific interpretations, which have been and will be published in separate papers.


International Terrestrial Reference Zenith Path Delay Phase Center Correction Philippine Fault Bernese Software 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Angermann, D., The datum definition of the GEODYSSEA network, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 113–119, Potsdam, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. Angermann, D. and M. Becker, Untersuchungen zu Genauigkeitund systematischen Effekten in großräumigen GPS-Netzen am Beispiel von GEODYSSEA, Zeitschr. f. Verm. Wesen, 125/3, 88–95, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. Angermann, D., G. Baustert, R. Galas, and Z. H. Zhu, EPOS.P.V3 (earth parameter & orbit system), Software user manual for processing of GPS networks, 97/14, GFZ Potsdam, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. Angermann, D., M. Becker, W. J. F. Simons, and A. Walpersdorf, The solutions of the European analysis centers for the GEODYSSEA 94/96 GPS campaigns, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 103–112, Potsdam, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. AUSLIG,, Canberra, 1999.
  6. Becker, M., R. L. Almeda, M. Aurelio, C. Boonphakdee, M. Kasser, and P. Neumaier, Data evaluation of the 1994 MINDANAO GPS-campaign, GEODYSSEA, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 162–167, Potsdam, 143–152, 1998a.Google Scholar
  7. Becker, M., P. Neumaier, E. Reinhart, H. Seeger, N. Trong Yem, C. C. Duong, L. To, and D. T. Tran, GPS measurements of crustal movements at the red river fault in Vietnam, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 184–190, Potsdam, 1998b.Google Scholar
  8. Beutler, G., M. Rothacher, T. Springer, J. Kouba, and R. E. Neilan, The international GPS service (IGS): An interdisciplinary service in support of Earth sciences, 32nd COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Nagoya, Japan, July 12 to 19, 1998, pp. 27–50, 1998.Google Scholar
  9. Blewitt, G., W. G. Melbourne, W. I. Bertiger, T. H. Dixon, P. M. Kroger, S. M. Lichten, T. K. Meehan, R. E. Neilan, L. L. Skrumeda, C. L. Thornton, S. C. Wu, and L. E. Young, GPS geodesy with centimeter accuracy, in Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, edited by E. Groten and R. Strauss, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  10. Boucher, C., Z. Altamimi, and P. Sillard, The 1997 International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF97), IERS technical note No. 27, Observatoire de Paris, 1999.Google Scholar
  11. Chamot-Rooke, N., X. Le Pichon, C. Rangin, P. Huchon, M. Pubellier, C. Vigny, and A. Walpersdorf, Sundaland motion in a global reference frame detected from GEODYSSEA GPS measurements: Implications for relative motions at its boundaries with the Australo-Indian plates and the South Chinablock, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 39–74, Potsdam, 1998.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, P., Polyhedron assembly at Newcastle, method and initial result, Proc IGS 1996 Analysis Center Workshop, edited by R. E. Neilan, P. A. vanScoy, and J. F. Zumberge, pp. 131–143, JPL, Pasadena, USA, 1997.Google Scholar
  13. DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, D. F. Argus, and S. Stein, Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal timescale on estimates of current plate motions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2191–2194, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duquesnoy, T., E. Barrier, M. Kasser, M. Aurelio, R. Gaulon, R. S. Punongbayan, C. Rangin, and the French-Philippine Cooperation Team, Detection of creep along the Philippine Fault: First results of geodetic measurements on Leyte island, central Philippine, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 975–978, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. International GPS Service for Geodynamics, IGS Electronic Mail, Message No. 2071, IGS Central Bureau, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, U.S.A., 1998.Google Scholar
  16. King, R. W. and Y. Bock, Documentation for the MIT GPS analysis software, GAMIT, Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1993.Google Scholar
  17. Luton, G., J. Dawson, R. Govind, and D. Sproule, APRGP97 observation campaign overview, Proceedings of the Workshop on Regional Geodetic Network, Canberra, Australia, July 2–4,1998, edited by AUSLIG, pp. 23–24, Canberra, 1998.Google Scholar
  18. Michel, G. W., D. Angermann, P. Wilson, C. Reigber, and J. Klotz, Transient versus secular motion: the possible impact of earthquakes and interseismic loading on the GEODYSSEA site motions, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 75–97, Potsdam, 1998.Google Scholar
  19. Michel, G. W., M. Becker, D. Angermann, C. Reigber, and E. Reinhart, Crustal motion in E- and SE-Asia from GPS measurements, Earth Planets Space, 52, this issue, 713–720, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Noll, C.,, CDDIS Global Data Center, 2000.
  21. Prawirodirdjo, I., Y. Bock, R. McCaffrey, J. Genrich, E. Calais, C. Stevens, S. S. Puntodewo, C. Surabarya, J. Rais, and P. Zwick, Geodetic observations of interseismic strain segmentation at the Sumatra subduction zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2601–2604, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Puntodewo, S. S., R. McCaffrey, E. Calais, Y. Bock, J. Rais, C. Subarya, R. Poewariardi, C. Stevens, J. Genrich, P. Zwick, and S. Wdowinski, GPS measurements of crustal deformation within the Pacific-Australia plate boundary zone in Irian Jaya, Tectonophys., 237, 141–153, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rangin, C., L. Jolivet, M. Pubellier, and the Tethys Pacific Working Group, A simple model for the tectonic evolution of South-East Asia and the Indonesian region for the past 43 my, Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr, 6, 889–905, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reinking, J., D. Angermann, and J. Klotz, Zur Anlage und Beobachtung gross-raumiger GPS-Netze fuer geodynamische Untersuchungen, Allg. Vermessungsnachrichten, 6/95, H. Wichmann Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  25. Rothacher, M. and G. Mader, Combination of Antenna Phase Center Offsets and Variations: Antenna Calibration set IGS_01, IGS Central Bureau/University of Berne, Bern, Schweiz, 1996.Google Scholar
  26. Rothacher, M. and L. Mervart, Bernese GPS Software Version 4.0, Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, Bern, 1996.Google Scholar
  27. Sillard, P., Z. Altamimi, and C. Boucher, The ITRF96 realization and its associated velocity field, Geophys. Res. Let., 25, 3223–3226, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Simons, W. J. F., D. van Loon, A. Walpersdorf, B. A. C. Ambrosius, J. Kahar, H. Z. Abidin, D. A. Sarsito, C. Vigny, S. Haji Abu, and P. Morgan, Geodynamics of S.E. Asia: First results of the Sulawesi 1998 GPS campaign, in Geodesybeyond2000—The Challenges of the First Decade, edited by K. P. Schwarz, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, 121, 271–277, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2000.Google Scholar
  29. Simons, W. J. F., D. Angermann, B. A. C. Ambrosius, M. Becker, R. Noomen, A. Walpersdorf, P. Wilson, and C. Vigny, The final geodetic results of the GEODYSSEA project: the combined solution, in The Geodynamics of S and SE Asia (GEODYSSEA) Project, edited by P. Wilson and G. W. Michel, Scientific Technical Report 98/14, pp. 27–38, Potsdam, 1998.Google Scholar
  30. Simons, W. J. F., B. A. C. Ambrosius, R. Noomen, D. Angermann, P. Wilson, M. Becker, E. Reinhart, A. Walpersdorf, and C. Vigny, Observing plate motions in S.E. Asia: Geodetic results of the GEODYSSEA project, Geophys. Res. Let., 26, 2081–2084, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tregoning, P., F. K. Brunner, Y. Bock, S. S. Puntodewo, R. McCaffrey, J. F. Genrich, E. Calais, J. Rais, and C. Subarya, First geodetic measurement of convergence across the Java trench, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2135–2138, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walpersdorf, A., C. Vigny, W. Simons, C. Subarya, and P. Manurung, Geodatische Bestimmung der Bewegungsraten an der Palu-Koro Verwerfung in Sulawesi, Zeitschr. f. Verm. Wesen, 125/3, 99–105, 2000.Google Scholar
  33. Wilson, P., J. Rais, C. Reigber, E. Reinhart, B. A. C. Ambrosius, X. LePichon, M. Kasser, P. Suharto, A. Majid, P. Awang, R. Almeda, and C. Boonphakdee, Study provides data on active plate tectonics in South-East Asia region, EOS Trans. AGU, 79(45), 545–549, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilson, P., G. Michel, and J. Rais, Das Projekt GEODYSSEA, Zeitschr. f. Verm. Wesen, 125/3, 70–74, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Becker
    • 1
  • E. Reinhart
    • 1
  • Soeb Bin Nordin
    • 1
  • D. Angermann
    • 2
  • G. Michel
    • 2
  • C. Reigber
    • 2
  1. 1.Bundesamt für Kartographie und GeodäsieFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.GeoForschungsZentrumPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations