Biphasic decay kinetics suggest progressive slowing in turnover of latently HIV-1 infected cells during antiretroviral therapy
- 5.3k Downloads
Mathematical models based on kinetics of HIV-1 plasma viremia after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) inferred HIV-infected cells to decay exponentially with constant rates correlated to their strength of virus production. To further define in vivo decay kinetics of HIV-1 infected cells experimentally, we assessed infected cell-classes of distinct viral transcriptional activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of five patients during 1 year after initiation of cART
In a novel analytical approach patient-matched PCR for unspliced and multiply spliced viral RNAs was combined with limiting dilution analysis at the single cell level. This revealed that HIV-RNA+ PBMC can be stratified into four distinct viral transcriptional classes. Two overlapping cell-classes of high viral transcriptional activity, suggestive of a virion producing phenotype, rapidly declined to undetectable levels. Two cell classes expressing HIV-RNA at low and intermediate levels, presumably insufficient for virus production and occurring at frequencies exceeding those of productively infected cells matched definitions of HIV-latency. These cells persisted during cART. Nevertheless, during the first four weeks of therapy their kinetics resembled that of productively infected cells.
We have observed biphasic decays of latently HIV-infected cells of low and intermediate viral transcriptional activity with marked decreases in cell numbers shortly after initiation of therapy and complete persistence in later phases. A similar decay pattern was shared by cells with greatly enhanced viral transcriptional activity which showed a certain grade of levelling off before their disappearance. Thus it is conceivable that turnover/decay rates of HIV-infected PBMC may be intrinsically variable. In particular they might be accelerated by HIV-induced activation and reactivation of the viral life cycle and slowed down by the disappearance of such feedback-loops after initiation of cART.
KeywordsPeripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Infected Cell Viral Life Cycle Viral Transcription Cell Class
combination antiretroviral therapy
peripheral blood mononuclear cells
multiply spliced HIV-RNA
MsRNA encoding tat, rev and nef
MsRNA encoding Tat and Rev
MsRNA encoding Nef
virus encapsidated cell-associated unspliced HIV-RNA
- ILow IIMedium, IIHigh
HIV-infected cells with low, intermediate and expression levels of HIV-RNA respectively
standard error of the mean
Current combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not attack virus-infected cells themselves but targets viral replication at major steps in the viral life cycle . Thus, the decline of HIV-1 plasma viremia induced by cART has been interpreted to reflect cell-specific decay rates of HIV-infected cells with different life-spans and rates of virus production [2, 3]: A first phase of decay, perceptible within the first weeks of cART, has been attributed to the initial loss of productively infected activated T-lymphocytes. Due to their intrinsically short life-span  and to direct viral and immunity-mediated cytopathic effects , these cells are prone for rapid cell-death.
Later phases of decay were thought to reflect expanded life-spans of virus producing macrophages or memory T-lymphocytes . In addition, latently infected cells reactivated to productivity, may also contribute to the pool of HIV-virions observed in later decay phases [2, 3]. When viremia levels fall below the threshold of detection, persisting infection is primarily due to a long lived reservoir of latently infected CD4+ cells [6, 7, 8].
Mathematical models based on plasma viremia only indirectly allow inferring kinetics of latently infected cells which lack virus production. Direct quantification of latently infected cells ex vivo has commonly been attained by viral outgrowth assays of resting CD4+-T-lymphoctyes . These bioassays relying on inducibility and longevity of donor and indicator cells may underestimate numbers of latently infected cells. Accordingly, their frequencies during cART have been estimated to be very low, in the order of 1 in 106 lymphocytes . Further characterization of the cells constituting the latent reservoirs has revealed that only a very low percentage of resting CD4 T-cells carrying HIV-DNA can be induced ex vivo to give rise to viral transcription or antigen production .
This contrasts with comparatively high levels of cell-associated viral RNA (hundreds to thousands of viral RNA copies/106 cells) observed in peripheral blood of patients on cART, even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia [11, 12, 13, 14]. Recently, evidence has accumulated that HIV-RNA persisting during cART may to a large extent reflect basal transcription in latently infected cells devoid of virion production [9, 12, 15, 16, 17]. Such bulk measurements of cellular HIV-1 RNAs, despite their potential to monitor viral activity far beyond undetectable viremia , have considerable shortcomings, namely their lack of unambiguous differentiation between viral transcription in latently versus productively infected cells.
In the present study we refined the analysis of HIV-transcription, by combining highly sensitive PCR assays for a panel of unspliced (UsRNA) and multiply spliced (MsRNA) HIV-RNA species with limiting dilution end-point analysis of PBMC. Using this approach, we were able to dissect the population of HIV-RNA+ PBMC according to their level of viral transcription and to determine frequencies and kinetics of cells expressing proviral DNA at different rates.
Analysis of HIV-1 transcription in serial dilutions of PBMC
Individually adjusted RT-PCR targeting HIV-1 nucleic acids was performed on serial dilutions of PBMC assessing HIV-DNA, UsRNA, total MsRNA and MsRNA-tatrev or MsRNA-nef . In parallel to testing total RNA extracts, vRNA-ex representing cell-associated viral particles, was quantified in separate replicate specimens [12, 18]. Limiting dilution analysis of HIV-RNA+ cells was performed to compute their frequencies which also allowed determining the average per-cell expression of HIV-RNA.
To further characterize HIV-RNA expression, average intracellular per-cell expression of UsRNA and MsRNA was calculated by normalizing RNA copy numbers to frequencies of total HIV-infected PBMC (figure 1B) or to cells actually expressing viral RNA (figure 1C). Using either mode of calculation, per-cell expression of MsRNA was significantly lower in samples obtained during cART as compared to samples from untreated patients (total cells: 4-fold decrease; p = 0.002; figure 1B, HIV-RNA+ cells 9-fold decrease; p = 0.0004; figure 1C). Reduction of per-cell UsRNA-expression during treatment attained high statistical significance when normalized to total HIV-infected PBMC (20-fold; p < 0.0001; figure 1B) but was perceptible only as a trend when UsRNA-expression was normalized to UsRNA+ cells (1.2-fold, p = 0.14; figure 1C). Thus, per-cell MsRNA expression and to a lesser extent also UsRNA-expression appeared to split up into two discernible states. From these findings the following implications can be inferred:
i) Several classes of HIV-infected cells differing in their viral transcriptional activity co-occur before therapy. After initiation of cART cells with lower RNA content appear to outlast cells expressing higher levels of viral RNA.
ii) Three cell classes can be dissected directly using limiting cell-dilution, by virtue of their hierarchical distribution of frequencies: a class which expresses solely UsRNA, one class expressing MsRNA and presumably also UsRNA and a class of cells positive for vRNA-ex.
iii) Cells expressing MsRNA may host one or more subcategories of infected cells with lower and higher viral transcriptional activity.
A model for stratification of viral RNA content in HIV-1 infected PBMC
To account for the observed complexity of HIV-RNA expression in PBMC, we designed a simple model to resolve and identify cell categories of different transcriptional states. In particular, the data presented above suggest the coexistence of four main classes of HIV-RNA+ cells namely, ILow (low transcriptional activity), IIMedium (intermediate transcriptional activity), IIHigh (high transcriptional activity) and IIIExtra(ongoing extracellular virion shedding).
HIV-1 infected cells containing solely UsRNA. The existence of this cell class is deduced from our observations that UsRNA-positive cells were invariably more frequent than cells expressing MsRNA.
HIV-1 infected cells expressing MsRNA at low levels. Evidence for this class of cells is based on significant differences in per-cell MsRNA content in PBMC from patients on cART as compared to untreated patients. It is highly likely that such cells express UsRNA because MsRNAs are obligatorily derived from primary unspliced HIV-transcripts .
HIV-1 infected cells with elevated viral transcription. Significantly higher relative expression of both UsRNA and MsRNA in untreated versus treated patients, suggests frequent presence of cells exhibiting Tat/Rev-mediated transcriptional activation [20, 21] at baseline.
Cells carrying virion-enclosed HIV-1 RNA. Such cells to a major extent represent productively infected cells in a state of ongoing or recent burst of viral shedding as previously demonstrated by their association with activated viral transcription [12, 15, 16].
Criteria to assign experimental specimens to viral transcriptional classes
No of unique specimensA for each patient
Presence of viral RNA
Residual (<2 copies/specimen)B content of one type of MsRNA, Ms-tatrev or MsRNA-nef
Significant (≥ 2 copies/specimen)B content of two types of MsRNA, MsRNA-tatrev and MsRNA-nef
Residual (<2 copies/specimen)B content of vRNA-ex
Significant (≥ 2 copies/specimen)B content of vRNA-ex
Distinct transcriptional signatures of HIV-infected PBMC
To further validate our stratification of HIV-infected PBMC, relative RNA contents of UsRNA and MsRNA in ILow, IIMedium and IIHigh were compared in specimens obtained prior to and during therapy. In the stratum with basal viral transcription of exclusively UsRNA (ILow), per-cell viral RNA contents did not differ between baseline and cART (geometric mean, 95%CI, baseline = 2.1, 1.1–3.9 copies/cell; n = 22; on cART = 3.1, 2.4–4.0 copies/cell; n = 158, Mann Whitney test p = 0.22) indicating that this cell-class did not comprise additional subcategories. Similarly, in class IIMedium cells, per cell content of UsRNA plus MsRNA did not reveal a statistically significant difference when baseline samples were compared to specimens obtained during cART (geometric mean, 95%CI, baseline = 26, 13–47 copies/cell; n = 26, on cART = 14, 11–18 copies/cell; n = 170, Mann Whitney test p = 0.06). Since samples obtained during cART also comprised study week 2, when plasma viremia had not yet stabilized, we also performed comparison of baseline samples to cART without the specimens from week 2. Similarly this analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups (data not shown, Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.11). Thus, viral RNA expression in class-IIMedium cells did not experience evident changes during the course of antiretroviral therapy.
Conversely, viral RNA content was 5× higher (Mann Whitney test p < 0.0001) in class-IIHigh at baseline (geometric mean, 95%CI= 532, 334–846 copies/cell; n = 50) as compared to on-therapy samples (geometric mean, 95%CI = 102, 66–158 copies/cell, n = 50).
This shows that categorization of cells expressing MsRNA into the classes IIMedium and IIHigh was still not sufficient to delineate the full scale of viral transcriptional patterns. On a biological level, this finding provides evidence that class-IIHigh in untreated patients may harbor a subcategory of HIV-infected cells expressing hundreds of viral RNA copies per cell which likely represents productively infected lymphocytes. Due to limitations in sample size and resolution, transcriptional class-IIHigh could not be further dissected. However, we observed that cells expressing significant amounts of vRNA-ex (class-IIIExtra, table 1), a surrogate of productive HIV-infection [12, 15, 16], occurred primarily before initiation of cART and were in general rarer than class-IIHigh cells. Hence it is conceivable that class-IIIExtra represents a productively infected subcategory of class-IIHigh. Because the procedure for measuring vRNA-ex necessitates nucleolytic digestion of intracellular RNA and precludes simultaneous quantification of intracellular MsRNA and UsRNA, co-localization of class-IIIExtra cells with class-IIHigh in a given sample could not be tested. A minor subcategory of cells harboring vRNA-ex at very low levels (class-IIIR, table 1) was not further characterized because it was likely that these cells may not be HIV-infected but carry passively absorbed plasma virus .
Kinetics of HIV-1 infected PBMC during cART
Turnover characteristics of HIV-1 RNA+ PBMC during cART
Decaying cell fraction
Plateau on cART (NP)
393 ± 114
21 ± 5.6
93 ± 1.8%
3.2 ± 0.9
76 ± 20
5.4 ± 2.8
90 ± 7.9%
4.1 ± 0.7
15 ± 6.6
5.4 ± 2.3
13 ± 5.3
1.5 ± 0.6
Total HIV+ (HIV-1 DNA)
6086 ± 14939
1795 ± 859
76 ± 6.8
44 ± 32
Plasma viremia during one year of cART showed a two phase decline with an initial half-life (mean ± sem, days) of 1.6 ± 0.2 d and a second phase with a half-life of 8.1 ± 2.3 d and suppression of viremia predominantly below levels of 50 RNA copies/ml after 12 weeks of treatment (figure 4A). The fact that plasma viremia of patients 111 and 112 were slightly elevated at study week 48 was not considered a therapy failure, since plasma viremia returned to levels below 50 copies/ml at the next visit and remained suppressed during treatment for a further year (data not shown).
Whereas the total number of HIV-1 infected cells, as assessed by HIV-1 DNA levels, experienced comparably modest (74 ± 7%) and slow (t1/2 = 71 ± 60 d) decreases, in general more than 90% of HIV-1 RNA+ cells decayed rapidly after therapy initiation. HIV-infected cell categories of elevated transcriptional activity (class IIHigh, class-IIIExtra) became frequently undetectable after initiation of cART. However, their overall kinetics did not unequivocally match plain single phase exponential decay.
Similarly, decays of class-ILow and class-IIMedium cells tended to flatten out during the course of ART. Therefore, half-lives were calculated assuming single phase decay kinetics to a plateau. As expected, class-IIIExtra cells showed rapid decays with an average half-life of 1.5 ± 0.6 d. Thus, the cell class matching criteria for strong ongoing productive infection declined with the fastest rate of all four cell classes. Half-lives of class IIHigh cells varied from 1–13 days. Their average half-life (5.4 ± 2.6 d) was similar to that of class-ILow (3.2 ± 0.9 d) and class-IIMedium: (4.1 ± 0.66 d). Hence, HIV-RNA+ cells displaying basal viral transcription decayed more slowly than productively infected class-IIIExtra cells but with similar rates as class-IIHigh.
Throughout the course of therapy, HIV-RNA+ cells of class-IIHigh and class-IIIExtra were largely outnumbered by cells of low viral activity (class-ILow plus class-IIMedium >95% of HIV-RNA+ cells) (figure 4G). Furthermore, contribution of class-IIHigh to total cellular viral RNA burden (figure 4H) decreased from 44% at baseline to 30% during the initial month of therapy and declined to <10% by study week 24. Thus class-ILow and class-IIMedium cells dominated the population of HIV-infected cells both in terms of cell-numbers as well as in regards to total cellular viral RNA burden.
In the present study highly sensitive, patient matched quantification of HIV-1 transcripts in total PBMC was combined with endpoint analysis at a single cell level. This enabled us to extend a previous analysis , in which we have observed that the vast majority of infected CD4-positive T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood in vivo expressed viral RNA at levels insufficient for virus production and could therefore be viewed as being of a latent phenotype. Conversely, virus production appeared to be confined to T-helper cells with HIV-mediated surface CD4-downregulation. Whereas the former analysis centered on differentiation between the different cell-types harboring viral RNA, the focus of the present work was, irrespective of cellular lineage, on quantitative aspects of HIV-transcription in vivo and its relation to viral decay kinetics during antiretroviral therapy. Applying a plain model and simple algorithms to analyze our complex dataset, we attained to assign HIV-RNA+ cells to four transcriptional categories, namely productively infected cells carrying virions at their surface (class-IIIExtra), cells with elevated viral transcriptional activity fuelled by Tat/Rev-  and NEF-mediated  positive feedback (class-IIHigh), cells expressing low levels of MsRNA and intermediate amounts of UsRNA (class-IIMedium) and cells expressing solely UsRNA (class-I). The latter two classes match a strict definition of HIV-latency [15, 22] since virion production may likely be precluded in these cells due to their low viral RNA content [15, 22] and because these viral transcripts may potentially be confined to the nucleus .
Class-ILow viral RNA expression remained unchanged in a comparison of specimens from treated and untreated patients. Similarly, class-IIMedium HIV-RNA content appeared constant throughout the course of therapy, whereas viral RNA expression of class-IIHigh cells was significantly different in specimens before and during ART. This suggests that a highly active subgroup in this stratum was present in the absence of treatment which conceivably was identical or overlapping with the productively infected class-IIIExtra.
Notwithstanding the mathematical-model based nature of our analysis, and the considerable overlap observed in different classes of infected cells, we found good agreement of our results with independent estimates of HIV-1 RNA expression as employed by Haase and colleagues [29, 30, 31, 32, 33] who utilized sophisticated in situ hybridization to asses HIV-transcription ex vivo in lymphoid tissue. In particular they described two types of HIV-RNA+ cells which persist during cART with viral RNA content of ≤ 5 copies [32, 33] and cells expressing around 20 RNA copies . These cell-types appear congruent to class-ILow cells and class-IIMedium expressing on average 3.7 and 15 HIV-RNA copies/cell respectively. Furthermore, productively HIV-infected cells were estimated to contain on average 50–100 viral RNA-copies in lymphoid tissues whereas average levels of around 1000 RNA-copies were reported for virus producing PBMC cultures [29, 32]. This is highly reminiscent of our observations that class-IIHigh cells, which subsume at least two subcategories, displayed average expression levels of ~330 HIV-RNA copies/cell, which were found to be elevated up to 846 copies/cell at baseline.
All four HIV-RNA+ cell categories identified in the current report showed rapid initial declines upon initiation of cART. For cells of high transcriptional activity, this was in concord with the notion that productively infected cells may be associated with the 1st phase decay of plasma viremia . Indeed, the decay of class-IIIExtra cells proceeded rapidly and their average half-live (1.5 ± 0.6 d) was virtually identical to the 1st phase half-live of free plasma virus (1.6 ± 0.2 d). The half-lives of class-IIHigh cells were slightly extended (5.4 ± 2.3 d). Unexpectedly kinetics of class-IIHigh and, to some extent also of class-IIIExtra showed hyperbolic rather than plain negative exponential shapes. This finding may in part be explained by potential heterogeneities of cell classes as defined in our analysis. This applies in particular to class-IIHigh cells which likely comprise both class-IIIExtra cells and a cell category of lower transcriptional activity escaping immunological clearance for longer time periods presumably due to moderate expression of viral antigens as predicted by mathematical models based on kinetics of plasma viremia [2, 3].
Markedly contrary to initial expectations, class-ILow and class-IIMedium kinetics proceeded similar to the course of class-IIHigh cells. Whereas it was anticipated that they would show slow but steady exponential decline , we observed substantial initial decays with average half-lives of three to four days which were then followed by persistence. Rapid initial decay of latently infected cells had been previously observed in two reports by Blankson et al  and Strain et al  in which CD4+ T-cells from acutely infected patients were examined by viral outgrowth assays. In consideration of the in vivo scarcity of provirus inducible by in vitro outgrowth assays , the cell types studied in these earlier reports may not be totally superposable to the two classes of latently infected cells identified in the present study. Hence, the half-lives calculated in the present analysis (0.7–6.3 days) were generally shorter than those reported by Blankson and colleagues (≥ 6 days). Nevertheless, our observation that two types of HIV-RNA+ latently infected cells may shift from rapid to slower decay during the course of antiretroviral treatment appears to hold true also for cell subsets inducible by in vitro outgrowth assays. Such apparent variability in turnover of latently infected cells may be interpreted in two ways:
As discussed for class-IIHigh, also cell-class-ILow and class-IIMedium may be heterogeneous in terms of virological subcategories but also in reference to cellular lineage and/or in terms of their current state in the viral life cycle. Thus, class-ILow and class-IIMedium may comprise cell-types with rapid turnover and long lived cells. Whereas the latter may be allocated to resting HIV-infected CD4+ T-cells , the main candidates for weakly virus transcribing cells with a short half-life could be newly infected cells in a labile state of preintegration latency [9, 37].
However, HIV-1 DNA levels, which have been reported to be dominated by nonintegrated molecules in PBMC of untreated patients , showed a much less pronounced decay than HIV-infected cells expressing viral RNA and no correlation with frequencies of class-ILow and class-IIMedium cells (Spearman R = 0.26, p > 0.12), which were significantly correlated with each other (Spearman R = 0.67, p < 0.0001). This suggests that HIV-RNA+ latently infected cells decayed with different kinetics than the majority of HIV-1 infected cells harboring nonintegrated viral DNA. Thus, the fast turnover of unintegrated HIV-DNA may not entirely account for the rapid initial decay of HIV-RNA+ cells.
Therefore it is conceivable that turnover rates of HIV-1 infected cells may be intrinsically variable. In particular, they may be influenced by their cellular and humoral environment, which differs under conditions of cART and during viremia. Attenuation of antigenic stimulation due to cART results in declines of cellular [39, 40] and humoral anti-HIV responses , which may decrease death rates of HIV-infected cells expressing viral antigens. Furthermore, generalized immune-activation by HIV-1 [42, 43, 44, 45, 46] may enhance viral replication itself by facilitating the transition from preintegration to genuine chromosomal proviral integration , or by activation of transcriptionally dormant provirus . By accelerating the turnover of latently infected cells and driving the viral life cycle towards productivity (figure 5), feedback loops of various effects of HIV-1 on infected cells may potentiate viral replication [15, 45]. In consequence of the decline of productively infected cells and of viremia, attenuation of antiviral immunity and systemic immune activation may contribute to the observed mitigation in turnover of latently infected cells.
The present study was highly comprehensive in terms of PCR-targets and sample size despite limitations in patient number and in statistical resolution between different cell classes. Thus, it revealed important novel features of HIV-1 transcription and its relation with viral dynamics in vivo.
In summary, at least four categories of HIV-RNA+ cells could be identified and assigned to distinct viral transcription patterns. Among these cell classes, latently infected cells represent the majority of HIV-1 infected PBMC both in the absence of treatment and during cART. This emphasizes the crucial role that latent HIV-1 reservoirs play not only in the maintenance of viral persistence during cART but, as precursors of productively infected cells, also under conditions of ongoing viral replication.
Foremost, we have gained evidence suggesting that at least two types of latently HIV-1 infected cells after initiation of cART decay with kinetics similar to those of productively infected cells. These rapid decays may be shaped by cellular and humoral immune responses against HIV and by HIV-induced activation which prevail before and early after initiation of cART but wither away when viral replication is stably suppressed. Verifying the hypothesis that decay of latently HIV-infected cells may not be constant but prone to influences from their cellular and humoral environment and identifying the factors governing the turnover of latently infected cells may help to devise novel therapeutic strategies to pursue the as yet elusive aim of eradicating HIV-1.
Patients and specimens
Five chronically HIV-1 infected therapy naïve patients initiating cART according to standard treatment guidelines (patient nr 103, 104, 110, 111, 112) were enrolled after informed consent was obtained. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University Hospital Zürich. Patients were treated with zidovudine plus lamivudine (300 mg BID), and ritonavir boosted lopinavir (100/400 mg BID), except for patient 103 who replaced ritonavir/lopinavir by efavirenz (daily 1 × 600 mg) at week 32. Median (range) baseline clinical parameters were 147(116; 262) CD4 T-lymphocytes/μl blood and 158'000 (14'300; 203'500) viral RNA copies/ml plasma. PBMC were purified as described  and aliquots (n = 8–14) were distributed into equal proportions ranging from 1–4 million cells/tube. Further serial five-fold dilutions of PBMC (12–24 replicates each; 5×, 25×, 125×, 625×, 3125× dilutions) were prepared and diluted PBMC were supplemented with uninfected CEM cells  (3 × 105 cells/aliquot) to avert cell loss in dilutions. Cells were stored at -80°C as dry pellets.
Nucleic acid analysis
RNA was extracted (RNeasy, Qiagen Hombrechtikon, CH) using two protocols in parallel [12, 15]. Total PBMC RNA was extracted by the standard procedure  and specific isolation of PBMC-associated extracellular, virion-enclosed HIV-RNA (vRNA-ex) was performed by nucleolytic digestion of cellular nucleic acids while RNA enclosed in viral envelopes remain protected [12, 15, 18]. RNA was eluted in a volume of 0.1 ml.
Patient matched PCR primers
Analysis of patient noE
103, 104, 1105, 111
104, 110E, 111, 112
104, 110E, 111, 112
103, 110E, 111, 112
103, 104, 111, 112
Calculations and statistics
Statistics were performed using GraphPad Prism4.0 software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA).
RNA copy-numbers were calculated as the mean of duplicate PCR measurements, extrapolated to copy numbers per tube (5–10-fold multiplication) and normalized to the input of PBMC. In HIV-RNA+ specimens near the detection limit of the test, quantification of HIV-RNA was censored to avoid gross overestimation: If only one duplicate PCR was positive and/or nominal copy numbers were below 1 copy per reaction, it was assumed that 1 RNA copy had been present per tube.
Stratification and assignment of specimens to different transcriptional classes were executed according to criteria compiled in table 1. Frequencies of HIV-RNA+ cells were calculated by 50% endpoint analysis  according to the method described by Muench and Reed . Specific RNA contents in different transcriptional classes were calculated by a stepwise "bottom up" approach in which the contribution of the different classes of HIV-RNA expressing cells was dissected as described in figure 2: Since cells of frequent transcriptional classes co-occurred with cells of rarer classes, the contribution of the first had to be subtracted from the total copy numbers to calculate the copy numbers of the latter. After this subtraction HIV-RNA copy numbers in a given specimen were normalized to its content of HIV-RNA+ cells. Rarely this resulted in nominally negative values which were censored to 1 copy per cell, to allow further analyses using logarithmic transformation.
Statistical comparisons between groups were performed using nonparametric tests; the Mann-Whitney test for unpaired data-sets, Wilcoxon signed rank tests for paired analyses and, when adjustment for multiple testing was applied, one way Anova and a Friedman post test analyzing all possible combinations was applied.
We thank the participating patients for their commitment, Christine Grube, Christine Schneider, and Doris Baumann for excellent patient care, Alessia Bassi and Tuyet Trinh Lu for their laboratory work, Joseph Wong for critical review of the manuscript and helpful advice, Alexandra Trkola, and Roland Regoes for helpful discussions, Ingrid Nievergelt and Christine Vögtli for invaluable administrative assistance.
This study was kindly supported by the following foundations and institutions: Novartis Foundation (grant no. 02A03 to MF), Hartmann Müller Stiftung (grant Nr. 898 to MF), grants of the Hermann Klaus Stiftung to MF, an unrestricted educational grant by Abbott Inc. to MF, HFG and RW (grant no. SWIT-02-002), Roche Research Foundation (grant nr: 281-2005 to PK and MF) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 3100A0-112670 to MF).
- 7.Finzi D, Blankson J, Siliciano JD, Margolick JB, Chadwick K, Pierson T, Smith K, Lisziewicz J, Lori F, Flexner C, et al: Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy. Nat Med. 1999, 5: 512-517. 10.1038/8394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Hermankova M, Siliciano JD, Zhou Y, Monie D, Chadwick K, Margolick JB, Quinn TC, Siliciano RF: Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in latently infected resting CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo. J Virol. 2003, 77: 7383-7392. 10.1128/JVI.77.13.7383-7392.2003.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Fondere JM, Petitjean G, Huguet MF, Salhi SL, Baillat V, Macura-Biegun A, Becquart P, Reynes J, Vendrell JP: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigen secretion by latently infected resting CD4+ T lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals. J Virol. 2004, 78: 10536-10542. 10.1128/JVI.78.19.10536-10542.2004.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Fischer M, Günthard HF, Opravil M, Joos B, Huber W, Bisset L, Ott P, Böni J, Weber R, Cone RC: Residual HIV-RNA levels persist for up to 2.5 years in PBMC of patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000, 16: 1135-1140. 10.1089/088922200414974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Fischer M, Wong JK, Russenberger D, Joos B, Opravil M, Hirschel B, Trkola A, Kuster H, Weber R, Günthard HF, Study ftSHC: Residual cell-associated unspliced HIV-1 RNA in peripheral blood of patients on potent antiretroviral therapy represents intracellular transcripts. Antiviral Therapy. 2002, 7: 91-103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Furtado MR, Callaway DS, Phair JP, Kunstman KJ, Stanton JL, Macken CA, Perelson AS, Wollinsky SJ: Persistence of HIV-1 transcription in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 1999, 340: 1614-1622. 10.1056/NEJM199905273402102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Fischer M, Joos B, Wong JK, Ott P, Opravil M, Hirschel B, Weber R, Günthard HF, Study TSHC: Attenuated and nonproductive viral transcription in lymphatic tissue of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2004, 189: 273-285. 10.1086/380797.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Kaiser P, Niederöst B, Joos B, von Wyl V, Opravil M, Weber R, Günthard HF, Fischer M: Equal amounts of intracellular and virion-enclosed hepatitis C virus RNA are associated with peripheral-blood mononuclear cells in vivo. J Infect Dis. 2006, 194: 1713-1723. 10.1086/508431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Kaiser P, Joos B, Niederoest B, Weber R, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Study TSHC: Productive Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection in peripheral Blood Predominantely Takes Place in CD4/CD8 double negative T Lymphocytes. J Virol. 2007, 81: 9693-9706. 10.1128/JVI.00492-07.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Wong JK, Günthard HF, Havlir DV, Zhang ZQ, Haase AT, Ignacio CC, Kwok S, Emini E, Richman DD: Reduction of HIV-1 in blood and lymph nodes following potent antiretroviral therapy and the virologic correlates of treatment failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997, 94: 12574-12579. 10.1073/pnas.94.23.12574.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Strain MC, Little SJ, Daar ES, Havlir DV, Günthard HF, Lam RY, Daly OA, Nguyen J, Ignacio CC, Spina CA, et al: Effect of treatment, during primary infection, on establishment and clearance of cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2005, 191: 1410-1418. 10.1086/428777.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Koelsch KK, Liu L, Haubrich R, May S, Havlir D, Günthard HF, Ignacio C, Campos-Soto P, Little S, Shafer R, et al: Dynamics of total, linear non-integrated and integrated HIV-1 DNA in vivo and in vitro. J Infect Dis. 2007Google Scholar
- 39.Dalod M, Harzic M, Pellegrin I, Dumon B, Hoen B, Sereni D, Deschemin JC, Levy JP, Venet A, Gomard E: Evolution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in patients with symptomatic primary infection receiving antiretroviral triple therapy. J Infect Dis. 1998, 178: 61-69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Seth A, Markee J, Hoering A, Sevin A, Sabath DE, Schmitz JE, Kuroda MJ, Lifton MA, Hirsch MS, Collier AC, et al: Alterations in T cell phenotype and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxicity after potent antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2001, 183: 722-729. 10.1086/318816.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 44.Orenstein JM, Bhat N, Yoder C, Fox C, Polis MA, Metcalf JA, Kovacs JA, Falloon J, Walker RE, Masur H, et al: Rapid activation of lymph nodes and mononuclear cell HIV expression upon interrupting highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients after prolonged viral suppression. AIDS. 2000, 14: 1709-1715. 10.1097/00002030-200008180-00004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45.Chun TW, Justement JS, Lempicki RA, Yang J, Dennis G, Hallahan CW, Sanford C, Pandya P, Liu S, McLaughlin M, et al: Gene expression and viral prodution in latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells in viremic versus aviremic HIV-infected individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 1908-1913. 10.1073/pnas.0437640100.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 51.Reed lJ, Muench H: A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am J Hyg. 1938, 27: 493-497.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.