A proposed mechanism for progesterone regulation of trophoblast MMP2 transcription independent of classical progesterone response elements on its promoter

  • Shlomit Goldman
  • Eliezer Shalev
Open Access



Progesterone receptor act as ligand-inducible transcription factor in the respective target cells by binding to specific progesterone response elements in the promoter of the target genes. However, despite the lack of the classical progesterone response elements on matrix-metalloproteinase-2 promoter, progesterone has been shown to decrease the activity of this promoter

Presentation of the hypothesis

It has recently been suggested that in addition to interacting with their classical co-activators and co-repressors, progesterone receptor are capable of binding to several transcription factors. By interacting with other classes of transcription factors, progesterone receptor is capable of transcriptional activation through the transcription factors cognate DNA binding site.

Testing the hypothesis

Exploring transcription factors and transcription binding sites, interacting with the progesterone receptor in modulation of the matrix-metalloproteinase promoter.

Implications of the hypothesis

Identification of additional endogenous progesterone target genes makes it possible to further explore the signaling mechanisms by which the hormone regulates biological actions. Furthermore, the concepts of ligand-driven conformational diversity and selective tissue actions can be exploited in the future for drug development which selectively regulate orphan receptors from the nuclear receptor family.



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Copyright information

© Goldman and Shalev; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Research in Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyHa'Emek Medical CenterAfulaIsrael
  2. 2.Rappaport Faculty of MedicineTechnion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

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