Response to dexamethasone is glucose-sensitive in multiple myeloma cell lines
- 5.1k Downloads
Hyperglycemia is among the major side effects of dexamethasone (DEX). Glucose or glucocorticoid (GC) regulates the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) that controls the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the modulation of thioredoxin (TRX) activity.
Multiple myeloma (MM) cells were grown in 5 or 20 mM/L glucose with or without 25 μM DEX. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to assess TXNIP RNA expression in response to glucose and DEX. ROS were detected by 5-6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA). TRX activity was assayed by the insulin disulfide-reducing assay. Proliferation was evaluated using CellTiter96 reagent with 490-nm absorbtion and used to calculate the DEX IC50 in 20 mM/L glucose using the Chou's dose effect equation.
TXNIP RNA level responded to glucose or DEX with the same order of magnitude ARH77 > NCIH929 > U266B1 in these cells. MC/CAR cells were resistant to the regulation. ROS level increased concurrently with reduced TRX activity. Surprisingly glucose increased TRX activity in MC/CAR cells keeping ROS level low. DEX and glucose were lacking the expected additive effect on TXNIP RNA regulation when used concurrently in sensitive cells. ROS level was significantly lower when DEX was used in conditions of hyperglycemia in ARH77/NCIH9292 cells but not in U266B1 cells. Dex-IC50 increased 10-fold when the dose response effect of DEX was evaluated with glucose in ARH && and MC/Car cells
Our study shows for the first time that glucose or DEX regulates important components of ROS production through TXNIP modulation or direct interference with TRX activity in MM cells. We show that glucose modulates the activity of DEX through ROS regualtion in MM cells. A better understanding of these pathways may help in improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of DEX, a drug still highly used in the treatment of MM. Our study also set the ground to study the relevance of the metabolic milieu in affecting drug response and toxicity in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients with MM.
KeywordsReactive Oxygen Species Multiple Myeloma Hyperglycemia Reactive Oxygen Species Production Reactive Oxygen Species Level
thioredoxin interacting protein
immune modulator drugs
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
5-6 chloromehtyk-2-7-dichloridihydrofluorescien diacetate
reactive oxygen species
carbohydrate responsive elements
glucocorticoid responsive element
inhibitory concentration 50%.
Despite the booming of novel agents for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) such as proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and immuno-modulator agents thalidomide or lenalidomide, dexamethsone (DEX) remains one of the most active agents in the treatment of this disease . In fact, most of the combinations with the novel agents still include DEX as a backbone . Furthermore, single agent DEX has represented the control arm in the studies that have assessed efficacy and safety of the novel agent combinations [2, 3]. Although the efficacy of DEX-based combinations has been widely proven, DEX is associated with notable toxicity either as single agent or in combination with novel agents. A recent study has shown similar efficacy but with less toxicity by reducing the dose of DEX in combination with the novel agent lenalidomide . Hyperglycemia is among the major side effects of DEX and none of the studies has addressed the question whether the action of DEX is different in condition of hyperglycemia versus normoglycemia in treated MM patients. We have previously shown that hyperglycemia regulates thioredoxin (TRX) activity-reactive oxygen species (ROS) through induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in metastatic breast cancer-derived cells MDA-MB-231 . We also showed that hyperglycemia-regulated TXNIP-ROS-TRX axis was relevant for the response of MDA-MB-231 cells to paclitaxel cytotoxicity . Based on both observations that DEX induces hyperglycemia and that hyperglycemia may interfere with the cell response to drugs, we investigated the axis TXNIP-ROS-TRX in conditions of increased level of glucose (e.g., mimicking in vivo conditions of hyperglycemia) and in response to DEX in a pool of cells derived from multiple myeloma. Our results set the track for further investigating the relevance of metabolic conditions of the patients with multiple myeloma and response to therapy.
Materials and methods
Cell lines and tissue culture
Multiple myeloma-derived cell lines NCIH929, ARH77, U266B1 and MC/CAR were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Dexamethasone and phloretin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO) Cells were routinely cultured in RPMI1640/10%FBS/5 mM glucose. For chronic hyperglycemia conditions, cells were chronically grown in RPMI 1640/10% FBS containing 20 mM glucose. For dexamethasone response cells were cultured in either 5 or 20 m chronically and dexamethasone (25 uM) added to media for 24 hours prior to harvest. Glucose uptake inhibition studies were accomplished by adding phloretin (200 uM) to media and cells harvested after 24 hours.
TXNIP RT-PCR, ROS assay and TRX activity
All experiments were run in triplicate for analysis. Cells were harvested and each sample split into three aliquots for RNA isolation, ROS and TRX activity analysis. Total RNA was isolated using Aquapure RNA isolation kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and first strand c-DNA synthesis by iScript c-DNA amplification kit (Bio-Rad) according to manufacture's protocol. Primers and PCR conditions were as previously described . We have previously shown that increased RNA correlates with level of TXNIP protein . ROS were detected by 5-6-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and measured for mean fluorescence intensity by flow cytometry as previously described . TRX-activity was assessed by the insulin disulfide assay as previously described . Fold-change (> 1 versus < 1 fold increase/decrease, 1 = no change) was obtained for each cell line. Cell lines which showed response (NCIH929, ARH77, U266B1) were further grouped and compared to non-responsive MC/CAR cell line.
Dexamethasone IC50 calculation
IC 50 were calculated by the method of Chou and Talalay using Calcusyn software (Biosoft, Cambrigdge UK)
Differences between treatments were evaluated by ANOVA or student's t-test and accepting as significant differences if p < 0.05.
Differences in TXNIP-ROS-TRX axis-response to hyperglycemia in MM cells
Response of the TXNIP-ROS-TRX axis to DEX in conditions of hyperglycemia
TXNIP is DEX responsive gene in some MM cells but not in others
Cellular level of glucose regulates TXNIP RNA levels and ROS in ARH77 cells
Hyperglycemia increases the DEX-IC50 in MM cells
Our study addresses the response of cancerous cells in conditions of hyperglycemia either related to drug induction or underlining diabetes. More specifically, the study addresses the question on how cancerous cells handle the excess of glucose that a drug as part of the treatment or the deranged metabolism of the host may cause. We used a cell model derived from MM because this disease affects middle aged or older patients who present a higher incidence of diabetes and are treated with combinations of drugs that include a GC . DEX as an example of GC induces hyperglycemia either in situations of normal glycemia or even in case of diabetes under insulin therapy or oral antidiabetic drugs. Therefore, the use of the drug may pose cancerous cells in metabolic situations the consequences of which onto the response to the treatment with it are unknown. We have recently shown that glucose regulates ROS production through TXNIP regulation and TRX activity in breast cancer derived cells [5, 6]. TXNIP is also regulated by GC and is one of the genes that predicts apoptotic sensitivity to GC as recently shown in the gene expression profiling of leukemic cells and primary thymocytes . We show that TXNIP-ROS-TRX axis is functional in response to glucose in 3 out of 4 MM cell lines tested and TXNIP RNA level is responsive to DEX in the same 3 cell lines. Although the metabolic axis responds to glucose or DEX with a various magnitude, this is completely unresponsive in U266B1 cell line. Our data suggest that TRX activity might be directly regulated by glucose or DEX in these cells that have unchanged levels of TXNIP RNA, a major endogenous inhibitor of TRX activity . The direct regulation of TRX activity by glucose has been described in diabetic rat heart but never in cancerous cells . Thioredoxin reductase 1, a major regulator of TRX oxidation, is GC-sensitive as shown in epithelial cells . Although we have not investigated the mechanism in MM cells U266B1, we speculate that the metabolic conditions triggered by an excess of glucose or directly by DEX activates the TRX system to scavenger the excess of ROS that would have otherwise occurred, particularly when TXNIP is downregulated. Obviously, this point needs to be proven in future studies.
Gatenby and Gilles have recently described the dependence of highly proliferative cancerous cells upon aerobic glycolysis . This acquired phenotype highly depends on persistent glucose metabolism to lactate in conditions of hypoxia . We have shown that the shift to lactate metabolism in excess of glucose is associated with increased levels of TXNIP protein that increases ROS levels through inhibition of TRX activity in breast cancer derived cells MDA-MB-231 [5, 6]. We show for the first time that a similar mechanism operates in some MM cell lines at various degree of efficiency. We also show for the first time that the same MM cells respond to DEX-mediated TXNIP regulation. Surprisingly, we also observe a glucose-sensitive response of MM cells to DEX that makes the cells less susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of the drug. This observation was unexpected because we anticipated that TXNIP regulation would have been enforced by the combination of glucose and DEX both containing responsive elements in the regulatory part of TXNIP gene. In fact, glucose or DEX was individually able to exert TXNIP regulation at various degrees in responsive cells. Their effect was though not augmented by the combined exposure of the cells as expected. One possible explanation might be that ChoRE and GC-RE are competing with each other or that the action of DEX prevails on the glucose by mechanism directly interfering with ROS production outside the nucleus in those MM cells, ARH77 and MC/CAR. Obviously, the speculation portends further work in support of the hypothesis. Furthermore, DEX and glucose may exert their effects outside the nucleus at the level of mitochondria where ROS are mainly produced. In fact, evidence suggests that TXNIP triggers activation of nuclear transcription regulation by MondoA at the mitochondrial level, which favors cross talk between mitochondria and nucleus [18, 19]. Emerging pathways of non-genomic GC signaling involving direct action of GC on the mitochondria have been recently described in T cells and neurons [20, 21]. Although a recent study has shown that DEX-induced oxidative stress enhances radio-sensitization of MM cells, this effect was not studied in conditions of hyperglycemia .
In conclusion, although our study elucidates never-described before regulation of glucose and DEX of important components of ROS regulation through TXNIP modulation or direct interference with TRX activity, we are well aware of the limitations of the study itself. First our study is a very preliminary study that originates hypothesis and consider the relevance of the metabolic conditions of the host (diabetes, hyperglycemia, etc) rather than the relevance of diabetes as a cause of malignance. Whether this has consequences on the response to therapy or not needs to be assessed. Second, our study lacks both the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying our observation and the validation of the observation itself in cells directly and freshly isolated from patients. The easy way to validate the concept will be to analyze survival and disease free survival/end points retrospectively in patients with multiple myeloma treated with DEX in conditions of hyperglycemia versus normal glycemia. Despite the limitation that EBV-infected cell lines (ARH-77 and MC/CAR) may pose as results and the fact that normal control cell counterparts are lacking in our study, we still believe that we represent a grading of response in the four cell lines tested that reflect the heterogeneity of cells undergone malignant transformation. For the first time, we show that glucose modulates the activity of DEX and this action seems mainly involving pathways regulating ROS in MM cells. Whether this finding will help in reducing DEX toxicity or improving its efficacy particularly in combination with other agents remains unclear. A better understanding of these pathways may help in improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of DEX, a drug still highly used in the treatment of MM. Our study also set the ground to study the relevance of the metabolic milieu in affecting drug response and toxicity in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients with MM
JL was awarded the ASH Minority Research Award 2008-2009 that has funded part of the project while he was a medical student at LSUHSC-Shreveport.
- 2.Rajkumar SV, Blood E, Vesole D, Fonseca R, Greipp PR: Phase III clinical trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a clinical trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006, 24: 431-436. 10.1200/JCO.2005.03.0221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Gay F, Hayman SR, Lacy MQ, Buadi F, Gertz MA, Kumar S, Dispenzieri A, Mikhael JR, Bergasagel PL, Dingli D, Reeder CB, Lust JA, Russell SJ, Roy V, Zeldenrust SR, Witzig TE, Fonseca R, Kyle RA, Stewart AK, Rajkumar SV: Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone versus thalidomide plus dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis of 411 patients. Blood. 2010, 115: 1343-1350. 10.1182/blood-2009-08-239046.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Rajkumar SV, Jacobs S, Callander NS, Fonseca R, Vesole DH, Williams ME, Abonour R, Siegel DS, Katz M, Greipp RR, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group: Lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone as initial therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: an open-label randomized controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010, 11: 29-37. 10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70284-0.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Nishiyama A, Matsui M, Iwata S, Hirota K, Nakamura H, Takagi Y, Sono H, Gon Y, Yodoi J: Identification of thioredoxin-binding protein-2/vitamin D(3) up-regulated protein as a negative regulator of thioredoxin function and expression. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 21645-21650. 10.1074/jbc.274.31.21645.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Shalev A, Pise-Masison CA, Radonovich M, Hoffman SC, Hirshberg B, Brady JN, Harlan DM: Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of intact human pancreatic islets: identification of glucose-responsive genes and a highly regulated TGFbeta signaling pathway. Endocrinology. 2002, 143: 3695-3698. 10.1210/en.2002-220564.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Stoltzman CA, Peterson CW, Breen KT, Muoio DM, Billin AN, Ayer DE: Glucose sensing by MondoA:Mix complexes: A role for exokinases and direct regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008, 105: 6912-6917. 10.1073/pnas.0712199105.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.