Clarifying the role of three-dimensional transvaginal sonography in reproductive medicine: an evidenced-based appraisal

  • Nick Raine-Fenning
  • Arthur C Fleischer
Open Access


This overview describes and illustrates the clinical applications of three-dimensional transvaginal sonography in reproductive medicine. Its main applications include assessment of uterine anomalies, intrauterine pathology, tubal patency, polycystic ovaries, ovarian follicular monitoring and endometrial receptivity. It is also useful for detailed evaluation of failed and/or ectopic pregnancy. Three-dimensional color Doppler sonography provides enhanced depiction of uterine, endometrial, and ovarian vascularity.


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Copyright information

© Raine-Fenning and Fleischer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2005

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Obstetrics & GynaecologyQueen's Medical Centre, University Hospital NHS Trust, NURTURENottinghamUK
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Radiological SciencesVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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