Earth, Planets and Space

, Volume 59, Issue 11, pp 1173–1179 | Cite as

Propagation characteristics of bedrock waves traveling from pre-Tertiary basement to engineering bedrock

Open Access


This study uses borehole array recordings to measure the propagation characteristics of bedrock waves traveling from pre-Tertiary basement (seismic bedrock) to engineering bedrock with an S-wave velocity of approximately 0.5–0.8 km/s. To avoid the destructive interference of surface-reflected down-going waves and incidence waves in seismic and engineering bedrock, borehole data recorded at sufficient depth levels are used in this study. This is the most important aspect of the fundamental basis of this study. The propagation characteristics, i.e., the transfer function, of bedrock motions for S-waves are well represented by a Butterworth-type low-pass filter model with a high corner frequency in excess of 15 Hz and a low decay rate of —3 power of frequency. The use of such a filter model is based on the concise representation of the transfer function from an engineering viewpoint. Simple one-dimensional ray theory with a plane wave approximation explains the characteristics of the model filter at low frequencies of less than approximately 5 Hz; however, one-dimensional ray theory with a plane wave approximation at high frequencies in excess of 5 Hz requires the unusual frequency characteristics of Q S −1 (f), which increases with increasing frequency, to explain the frequency characteristics of the model filter. These facts imply that the filter gain can be determined using the impedance ratio of seismic bedrock to engineering bedrock and the attenuation characteristics of the intervening media at low frequencies less than 5 Hz. However, the cutoff frequency and decay rate of the filter must be determined from observational data.

Key words

Bedrock waves pre-Tertiary basement engineering bedrock 


  1. Abercrombie, R. E., A summary of attenuation measurements from borehole recordings of earthquakes: the 10 Hz transition problem, Pure Appl. Geophys., 153, 475–487, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kawase, H., Site effects on strong ground motions, in International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering seismology, 1013–1030, Academic Press, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kinoshita, S., Local characteristics of fmax of bedrock motion in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, J. Phys. Earth, 40, 487–515, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kinoshita, S., Deep-borehole measured Qp and Qs attenuation for two Kanto sedimentary deposit sites, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 2007 (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Kinoshita, S. and M. Ohike, Scaling relations of earthquakes that occurred in the upper part of the Philippine sea plate beneath the Kanto region, Japan, estimated by means of borehole recordings, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 92, 611–624, 2002a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kinoshita, S. and M. Ohike, Attenuation characteristics of S-waves in a sedimentary layer-basement system in the Kanto region, Japan, for a frequency range of 0.5 to 16 Hz, Zisin, 55, 19–31, 2002b (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  7. Kinoshita, S. and M. Ohike, Coherency characteristics of body waves traveling in a sedimentary layer-basement system in the Kanto region, Japan, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 96, 165–175, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ohta, Y., N. Goto, K. Shiono, H. Takahashi, F. Yamamizu, and S. Kurihara, Shear wave velocities in deep soil deposits, Zisin, 31, 299–308, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. Satoh, T., T. Sato, and H. Kawase, Evaluation of local site effects and their removal from borehole records observed in the Sendai Region, Japan, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 85, 1770–1789, 1995.Google Scholar
  10. Steidl, J. H., A. G. Tumarkin, and R. J. Archuleta, What is a reference site?, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 86, 1733–1748, 1996.Google Scholar
  11. Thomson, D. J., Spectrum estimation and harmonic analysis, Proc. Of IEEE, 70, 1055–1096, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Yamamizu, F., H. Takahashi, N. Goto, and Y. Ohta, Shear waves velocities in deep deposits, Zisin, 34, 465–479, 1981 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  13. Yamamizu, F., N. Goto, Y. Ohta, and H. Takahashi, Attenuation of shear waves in deep soil deposits as revealed by down-hole measurement in the 2300 meter-borehole of the Shimosa observatory, Japan, J. Phys. Earth, 31, 139–157, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations