BMC Geriatrics

, 10:L23 | Cite as

Hypogonadism and aging

  • F Lanzafame
Open Access
Lecture presentation
  • 699 Downloads

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Testosterone Nitric Oxide Synthases Pulse Frequency Hypogonadism 

The Massachusetts Male Aging Study [1] shows that male hormones decrease with aging. This is due to some testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary defects. Impaired hypothalamic secretory reserve, resulting in a reduced and chaotic secretion of GnRH, reduced pituitary response to GnRH, resulting in an increased but irregular LH pulse frequency [2]

With aging, there is a 1.3% increase of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels per year [3]. SHBG binds strongly to testosterone, resulting in a reduction of bioavailable testosterone. The age-related reduction of testosterone seems genetically determined3.The Testosterone reduction plays many effects on body composition [4]. Testosterone also operates its effects on the penis leading to a reduction of smooth muscle cells/connettive tissue rate, neuronal nitric oxide synthases, arterial influx/venoocclusion rate. Recently, three scientific societies published some recommendations for the investigation, treatment and monitoring of this kind of hypogonadism, that has been renamed Late Onset Hypogonadism [5]. These recommendationshave been updated lately [6] and shared by two more scientific societies.

References

  1. 1.
    Feldman HA, Longcope C, Derby CA, Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Coviello AD, Bremner WJ, McKinlay JB: Age trends in the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002, 87 (2): 589-98. 10.1210/jc.87.2.589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Veldhuis JD, Zwart A, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A: Muting of androgen negative feedback unveils impoverished gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretory reactivity in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001, 86 (2): 529-35. 10.1210/jc.86.2.529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krithivas K, Yurgalevitch SM, Mohr BA, Wilcox CJ, Batter SJ, Brown M, Longcope C, McKinlay JB, Kantoff PW: Evidence that the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene is associated with the age-related decline in serum androgen levels in men. J Endocrinol. 1999, 162 (1): 137-42. 10.1677/joe.0.1620137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grant GF, Parr T: Decline of life’s energy theory of ageing 2. Restoration of anabolic and regulatory processes Exp Opinion Ther Patents. 2000, 10 (12): 1885-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nieschlag E, Swerdloff R, Behre HM, Gooren LJ, Kaufman JM, Legros JJ, Lunenfeld B, Morley JE, Schulman C, Wang C, Weidner W, Wu FC: Investigation, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism in males: ISA, ISSAM, and EAU recommendations. Int J Androl. 2005, 28 (3): 125-7. 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00553.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang C, Nieschlag E, Swerdloff R, Behre HM, Hellstrom WJ, Gooren LJ, Kaufman JM, Legros JJ, Lunenfeld B, Morales A, Morley JE, Schulman C, Thompson IM, Weidner W, Wu FC: ISA, ISSAM, EAU, EAA and ASA recommendations: investigation, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism in males. Int J Impot Res. 2009, 21 (1): 1-8. 10.1038/ijir.2008.41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Lanzafame; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors and Affiliations

  • F Lanzafame
    • 1
  1. 1.Territorial Centre of Andrology , Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale 8SiracusaItaly

Personalised recommendations