The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran.
In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome.
Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value<0.05). Our study shows high abdominal obesity and hypertension are the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome. 15%, 13.3% and 1.8% of subjects had three, four and five criteria for metabolic syndrome, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of components of metabolic syndrome and waist circumference.
Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Miranda PJ, DeFronzo RA, Califf RM, Guyton JR: Metabolic syndrome: definition, pathophysiology, and mechanisms. Am Heart J 2005,149(1):33–45. 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.07.013
Expert Panel on DetectionEvaluation THBCA: Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III). J-AM MED ASSOC 2001,285(19):2486–2497. 10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al.: Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. Circulation 2005,112(17):2735–2752. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404
Meigs JB: Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome, 2002. Am J Managed Care 2002,8(11; SUPP/1):283–292.
Gupta A, Gupta R, Sarna M, Rastogi S, Gupta V, Kothari K: Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance syndrome in an urban Indian population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003,61(1):69–76. 10.1016/S0168-8227(03)00085-8
Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults. JAMA: J Am Med Assoc 2002,287(3):356–359. 10.1001/jama.287.3.356
Balkau B, Vernay M, Mhamdi L, Novak M, Arondel D, Vol S, et al.: The incidence and persistence of the NCEP (National Cholesterol Education Program) metabolic syndrome. The French DESIR study. Diabetes & Metabolism 2003,29(5):526–532. 10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70067-8
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Satyavani K, Sivasankari S, Vijay V: Metabolic syndrome in urban Asian Indian adults—a population study using modified ATP III criteria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003,60(3):199–204. 10.1016/S0168-8227(03)00060-3
Ponholzer A, Temml C, Rauchenwald M, Marszalek M, Madersbacher S: Is the metabolic syndrome a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction in sexually active women? Int J Impotence Res 2007,20(1):100–104.
Chedraui P, Hidalgo L, Chavez D, Morocho N, Alvarado M, Huc A: Quality of life among postmenopausal Ecuadorian women participating in a metabolic syndrome screening program. Maturitas 2007,56(1):45–53. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2006.05.008
Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, Heshka S, Carnethon MR, Heymsfield SB: The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Archives Internal Med 2003,163(4):427. 10.1001/archinte.163.4.427
Meigs JB: Invited commentary: insulin resistance syndrome? Syndrome X? Multiple metabolic syndrome? A syndrome at all? Factor analysis reveals patterns in the fabric of correlated metabolic risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 2000,152(10):908–911. 10.1093/aje/152.10.908
Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi-Asl S: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003,61(1):29–37. 10.1016/S0168-8227(03)00066-4
Sarrafzadegan N, Kelishadi R, Baghaei A, Hussein Sadri G, Malekafzali H, Mohammadifard N, et al.: Metabolic syndrome: an emerging public health problem in Iranian women: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Int J Cardiology 2008,131(1):90–96. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.10.049
Marjani A, Moghasemi S: The Metabolic Syndrome among Postmenopausal Women in Gorgan. Int J Endocrinol 2012., 202: Article ID 953627, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2012/953627
Ding QF, Hayashi T, Zhang XJ, Funami J, Ge L, Li J, et al.: Risks of CHD identified by different criteria of metabolic syndrome and related changes of adipocytokines in elderly postmenopausal women. J Diabetes Complications 2007,21(5):315–9. 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2006.03.005
Deibert P, König D, Vitolins MZ, Landmann U, Frey I, Zahradnik HP, et al.: Effect of a weight loss intervention on anthropometric measures and metabolic risk factors in pre-versus postmenopausal women. Nutr J 2007, 6: 31. 10.1186/1475-2891-6-31
Delavar MA, Lye MS, Khor GL, Hanachi P, Syed Hassan ST, Delavar MA, Lye MS, Khor GL, Hanachi P, Syed Hassan STB: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among middle aged women in Babol, Iran. Southeast Asian J Tropical Med Public Health 2009,40(3):612.
Piché MÈ, Weisnagel SJ, Corneau L, Nadeau A, Bergeron J, Lemieux S: The WHO and NCEP/ATPIII definitions of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: are they so different? Metabolic Syndrome Related Disord 2006,4(1):17–27. 10.1089/met.2006.4.17
Ainy E, Mirmiran P, Zahedi Asl S, Azizi F: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome during menopausal transition Tehranian women: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Maturitas 2007,58(2):150–5. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2007.07.002
Pandey S, Srinivas M, Agashe S, Joshi J, Galvankar P, Prakasam C, et al.: Menopause and metabolic syndrome: a study of 498 urban women from western India. J Mid-life Health 2010,1(2):63. 10.4103/0976-7800.76214
Mesch V, Boero L, Siseles N, Royer M, Prada M, Sayegh F, et al.: Metabolic syndrome throughout the menopausal transition: influence of age and menopausal status. Climacteric 2006,9(1):40–8. 10.1080/13697130500487331
Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Morocho N, Alvarado M, Chavez D, Huc A: The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Ecuador. Gynecological Endocrinol 2006,22(8):447–54. 10.1080/09513590600890272
Marjani A, Hezarkhani S, Shahini N: Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Fars Ethnic Women in North East of Iran. World J Med Sci 2012,7(1):17–22.
Figueiredo Neto JA, Figuerêdo ED, Barbosa JB, Barbosa FF, Costa GRC, Nina VJS, et al.: Metabolic syndrome and menopause: Cross-sectional study in gynecology clinic. Arq Bras Cardiol 2010,95(3):339–45. 10.1590/S0066-782X2010005000094
Kim HM, Park J, Ryu SY, Kim J: The effect of menopause on the metabolic syndrome among Korean women. Diabetes Care 2007,30(3):701–6. 10.2337/dc06-1400
Eshtiaghi R, Esteghamati A, Nakhjavani M: Menopause is an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in Iranian women. Maturitas 2010,65(3):262–6. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.11.004
Kannel WB, Adrienne Cupples L, Ramaswami R, Stokes J, Kreger BE, Higgins M: Regional obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease; the Framingham Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991,44(2):183–90. 10.1016/0895-4356(91)90265-B
Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, Walters EE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al.: Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA: J Am Med Assoc 1998,280(21):1843–8. 10.1001/jama.280.21.1843
Lobo RA: Metabolic syndrome after menopause and the role of hormones. Maturitas 2008,60(1):10–8. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.02.008
Walton C, Godsland I, Proudler A, Wynn V, Stevenson J: The effects of the menopause on insulin sensitivity, secretion and elimination in non‒obese, healthy women. European J Clin Invest 1993,23(8):466–73. 10.1111/j.1365-2362.1993.tb00792.x
Jensen J, Nilas L, Christiansen C: Influence of menopause on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Maturitas 1990,12(4):321–31. 10.1016/0378-5122(90)90012-U
Do K, Green A, Guthrie J, Dudley E, Burger H, Dennerstein L: Longitudinal study of risk factors for coronary heart disease across the menopausal transition. Am J Epidemiol 2000,151(6):584–93. 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010246
Peters H, Westendorp I, Hak A, Grobbee D, Stehouwer C, Hofman A, et al.: Menopausal status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. J Internal Med 1999,246(6):521–8. 10.1046/j.1365-2796.1999.00547.x
The study was done in menopause clinic of Tehran women general hospital of Tehran University of medical sciences.
No competing financial interests exist.
ZJ participated in the study design, statistical analysis, and interpretation .FN participated in the data acquisition. MQ participated in the statistical analysis. MA participated in the study design and interpretation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Jouyandeh, Z., Nayebzadeh, F., Qorbani, M. et al. Metabolic syndrome and menopause. J Diabetes Metab Disord 12, 1 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-12-1
- Metabolic syndrome