Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies
- 5.2k Downloads
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum can result in several different syndromes with severe clinical consequences for the about 200 million individuals infected each year. During pregnancy, women living in endemic areas become susceptible to malaria due to lack of antibodies against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies. In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity.
All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested for surface reactivity against infected erythrocytes expressing FCR3 VAR2CSA and for the ability to inhibit FCR3CSA parasite adhesion to CSA. The fine specificity of the immune sera was analysed by VAR2CSA peptide arrays.
Inhibitory antibodies were induced by immunization with DBL3-HB3 T1 and DBL1-3D7. However, unlike the previously characterised DBL4-FCR3 response the inhibitory response against DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 was poorly reproduced in the second rounds of immunizations.
It is possible to induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies when immunizing with a number of different VAR2CSA domains. This indicates that the CSA binding site in VAR2CSA is comprised of epitopes from different domains.
KeywordsInfected Erythrocyte Inhibitory Antibody Peptide Array Subsequent Immunization Pregnancy Associate Malaria
chondroitin sulfate A
chondroitin sulphate proeoglycan
Erythrocyte Binding Antigen
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Inhibition binding assay
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1.
Pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anaemia, low birth weight and stillbirth, is a severe manifestation of Plasmodium falciparum infection . PAM is caused by infected erythrocytes (IE) that sequester in the intervillous space of the placenta . The ability to sequester in the vascular bed whereby the parasite avoids immune mechanisms in the spleen is a hallmark of the particular virulence of P. falciparum. The IE bind host receptors on various endothelia through antigens called P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). The PfEMP1 protein family, encoded by the var genes, is constituted of large proteins of 150-350 kDa with several Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domains. Different PfEMP1 molecules have different receptor specificities, and clonal switching between expression of the various var gene products, in a mutually exclusive manner, allows the parasite to modify its adhesion properties accordingly (reviewed in ). There are about 60 copies of highly different var genes in each parasite genome and a high sequence variation among genomes [4, 5, 6]. Expression of different PfEMP1 variants allow the parasites to escape previously acquired antibody responses, and clinical protection occurs when a large repertoire of variant specific antibodies allows the host to control the infection . After repeated infections during childhood in endemic areas the acquired repertoire of antibodies against the variant surface antigens will progressively protect against variants expressed during severe, mild and asymptomatic infections [8, 9]. During pregnancy the parasite again escapes acquired immunity by expressing variants not encountered during childhood disease. This is mediated by parasites occupying a new niche, the developing placenta. The interaction between parasite antigens on the surface of the IE and chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta is one of the most direct associations between binding phenotype and disease outcome in falciparum malaria. Placental parasites and parasite lines selected for CSA binding in vitro express a unique var gene named var2csa [10, 11]. VAR2CSA is expressed on the surface of IE panned on CSA and on IE isolated from infected placentas [12, 13] and parasite clones where the var2csa gene is disrupted lose the ability to bind CSA . Several domains and regions of VAR2CSA have been shown to bind CSA in vitro, however, the specificity of single VAR2CSA domain binding to CSA does not seem to be exclusive for CSA type glycans [15, 16, 17, 18].
Women in malaria endemic areas acquire antibodies that protect against PAM as a function of parity . The mechanism of protection is suggested to be based on antibodies that block binding of IE to CSA . Likewise, high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels are correlated with protection against the clinical consequences of PAM . These findings suggest that it is feasible to develop a VAR2CSA-based vaccine to protect women in malaria endemic areas against PAM. A challenge for vaccine development is to define VAR2CSA constructs of a size compatible with protein-vaccine production, which elicit pan-reactive antibodies that abrogate binding of parasites in the placenta. It has previously been shown that antibodies induced against DBL6-FCR3 partially inhibited parasite binding and that this inhibitory activity was only present in serum collected during the immunization but absent in the final bleed . Recently, it was shown that DBL4-FCR3 induced a broadly IgG based parasite adhesion-blocking response, which increased during the immunizations and was highly reproducible in subsequent immunizations with the same antigen . These DBL4 antibodies are currently being tested for the capacity to inhibit binding to CSA in a large panel of placental parasites. It is possible that the DBL4-FCR3 antibodies do not inhibit all isolates due to sequence variation within VAR2CSA. In that case an effective PAM vaccine would need to be based on multiple VAR2CSA serotypes. The aim of this study was to define additional DBL domain, which can induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies in order to make a multidomain vaccine, which presumable could protect women against multiple P. falciparum genotypes.
Two domains, DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 were shown to induce a cross-reactive inhibitory response, however, in line with the published data on DBL6-FCR3 the inhibitory response was either not sustained during the entire immunization protocol or was not reproducible.
Plasmodium falciparum cultures
Parasite culture was grown as previously described . In brief, parasites were maintained in culture using 5% haematocrit of human blood group 0+ blood in parasite medium consisting of RPMI-1640 supplemented with 25 mmol/l sodium bicarbonate (Sigma-Aldrich), 0.125 μg/ml gentamycin, 0.125 μg/ml Albumax II (Invitrogen) and 2% normal human serum. To select for VAR2CSA expression, IE were repeatedly panned on BeWo-cells. All isolates were mycoplasma negative and were regularly genotyped using nested GLURP and MSP-2 primers in a single PCR step.
All VAR2CSA constructs were based on native var2csa and cloned from genomic parasite DNA. Control constructs were cloned from DNA from either FCR3 var1-DBL3γ or 3D7 PF08_0141-DBL2β. Gene fragments were cloned into the Baculovirus vector, pAcGP67-A (BD Biosciences) modified to contain the V5 epitope upstream of a histidine tag in the C-terminal end of the constructs. Linearized Bakpak6 Baculovirus DNA (BD Biosciences) was co-transfected with pAcGP67-A into Sf9 insect cells for generation of recombinant virus particles. Histidine-tagged recombinant protein was purified on Ni2+ sepharose columns from the supernatant of Baculovirus infected High-Five insect cells using an ΔKTAxpress purification system (GE-Healthcare).
Wistar rat anti-sera raised against the VAR2CSA domains from HB3 and 3D7 were produced by injection of 40 μg of recombinant protein in Freund's complete adjuvant, followed by two booster injections of 40 μg of protein in Freund's incomplete adjuvant at 2 1/2-week intervals. Anti-sera were collected eight days after the final boosting injection. All immunizations induced antibodies against the recombinant proteins as measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) of the final bleed. Immunizations with the DBL3-HB3 T1 protein were done five times and six bleeds were collected. The endpoint titer of selected serum samples and IgG were determined by ELISA. All procedures regarding animal immunizations complied with European and national regulations.
Flow cytometry and binding inhibition assay
Flow-cytometry was used to test the reactivity of rat serum to VAR2CSA on the surface of the IE. In brief, parasite cultures were enriched to contain late trophozoite and schizont stage parasites by exposure to a strong magnetic field. Aliquots (2 × 105 IE) were labelled by ethidium bromide and sequentially exposed to 10 μl rat serum and 1 μl anti-rat IgG-FITC (Zymax, Invitrogen). Data was acquired using a FC500 flow-cytometer (Beckman Coulter). All samples relating to a particular parasite isolate were processed and analysed in a single assay. Parasite binding assays were done as described in . Briefly, 2 × 105 tritium labelled late-stage IE and 15 μl rat serum or IgG in a total volume of 100 μl were added in quadruplicates to wells coated with 2 μg/ml of the commercially available chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) decorin (D8428, Sigma-Aldrich). The binding to decorin was abrogated by soluble CSA (C9819, Sigma-Aldrich) and chondroitinase treatment. After incubation for 30 min at 37°C unbound IE were washed away by resuspension performed by a pipetting robot (Beckman Coulter). The proportion of adhering IE was determined by liquid scintillation counting on a Topcount NXT (Perkin-Elmer).
A peptide array containing 442 31mer peptides corresponding to the extracellular part of 3D7 VAR2CSA was used for antibody binding studies . The sequences of the peptides had an overlap of six residues and the purity of the peptides was expected to be 70% or higher. The peptides were synthesized with a cysteine at amino acid position 15 allowing some secondary structure. Structural modelling and mapping of residues was done as described .
Cloning and expression of VAR2CSA DBL proteins
List of immunogens. 3D7 and HB3 VAR2CSA constructs.
3D7 VAR2CSA single-domains
First and last amino acid in 3D7 VAR2CSA
HB3 VAR2CSA Single-domains
First and last amino acid in HB3 VAR2CSA
Reactivity of rat IgG against native VAR2CSA and capability to block parasite adhesion to CSA
Reproducibility of the inhibitory response
Epitope mapping of induced anti-VAR2CSA IgG
Identification of the var2csa gene is one of the major recent advances in the search for a vaccine against PAM. The low level of polymorphism in VAR2CSA, relative to other PfEMP1 molecules , and the rapid acquisition of VAR2CSA-specific IgG as a function of parity after natural infections , support the potential of developing parts of this antigen into a vaccine. PAM pathogenesis is partly due to host immune responses in the placenta , and it may not be optimal to induce IgG that are not adhesion-inhibitory, since this may enhance unwanted inflammatory immune responses in the placental tissue. IgG that hinder parasite binding would reduce the harmful inflammatory response in the placenta and depending on the IgG isotype, these antibodies could also be efficiently opsonising. The strategy for vaccine development is therefore to induce anti-adhesive antibodies . It has previously been shown that the DBL4 domain from FCR3 elicits a strong inhibitory IgG response, which was highly reproducible in subsequent immunizations . This has raised the question whether DBL4 is the only part of VAR2CSA involved in CSA adhesion, and if other domains are indeed involved in the adhesion process, and accordingly it would be of interest to define these to make a multi-domain vaccine. Interestingly, in this study it is shown that two domains different from DBL4 can also elicit inhibitory antibodies. This indicates that the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA is comprised of epitopes from multiple domains, which is in line with published data showing that single recombinant domains from VAR2CSA do not bind specifically to CSA [15, 17]. DBL4 is the most conserved VAR2CSA domain; however this domain does contain some variable regions, primarily located in the flexible loops . At present, it is not known whether the anti-DBL4 IgG can inhibit parasite adhesion of all VAR2CSA expressing isolates. Therefore, a VAR2CSA vaccine may be comprised of DBL4 from different var2csa genes or FCR3 DBL4 and another DBL domain. From a vaccine development point of view, it is thus promising that it is possible to induce highly inhibitory antibodies with other domains than DBL4-FCR3. It is surprising though that a strong inhibitory antibody response could not be induced with the DBL4 domains from 3D7 and the two variants of HB3. In addition, the induced inhibitory response towards DBL3-HB3 T1 and DBL1-3D7 appeared to be difficult to reproduce in subsequent immunizations.
Based on the above findings, it is suggested that antibodies can block a single unique CSA binding-site present in the quaternary structure of VAR2CSA, or block the assembly of such quaternary structure to interfere with binding, and that these antibodies can be induced by a number of different VAR2CSA domains. This hypothesis is in line with previously published data suggesting that VAR2CSA is presented as a globular protein on the surface of IE . However, it seems difficult to focus the immune response in the animals towards the correct epitopes, which is substantiated by the fact that the inhibitory response is either lost during the immunization schedule, or not induced at all despite the presence of high reactivity in ELISA.
The binding inhibitory activity was not induced in all immunizations; despite the presence of a specific and high titered immune response. This could be due to an erratic animal response to the immunogen caused by an unstable tertiary structure of the antigens used for immunizations. Another explanation could be differences in the fine specificity of the sera affecting the functionality of the induced IgG response, due to selection for reactivity against loop regions with high sequence variation, which this study would be sensitive to, since heterologous responses are measured. To study the fine specificity of the different sera, the IgG reactivity against VAR2CSA peptides was measured. In general, it was noted that the measured antibody reactivity against the different domains located to the same regions, and that a large central region of the domain did not contain any continuous epitopes. Interestingly, the large epitope in DBL3 located in a flexible loop is identical to the loop region shown to become structured upon CSA interaction . DBL domains are compact and highly structured proteins and it is likely that many antibodies will be targeting discontinuous epitopes and thus would not be detected in the peptide array. However, it is clear from the data that different immunizations with the same antigen do not give the same fine specificity each time, which likely reflects the variation in the inhibitory activity of the induced antibodies.
VAR2CSA consists of six DBL domains. The data presented here show that it is possible to induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies when immunizing animals with the domains DBL1 and DBL3, which indicates that the CSA binding site in VAR2CSA is comprised of regions from different domains. However, a robust and reproducible response with these proteins was not inducible. Epitope mapping shows differences in the fine specificity of the inhibitory and non-inhibitory sera. Accordingly if the Baculovirus produced DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 antigens are to be used in a vaccine, further research is needed to define and focus the immune response towards the relevant epitopes.
The authors would like to thank Technicians Anne Corfitz, Besim Berisha, Jonas Fjelbye Hansen, Maiken Visti and Nahla Chehabi for excellent technical assistance. This study received funding from the Danish Research Council (SSVF) (grant 22-03-0333) and the Danish Research Council for Development Research (RUF) (grant 104. Dan.8.L.306 and 8.L.306). MAN and AS are supported by the PMI2 Gates Malaria Programme grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation. MD is supported by Danish Council for Independent Research/Medical Sciences (FSS) grant #271-07-0696. The research leading to these results also received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under grant agreement n°201222.
- 4.Baruch DI, Pasloske BL, Singh HB, Bi X, Ma XC, Feldman M, Taraschi TF, Howard RJ: Cloning the P. falciparum gene encoding PfEMP1, a malarial variant antigen and adherence receptor on the surface of parasitized human erythrocytes. Cell. 1995, 82: 77-87. 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90054-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Smith JD, Chitnis CE, Craig AG, Roberts DJ, Hudson-Taylor DE, Peterson DS, Pinches R, Newbold CI, Miller LH: Switches in expression of Plasmodium falciparum var genes correlate with changes in antigenic and cytoadherent phenotypes of infected erythrocytes. Cell. 1995, 82: 101-110. 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90056-X.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Su XZ, Heatwole VM, Wertheimer SP, Guinet F, Herrfeldt JA, Peterson DS, Ravetch JA, Wellems TE: The large diverse gene family var encodes proteins involved in cytoadherence and antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Cell. 1995, 82: 89-100. 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90055-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Jensen ATR, Magistrado P, Sharp S, Joergensen L, Lavstsen T, Chiucciuini A, Salanti A, Vestergaard LS, Lusingu JP, Hermsen R, Sauerwein R, Christensen J, Nielsen MA, Hviid L, Sutherland C, Staalsoe T, Theander TG: Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria preferentially expresses PfEMP1 encoded by group A var genes. J Exp Med. 2004, 199: 1179-1190. 10.1084/jem.20040274.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Rottmann M, Lavstsen T, Mugasa JP, Kaestli M, Jensen AT, Muller D, Theander T, Beck HP: Differential expression of var gene groups is associated with morbidity caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children. Infect Immun. 2006, 74: 3904-3911. 10.1128/IAI.02073-05.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Salanti A, Staalsoe T, Lavstsen T, Jensen ATR, Sowa MPK, Arnot DE, Hviid L, Theander TG: Selective upregulation of a single distinctly structured var gene in chondroitin sulphate A-adhering Plasmodium falciparum involved in pregnancy-associated malaria. Mol Microbiol. 2003, 49: 179-191. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03570.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Magistrado P, Salanti A, Tuikue Ndam NG, Mwakalinga SB, Resende M, Dahlback M, Hviid L, Lusingu J, Theander TG, Nielsen MA: VAR2CSA expression on the surface of placenta-derived Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. J Infect Dis. 2008, 198: 1071-1074. 10.1086/591502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Salanti A, Dahlback M, Turner L, Nielsen MA, Barfod L, Magistrado P, Jensen AT, Lavstsen T, Ofori MF, Marsh K, Hviid L, Theander TG: Evidence for the involvement of VAR2CSA in pregnancy-associated malaria. J Exp Med. 2004, 200: 1197-1203. 10.1084/jem.20041579.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Viebig NK, Gamain B, Scheidig C, Lepolard C, Przyborski J, Lanzer M, Gysin J, Scherf A: A single member of the Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family determines cytoadhesion to the placental receptor chondroitin sulphate A. EMBO Rep. 2005, 6: 775-781. 10.1038/sj.embor.7400466.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Resende M, Ditlev SB, Nielsen MA, Bodevin S, Bruun S, Pinto VV, Clausen H, Turner L, Theander TG, Salanti A, Dahlback M: Chondroitin sulphate A (CSA)-binding of single recombinant Duffy-binding-like domains is not restricted to Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 expressed by CSA-binding parasites. Int J Parasitol. 2009, 39: 1195-1204. 10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.02.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Dahlback M, Rask TS, Andersen PH, Nielsen MA, Ndam NT, Resende M, Turner L, Deloron P, Hviid L, Lund O, Pedersen AG, Theander TG, Salanti A: Epitope mapping and topographic analysis of VAR2CSA DBL3X involved in P. falciparum placental sequestration. PLoS Pathog. 2006, 2: e124-10.1371/journal.ppat.0020124.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Nielsen MA, Pinto VV, Resende M, Dahlback M, Ditlev SB, Theander TG, Salanti A: Induction of adhesion-inhibitory antibodies against placental Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using single domains of VAR2CSA. Infect Immun. 2009, 77: 2482-2487. 10.1128/IAI.00159-09.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Nielsen MA, Resende M, Alifrangis M, Turner L, Hviid L, Theander TG, Salanti A: Plasmodium falciparum: VAR2CSA expressed during pregnancy-associated malaria is partially resistant to proteolytic cleavage by trypsin. Exp Parasitol. 2007, 117: 1-8. 10.1016/j.exppara.2007.03.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Barfod L, Nielsen MA, Turner L, Dahlback M, Jensen AT, Hviid L, Theander TG, Salanti A: Baculovirus-expressed constructs induce immunoglobulin G that recognizes VAR2CSA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Infect Immun. 2006, 74: 4357-4360. 10.1128/IAI.01617-05.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Trimnell AR, Kraemer SM, Mukherjee S, Phippard DJ, Janes JH, Flamoe E, Su XZ, Awadalla P, Smith JD: Global genetic diversity and evolution of var genes associated with placental and severe childhood malaria. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006, 148: 169-180. 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.03.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Bockhorst J, Lu F, Janes JH, Keebler J, Gamain B, Awadalla P, Su XZ, Samudrala R, Jojic N, Smith JD: Structural polymorphism and diversifying selection on the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007, 155: 103-112. 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2007.06.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.