Earth, Planets and Space

, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 305–314 | Cite as

Stress change prior to the major events in the 1989 earthquake swarm off the eastern Izu Peninsula, Japan

  • Hironori Kawakata
  • Hiroshi Ogasawara
  • Shoji Sekiguchi
  • Shizuka Uyama
  • Kazuo Mino
Open Access


We investigate a temporal change in a stress parameter of earthquakes that occurred in the 1989 swarms off the eastern Izu Peninsula in Japan. We use the energy index (EI), which have been monitored in deep South African gold mines for predicting major events, as an estimate of apparent stress that is proportional to the ratio of seismic energy (E) to seismic moment (Mo). EI measures an excess or shortage in E with respect to the empirical relationship between E and Mo. We check that EI is almost proportional to the apparent stress for the ranges of Mo and frequency for our analysis, although E is underestimated due to the artifact of limited frequency band of monitoring. The largest events (M = 5.2 and 5.5) took place off the tip of a vertical crack, which opened associated with magma intrusion. While the opening continued to load the source areas of the M 5.2 and 5.5, we find significant decrease in EI prior to the events. Based on the experimental result that the stress decreases when yielding takes place prior to final failure, we interpret this observation as yielding in the vicinity of the large earthquake hypocenters, following a rapid increase in stress caused by magma intrusion.

Key words

Decrease in stress precursor energy index earthquake development process earthquake swarm 


  1. Abercrombie, R. E., Earthquake Source Scaling Relationships from —1 to 5 ML using seismograms recorded at 2.5-km depth, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 24015–24036, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abercrombie, R. E. and J. Mori, Occurrence patterns of foreshocks to large earthquakes in the western United States, Nature, 381, 303–307, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, Freeman, San Francisco, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. Azimi, Sh. A., A. V. Kalinin, V. V. Kalinin, and B. L. Pivovarov, Impulse and transient characteristics of media with linear and quadratic absorption laws, Izv. Earth Phys. (Engl. Tlansl. by F. Goodspeed), 2, 88–93, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. Boatwright, J., A spectral theory for circular seismic sources; simple estimates of source dimension, dynamic stress drop, and radiated seismic energy, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 70, 1–26, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. Brudy, M., M. D. Zoback, K. Fuchs, F. Rummel, and J. Baumgartner, Estimation of the complete stress tensor to 8 km depth in the KTB scientific drill holes: Implications for crustal strength, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18453–18475, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brune, J. N., Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4997–5002, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burridge, R. and L. Knopoff, Model and theoretical seismicity, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341–371, 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Carlson, J. M. and J. S. Langer, Properties of earthquakes generated by fault dynamics, Phys. Rev. Lett., 62, 2632–2635, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. COMRO; Chamber of Mines Research Organization, in An Industry Guide to Methods of Ameliorating the Hazards of Rockfalls and Rockbursts, Chamber of Mines of South Africa, 114 pp, 1988.Google Scholar
  11. Dieterich, J. H., A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601–2618, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dieterich, J., V. Cayol, and P. Okubo, The use of earthquake rate change as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano, Nature, 408, 457–460, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Earthquake Prediction Information Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, Seismic Activity off East Coast of Izu-Peninsula, 1989 and Strain Changes Observed by the Borehole Strainmeter, Rep. Coord. Comm. Earthq. Predict., 43, 284–289, 1990 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  14. Eshelby, J. D., The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 241, 376–396, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fukuyama, E., S. Kinoshita, and F. Yamamizu, Unusual high-stress drop subevent during the M5.5 earthquake, the largest event of the 1989 Itooki swarm activity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 641–644, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibowicz, S. J. and A. Kijko, An Introduction to Mining Seismology, Academic Press, San Diego, 1994.Google Scholar
  17. Ide, S. and G. C. Beroza, Does apparent stress vary with earthquake size?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3349–3352, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iio, Y., Scaling relation between earthquake size and duration of faulting for shallow earthquakes in seismic moment between 1010 and 1025 dyne·cm, J. Phys. Earth, 34, 127–169, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ishii, H., T. Ohkura, and The Research Group for Semi-controlled Experiment for Earthquake Generation Process in South African Deep Gold Mine, Strain monitoring and earthquake generation in South African deep gold mine, Chikyu Monthly, 20, 419–422, 1998 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  20. Kanamori, H., J. Mori, E. Hauksson, T. H. Heaton, L. K. Hutton, and L. M. Jones, Determination of earthquake energy release and ML using TERRAscope, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 83, 330–346, 1993.Google Scholar
  21. Kato, N., K. Yamamoto, H. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Strain-rate effect on frictional strength and the slip nucleation process, Tectonophys., 211, 269–282, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kawakata, H. and M. Shimada, Frequency-magnitude relation of AE in fracture process of rocks at high confining pressures, Proc. 8th Int. Congr. Rock Mech., 1, 207–210, 1995.Google Scholar
  23. Kawakata, H., A. Cho, T. Kiyama, T. Yanagidani, K. Kusunose, and M. Shimada, Three-dimensional observations of faulting process in westerly granite under uniaxial and triaxial conditions by X-ray CT scan, Tectonophys., 313, 293–305, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keilis-Borok, V. I., Investigation of the mechanism of earthquakes, Sov. Res. Geophys. (English Tlansl.), 4, 29, 1960.Google Scholar
  25. Kostrov, V. V., Seismic moment and energy of earthquakes, and seismic flow of rock, Izv. Earth Phys. (Engl. Tlansl. by F. Goodspeed), 1, 13–21, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. Lankford, J., The role of tensile microfracture in the strain rate dependence of compressive strength of fine-grained limestone-analogy with strong ceramics, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 18, 173–175, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Madariaga, R., Dynamics of an expanding circular fault, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 66, 639–666, 1976.Google Scholar
  28. Maeda, K., Time distribution of immediate foreshocks obtained by a stacking method, Pure Appl. Geophys., 155, 381–394, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsumura, S., T. Ohkubo, and M. Imoto, Seismic swarm activity in and around the Izu Peninsula preceding the volcanic eruption of July 13, 1989, J. Phys. Earth, 39, 93–106, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mendecki, A. J., Quantitative seismology and rock mass stability, in Seismic Monitoring in Mines, edited by A. J. Mendecki, pp. 178–219, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meredith, P. G., I. G. Main, and C. Jones, Temporal variation in seismicity during quasi-static and dynamic rock failure, Tectonophys., 175, 249–268, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ogasawara, H., S. Sato, S. Nishii, K. Mino, and Research Group for Earth-quake Generation Experiment in South African Deep Gold Mines, Temporal variation of seismic parameters associated with an Mw∼2 event monitored at 100∼200 m distance, in Seismogenic Process Monitoring, edited by H. Ogasawara, T. Yanagidani, and M. Ando, pp. 173–184, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2002.Google Scholar
  33. Ogasawara, H., J. Takeuchi, N. Shimoda, H. Ishii, S. Nakao, G. van Aswegen, A. J. Mendecki, A. Cichowicz, R. Ebrahim-Trollope, H. Kawakata, Y. Iio, T. Ohkura, M. Ando, and the Research Group for Semi-controlled Earthquake-generation Experiments in South African deep gold mines, High-resolution Strain Monitoring During M∼2 Events in a South African Deep Gold Mine in Close Proximity to Hypocentres, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, 385–391, 2005.Google Scholar
  34. Ohnaka, M., Y. Kuwahara, K. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Dynamic breakdown process and the generating mechanism for high-frequency elastic radiation during stick-slip instability, in Earthquake Source Mechanics, Maurice Ewing Ser. 6, edited by S. Das, J. Boatwright, and C. H. Scholz, pp. 13–24, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Okada, Y. and E. Yamamoto, Dyke intrusion model for the 1989 seismo-volcanic activity off Ito, central Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 10361–10376, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Orowan, E., Mechanism of seismic faulting in rock deformation, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 79, 323–345, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rudnicki, J. W., Physical models of earthquake instability and precursory processes, Pure Appl. Geophys., 126, 531–554, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sato, S., Inference of Earthquake Generation Process from Energy Index and Apparent Volume, Master Thesis, Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga, Japan, 2000 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  39. Savage, J. C. and M. D. Wood, The relationship between apparent stress and stress drop, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 61, 1381–1388, 1971.Google Scholar
  40. Simmons, G., R. W Siegfried, and M. Feves, Differential strain analysis: A new method for examining cracks in rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 4383–4385, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sugiyama, Y, Research on earthquake potential evaluation by active faults, Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 51, 379–389, 2000 (in Japanese with English Abstract).Google Scholar
  42. Suzuki, H., R. Ikeda, T. Mikoshiba, S. Kinoshita, H. Sato, and H. Takahashi, Deep well logs in the Kanto-Tokai area, review, Res. Disas. Prev., 65, 1–162, 1981 (in Japanese with English Abstract).Google Scholar
  43. Teufel, L. W., Determination of In-situ Stress from Anelastic Strain Recovery Measurements of Oriented Core, Proc. 1983 SPE/DOE Joint Symp. on Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs, 421–430, 1983.Google Scholar
  44. Toda, S., R. S. Stein, and T. Sagiya, Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu island earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity, Nature, 419, 58–61, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. van Aswegen, G. and A. Butler, Applications of quantitative seismology in South African gold mines, in Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines 93, edited by R. P. Young, pp. 261–266, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1993.Google Scholar
  46. van Aswegen, G., A. J. Mendecki, and C. Funk, Application of quantitative seismology in mines, in Seismic Monitoring in Mines, edited by A. J. Mendecki, pp. 220–245, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.Google Scholar
  47. Wessel, P. and W H. F. Smith, New version of the generic mapping tools released, Eos Trans. AGU, 76, 329, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wyss, M. and J. N. Brune, Seismic moment, stress, and source dimensions for earthquakes in the California-Nevada region, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 4681–4694, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yamada, T., J. J. Mori, S. Ide, H. Kawakata, Y Iio, and H. Ogasawara, Radiation efficiency and apparent stress of small eartqhaquake in a South African gold mine, J. Geophys. Res., 101(B1), 1305, doi:10.1029/2004JB003221, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yamamoto, E., Y Okada, and T. Ohkubo, Ground tilt changes preceding the 1989 submarine eruption off Ito, Izu Peninsula, J. Phys. Earth, 39, 165–176, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zang, A., H. Berckhemer, and M. Lienert, Crack closure pressures inferred from ultrasonic drill-core measurements to 8 km depth in the KTB wells, Geophys. J. Int., 124, 657–674, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hironori Kawakata
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ogasawara
    • 2
  • Shoji Sekiguchi
    • 3
  • Shizuka Uyama
    • 4
  • Kazuo Mino
    • 2
  1. 1.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityUji, KyotoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and EngineeringRitsumeikan UniversityKusatsu, ShigaJapan
  3. 3.Solid Earth Science DivisionNational Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster PreventionTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of Science and EngineeringRitsumeikan University (Graduated)Kusatsu, ShigaJapan

Personalised recommendations