The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on vitamin D level and biochemical parameters of mothers and neonates



Exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy leads to several adverse effects on mother and child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of being a passive smoker during pregnancy on vitamin D level and related biochemical indices including parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in mothers and newborns.


One hundred eight pregnant women and their newborns participated in a historical cohort study in two equal groups (n = 54) with and without cigarette smoke exposure. Maternal blood and urine samples and blood samples of umbilical cord were obtained in the delivery room. Concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and related biochemical indices in samples of maternal and cord blood were investigated. Exposure to cigarette smoke was evaluated through questionnaire and maternal urine and umbilical cord serum cotinine levels.


The mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal serum was 9.28 ± 5.19 ng/mlin exposed and 10.75 ± 5.26 ng/ml in non-exposed group(p > 0.05). The mean concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in cord serum was 10.83 ± 6.68 ng/ml in the exposed and 11.05 ± 4.99 ng/ml in the non-exposed group(p > 0.05). The exposed mothers had significantly higher parathyroid hormone level (p = 0.013), lower serum calcium (p = 0.024) and higher serum alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.024). There was a significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D within both exposed and non-exposed groups (p < 0.001).


Maternal exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy negatively influences serum calcium level and increase parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase in mothers.

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We thank the laboratory staff of Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute for their enthusiastic collaboration.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nooshin Shirzad.

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Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

SZB, AB and NS contributions to concept/design, drafting of the manuscript and critical revision of the manuscript. SZB acquisition of data. RH data analysis/interpretation. AM critical revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Banihosseini, S.Z., Baheiraei, A., Shirzad, N. et al. The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on vitamin D level and biochemical parameters of mothers and neonates. J Diabetes Metab Disord 12, 19 (2013).

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  • Cigarette smoke exposure
  • Pregnancy
  • 25-hydroxy vitamin D
  • Biochemical parameters
  • Cotinine