Genome-wide genotyping and SNP discovery by ultra-deep Restriction-Associated DNA (RAD) tag sequencing of pooled samples of E. grandis and E. globulus
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KeywordsNext Generation Sequencing Genomic Selection Polymorphic SNPs Minimum Allele Frequency Reduce Representation Library
The availability of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has opened the door to new strategies of SNP discovery and genotyping. Rapid genome-wide SNP detection via deep resequencing of reduced representation libraries of restriction digested pools of genomic DNA combined with a reference genome has been successfully used for SNP discovery in microorganisms , plants and domestic animals . Taking a step further from using NGS for SNP discovery, Baird et al showed that NGS of short tags derived from barcoded multiplexed genomic representations generated with restriction enzymes could be used for direct genotyping of individuals, calling this method RAD (Restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing. RAD sequencing involves cutting a genome with at least one restriction enzyme and NGS the ends of the resulting fragments. We have recently developed a first set of SNPs for high-throughput genotyping of species of Eucalyptus. Although SNP assay success was high, the proportion of polymorphic SNPs declined as phylogenetic distance between species increased, down to <20% when contrasting E. grandis and E. globulus, the two main worldwide commercially planted species were considered . In this work we used RAD sequencing to discover polymorphic SNPs across these two species. Additionally we were interested in assessing the potential of RAD for direct genotyping-by-sequencing in Eucalyptus.
DNA was extracted separately from 18 unrelated individual trees of E. grandis and 18 of E. globulus. For each species three bulks of six individuals were prepared with equimolar amounts of picogreen quantified DNA. DNA samples were delivered to Floragenex who carried out the RAD reduced representation library preparation using PstI and Illumina 75 bp single-end sequencing on a GAIIx. Raw sequence data was filtered for quality and mapped onto the 11 chromosomes of the E. grandis reference genome available in Phytozome. SNPs in the short sequence tags were called for nucleotides with quality Q> 30 at the position and a minimum of 6X coverage.
Results and conclusions
Taken together, the RAD tags plus the SNPs into them provide excellent marker density for applications such as Genomic Selection . Besides the RAD method, Elshire et al.  recently described a straightforward method of genotyping-by-sequencing. Additionally the DArT complexity reduction protocol has also been streamlined based on NGS for a number of plant genomes including Eucalyptus (see Sansaloni et al. this meeting). All these NGS based genotyping methods will cause a paradigm shift in our ability to carry out high density, high throughput and low-cost genotyping of large numbers of samples, unlocking incredible opportunities in forest tree genetics and breeding in the years to come.
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