The extracellular matrix, p53 and estrogen compete to regulate cell-surface Fas/Apo-1 suicide receptor expression in proliferating embryonic cerebral cortical precursors, and reciprocally, Fas-ligand modifies estrogen control of cell-cycle proteins
- 8.8k Downloads
Apoptosis is important for normal cerebral cortical development. We previously showed that the Fas suicide receptor was expressed within the developing cerebral cortex, and that in vitro Fas activation resulted in caspase-dependent death. Alterations in cell-surface Fas expression may significantly influence cortical development. Therefore, in the following studies, we sought to identify developmentally relevant cell biological processes that regulate cell-surface Fas expression and reciprocal consequences of Fas receptor activation.
Flow-cytometric analyses identified two distinct neural sub-populations that expressed Fas on their cell surface at high (FasHi) or moderate (FasMod) levels. The anti-apoptotic protein FLIP further delineated a subset of Fas-expressing cells with potential apoptosis-resistance. FasMod precursors were mainly in G0, while FasHi precursors were largely apoptotic. However, birth-date analysis indicated that neuroblasts express the highest levels of cell-surface Fas at the end of S-phase, or after their final round of mitosis, suggesting that Fas expression is induced at cell cycle checkpoints or during interkinetic nuclear movements. FasHi expression was associated with loss of cell-matrix adhesion and anoikis. Activation of the transcription factor p53 was associated with induction of Fas expression, while the gonadal hormone estrogen antagonistically suppressed cell-surface Fas expression. Estrogen also induced entry into S-phase and decreased the number of Fas-expressing neuroblasts that were apoptotic. Concurrent exposure to estrogen and to soluble Fas-ligand (sFasL) suppressed p21/waf-1 and PCNA. In contrast, estrogen and sFasL, individually and together, induced cyclin-A expression, suggesting activation of compensatory survival mechanisms.
Embryonic cortical neuronal precursors are intrinsically heterogeneous with respect to Fas suicide-sensitivity. Competing intrinsic (p53, cell cycle, FLIP expression), proximal (extra-cellular matrix) and extrinsic factors (gonadal hormones) collectively regulate Fas suicide-sensitivity either during neurogenesis, or possibly during neuronal migration, and may ultimately determine which neuroblasts successfully contribute neurons to the differentiating cortical plate.
KeywordsEstrogen Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen BrdU Incorporation Cortical Plate Propidium Iodide Fluorescence
- CDK1 = CDC2
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
Death Inducing Signaling Complex
Estrogen response element
Fas-associated death domain containing protein
Fas/Apo [apoptosis]-1/CD95 suicide receptor
High intensity of cell surface Fas immuno-fluorescence
Moderate intensity of cell surface Fas immuno-fluorescence
Undetectable cell surface Fas immuno-fluorescence (not different from background)
FLICE (caspase-8)–inhibitory protein
Wild-type p53-activated fragment 1 or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
p53 response element
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
Phosphorylated p53 (on serine 392)
Standard error of the mean
temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen
The developing cerebral cortex and other brain regions undergo substantial cell suicide during the period of neurogenesis and early differentiation [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10], to generate a mature brain. Mechanisms that control the survival or death of neuroblasts and neurons in the developing cerebral cortex are likely to have profound effects on the organization of cognition, affect and sensori-motor integration in the adult. One generally accepted mechanism that is invoked to explain developmental apoptosis is the competition among neurons for limited supplies of trophic molecules within the environment (reviewed in ). According to this model, a neuron's inability to find growth factor support within its environment precedes the initiation of apoptosis. However, the presence of cell-surface suicide receptors, like the Fas/Apo [Apoptosis]-1/CD95 receptor, and their trans-membrane ligands (e.g., FasL) in the developing brain  suggests that neural cells may actively communicate apoptosis signals to each other. In addition to competing for a limited supply of trophic factors, developing neural progenitors and differentiating neurons may engage in an active killing process whereby 'killer cells' induce apoptosis in 'suicide-receptive' cells, to limit cell number in the brain. It is therefore important to understand the signaling mechanisms and circumstances that regulate cell-suicide receptor expression in the developing brain.
The Fas cell-suicide receptor plays an important role in limiting cell proliferation in the immune system by apoptosis . Recent evidence suggests that Fas is also an important regulator of cell death in the brain. Fas is expressed by the developing cerebral cortex during the peak period of apoptosis [7, 9, 13], and by other differentiating neural cells [14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Fas is also re-expressed in neurological disease conditions including ischemia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and in neural tumors [15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27]. We previously reported that Fas activation leads to unscheduled DNA synthesis, the activation of NF-κB, and caspase-dependent cell death in embryonic cortical neuroblasts . Neuronal cultures obtained from developing gld (Fas-deficient) mice are less sensitive to apoptosis signals than wild-type controls . Finally, haplo-insufficiency of the tyrosine phosphatase Pten/MMAC1 results in the inactivation of Fas , resistance to apoptosis in neural progenitors , and consequently, an increased incidence of tumors of neural origin . These data indicate that the Fas/Apo-1 suicide system may determine cell number in the brain, both during development, and following injury in the adult. However, we know very little about the types of neural progenitors and neuronal cells that are particularly vulnerable to Fas-induced death. We also know little about the signaling mechanisms in differentiating neural progenitors that promote cell-surface expression of Fas, and consequently, sensitivity to apoptosis.
The transcription factor p53 is important for brain development . In lung and prostate cancer cell lines, Fas activation is dependent on the presence of functional p53 . P53 induces Fas gene transcription , the translocation of Fas from Golgi complex to cell surface  and activates Fas-mediated apoptosis in un-transformed vascular smooth muscle cells  and mammary epithelial tumors . In the adult rat hippocampus, seizure leads to the co-localized expression of p53 and Fas in CA1 neurons . However, it is likely that p53 acts in concert with a coterie of transcription factors to regulate the availability of Fas in the developing brain. For example, we found that estrogen promotes p53 phosphorylation , but uncouples p53 from its regulation of Bax, a mitochondrial-associated pro-apoptotic factor. Furthermore, estrogen receptors block the DNA binding activity of NF-kB , a transcription factor downstream of members of the TNFr/Fas family [9, 39]. Thus estrogen, and consequently estrogen receptors, may be an important regulator of Fas expression in the developing cerebral cortex.
In the following experiments, we set out to identify cell biological processes that predict cell-surface expression of Fas, and to identify consequences of Fas activation. Our experiments focused predominantly on the pool of Fas receptors that localized to the cell surface, because this population constitutes the bioactive proportion of Fas receptors that contributes to apoptosis sensitivity. We hypothesized that, in embryonic cerebral cortex, cell-surface Fas expression would be associated with exit from cell cycle, and activation of p53. We also hypothesized that estrogen controls neurogenesis and neuron elimination, either by regulating the Fas receptor, or by regulating specific anti-apoptotic cell cycle elements in a Fas-dependent manner.
Our results indicate that embryonic cortical precursors are heterogeneous with respect to cell surface Fas expression and the co-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP (FLICE/caspase-8 interacting protein). Cell-surface Fas expression in embryonic cortical neurons is associated with recent exit from cell cycle, and with loss of contact with the extra-cellular matrix and anoikis. Fas expression is coincidentally increased following p53 activation. In contrast, estrogen decreases Fas expression, and following the activation of Fas by soluble Fas-ligand (sFasL), estrogen suppresses expression of p21/Waf-1/Cip-1 and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Estrogen and sFasL separately and together induce expression of cyclin A.
Expression of Fas and related proteins in embryonic cerebral cortical precursors
Co-localization of Fas with FADD and FLIP
The protein FADD (Fas-Associated Death Domain) is the major intracellular death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) adapter protein that couples Fas to intracellular caspase pathways [41, 42, 43, 44], while FLIP is the major proximal intracellular protein that blocks Fas/Apo-1-mediated apoptosis . Since FADD and FLIP are antagonistic elements of the DISC-complex and are important intracellular gates of Fas/Apo-1 activation, we examined the extent to which these functionally divergent proteins co-localized with Fas/Apo-1 in differentiating embryonic cortical-derived neuroblasts. Two- parameter FACS analysis (Figure 1D) showed that, among adherent cultures, 72.5 ± 2.1% of Fas-expressing neuroblasts also co-localized FADD. In contrast, only 23.9 ± 3.2% Fas-expressing cells co-localized the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP suggesting that only a portion of Fas/Apo-1-expressing embryonic cortical-derived neuronal precursors may be protected from Fas-induced apoptosis.
Cell-cycle-related expression of Fas in embryonic cortical neuronal precursors
Using flow cytometric analyses, we identified three distinct populations of neural cells in vitro; based on differences in the intensity of cell-surface Fas expression (Figure 2). Approximately 3% of cortical cells expressed Fas on their cell surface at a high intensity (FasHi), while 20% of cultured neural cells expressed moderate levels of Fas on their cell surface (FasMod). In contrast, 77% of cultured cortical neural cells do not express Fas on their cell-surface above background levels (Fas-ve). Cultured cortical cells were counterstained with propidium iodide (PI) to measure cellular DNA content and to stage Fas-expressing cells into apoptosis (defined as cells with less than G0 DNA content), cell cycle arrest (G0/G1) or cell cycle (G2/S/M) phases (Figure 2A,2B,2C,2D). Our results indicate that the largest proportion of neural cells in the FasHi population were apoptotic (Figure 2E). Few FasHi cells were in G0/G1 or S/G2/M stages of cell cycle. In contrast, within the FasMod population, the greatest percentage of Fas-expressing cells was observed in G0/G1 (Figure 2F).
Functional determinants of Fas expression in cortical neuroblasts
The majority of FasHi cells were apoptotic. We therefore examined the extent to which Fas expression was related to specific apoptosis-sensitive cell-biological processes including cell-matrix interactions, cell proliferation, and the activation of cell-cycle inhibitory proteins like p53.
Fas expression is dependent on cell-matrix interactions and 'anoikis'
Since primary cultured cells of the FasHi group were predominantly non-adherent, we sought to determine if the induction of 'anoikis' could lead to an increase in Fas/Apo-1 expression. We therefore cultured embryonic day 15 cortical-derived neuroblasts on a collagen substrate (rat tail collagen, UBI) and treated adherent cultures with 50 U of Collagenase-A (MMP-1, microbial metalloendopeptidase, EC 220.127.116.11, Sigma) for 24 hours. Treatment of adherent neuronal precursors with collagenase-A led to a statistically significant, 2.5-fold increase in the number of cells that expressed Fas/Apo-1 on their cell surface (Figure 3E). Because of this relationship between 'anoikis' and Fas/Apo-1 expression, subsequent flow cytometric analyses focused on cells that were adherent to the extracellular matrix deposited onto the culture dish.
Cell surface Fas/Apo-1 expression is associated with cell cycle
Fas expression in embryonic cortical-derived precursors is associated with p53 activation
As a follow-up experiment, to determine whether p53 activation is required for the expression of Fas/Apo-1, we utilized a rodent cerebral cortical cell line (CHB50), conditionally immortalized with a temperature sensitive mutation of the SV40 large T antigen (tsTA), that we had previously developed and characterized . In the +tsTA condition (incubation at 33°C), neuroblasts proliferate indefinitely and p53 is inactive as indicated by the absence of phosphorylated p53 (-pp53). However, cessation of large T antigen expression (-tsTA, 39°C) is accompanied by p53 phosphorylation (+pp53) and the induction of p53-dependent proteins like Bax . CHB50 neuroblasts were therefore cultured under +tsTA and -tsTA conditions. Western immunoblot analysis indicated that CHB50 neuroblasts expressed very low-to-undetectable levels of Fas in the -pp53 (+tsTA) condition. However, following the activation of p53, [+pp53 (-tsTA) condition], there was a statistically significant 12-fold increase in the expression of Fas, 48 hours following activation of p53 (Figure 5B,5C).
Estrogen regulation of Fas expression is cell-cycle dependent
We had previously observed that estrogen prevented apoptosis following p53 activation and decreased the expression of the mitochondrial-associated pro-apoptotic protein Bax in differentiating cerebral cortical neuroblasts . Furthermore, in the context of p53 activation, estrogen led to an increase in neuroblast proliferation. We therefore examined the extent to which cell-surface Fas expression was estrogen-dependent.
Estrogen and Fas regulation of the cell cycle-associated proteins
Cyclin-A prevents apoptosis by disrupting the formation of a complex between the E2F1 and p53 transcription factors . Therefore, we examined the expression of cyclin-A following exposure to E2 and/or FasL. Both estrogen and sFasL alone led to a statistically significant increase in the expression of cyclin-A compared with controls at 12 hours post-treatment. Concurrent exposure to sFasL and estrogen was not different from exposure to either agent alone (Figure 9).
Estrogen and Fas regulation of other cell cycle-related proteins
Neither estradiol-17β nor sFasL alone or together altered the expression of cdk2 or cyclin E compared to control cultures (Figure 9). Similarly, neither estrogen nor sFasL significantly altered the expression of Cyclin-dependent Kinase-1 (cdk1/cdc2) relative to control cultures, suggesting that that interactions between estrogen and Fas activation were not specifically related to cell cycle.
The perinatal cerebral growth spurt is maintained by several competing biological processes including neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation and cell death, and hence, represents a critical period of vulnerability to signals that disrupt cortical development. Cues that alter the expression of suicide receptors like Fas/Apo-1 are likely to elicit profound and enduring alterations in the organization of the developing brain. Our previous data indicate that Fas-mediated, caspase-dependent death mechanisms are present during this critical period of cortical development . We therefore set out to ask the following two questions: (1) 'what developmentally relevant cell biological processes predict cell-surface expression of Fas?' and (2): 'what are the consequences of Fas activation for some of these processes?' The data reported here indicate that there are at least two subpopulations of cortical neuronal precursors that express Fas receptors, a small population that expresses extremely high levels of receptor on their cell surface (the FasHi group) and the majority of Fas-expressing cells that express moderate levels of Fas on their cell surface (the FasMod group). Since ventricular-zone cortical neuroblasts also express the Fas ligand , FasHi neuronal precursors may be particularly sensitive to local suicide signals, and it is not surprising that, at any given time, a majority of cells in the FasHi group are apoptotic. In culture, the FasHi and FasMod groups together account for approximately one third of all cells.
An analysis of our data shows that a majority (though not all) of Fas-expressing precursors express the adapter protein FADD, which enables the activation of caspase-8-dependent death [42, 43]. Presumably, the non-FADD expressing neuroblasts (~27% of Fas-expressing cells) couple Fas to other death mechanisms, such as RIP  or DAXX . Furthermore, only a small proportion of Fas-expressing cells also express the protein FLIP that is capable of blocking Fas activation . We do not as yet know whether FLIP expression defines a phenotypically distinct sub-population of neural precursors. However, it is likely that this subpopulation is at least functionally distinct, since neural precursors that are resistant to suicide receptor-induced death may contribute disproportionately to the overall number of neurons in the cortical plate.
Our data indicate that cell-surface Fas/Apo-1 expression is responsive to stage of cell cycle. Though a majority of FasMod precursors were in G0, cortical cells express higher levels of Fas (determined by immunofluorescence intensity) in cell cycle, than in G0. Concurrent-analysis of BrdU incorporation indicates that Fas-expression is particularly high in cells that have recently completed S-phase or their final round of mitosis. One possible interpretation of these data is that Fas expression, and consequently, vulnerability to Fas-induced cell death, is tied to cell cycle checkpoints. Thus, the Fas-suicide system may play a regulatory role in eliminating cortical progenitor cells that exhibit signs of genomic instability, cell senescence, errors in chromosome replication, or DNA damage. Our observation of a positive relationship between the activation of p53 (p53 phosphorylation) and Fas expression is particularly germane to the issue of cell cycle control, since p53 regulates progression through cell-cycle checkpoints [55, 56]. Presumably, a p53-associated increase in cell-surface Fas expression would allow 'sentinel' Fas-ligand expressing cells in the local ventricular zone environment to eliminate damaged neuroblasts from the pool of progenitors, thereby limiting the likelihood that aberrant neurons will be added to the cortical plate.
Motility is also an important feature of the post-mitotic cortical neuroblast. Differentiating cortical neuroblasts exit the ventricular zone and populate the cortical plate in an inside-out gradient, with the younger neuroblasts populating successively superficial laminae . Migration into the cortical plate is mediated by the interactions of receptors like the integrins with the extracellular matrix (reviewed in ). Our initial observation was that non-adherent neural cells predominantly segregated to the FasHi category of cell-surface Fas-expressing cells. Therefore, in a subsequent experiment, we manipulated the interactions of neural cells with the extra-cellular matrix. Since type-1 collagen engages integrins, we used Collagenase-A to disrupt neuroblast interactions with the extra-cellular collagen matrix. Our results showed that loss of contact with the collagen matrix resulted in a significant increase in Fas expression, and was associated with the phenomenon of 'anoikis'. These data are consistent with a recent report showing that integrin-mediated T-lymphocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix resulted in the suppression of Fas expression . Anoikis may be relevant to brain development as well, since suppression of matrix reorganization by deletion of the MMP-9 gene, leads to delayed migration of cerebellar granule cells and decreased apoptosis . Interestingly, in the context of our data on estrogen suppression of Fas expression, homozygous estrogen receptor-beta knockout animals exhibit defects in the organization of radial glia and increased apoptosis in cortical ventricular zone neuroblasts . These data suggest that migration and apoptosis are contextually linked to each other in vivo. Perhaps, differentiating neurons that migrate to inappropriate positions within the cortical plate are eliminated by receptor-mediated suicide mechanisms (see Figure 10, cortical plate model), analogous to the mechanism that is used to eliminate self-antigen recognizing lymphocytes in the immune system .
The developing brain's hormonal environment has an important impact on cell fate determination and the hormone estrogen is an important regulator of cell cycle and cell suicide in cerebral cortical neuroblasts . Both identified estrogen receptor subtypes, ERα and ERβ, are ligand-activated transcription factors [64, 65, 66, 67, 68]. Nuclear estrogen receptors and ERα mRNA are transiently expressed, at high levels in the developing cerebral cortex during the peak of neurogenesis and apoptosis [69, 70, 71]. ERβ is also expressed in the cerebral cortex [68, 72, 73].
Estrogen has divergent, region-specific actions on the survival of neural tissues. For example, estrogen metabolites induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells , while estrogen promotes survival in hypothalamic cell lines  and in the bed nucleus of Stria Terminalis . Estrogen also inhibits apoptosis in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area while inducing apoptosis in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the preoptic area . Furthermore, ERα and ERβ may also have opposing anti- and pro-apoptotic roles that are perhaps Fas-ligand dependent, as supported by evidence from hypothalamic cell lines . In cerebral cortical neuroblasts, we have previously shown that estrogen promotes activation of the transcription factor p53, but uncouples p53 from down-stream cell suicide signals to promote neuronal survival . We therefore reasoned that estrogen suppresses apoptosis in the developing cerebral cortex, in part, by decreasing the cell-surface expression of the Fas receptor. This hypothesis was verified by our experiments. The numbers of neuroblasts in G0 expressing the Fas receptor declined significantly, following exposure to estradiol-17beta. Though estrogen did not alter the numbers of cells in cell cycle (S/G2/M) that expressed Fas, estrogen did lead to a significant decrease in the average intensity of Fas expression at the cell-surface. The estrogen-mediated reduction in numbers of Fas-expressing neuroblasts in G0 is open to several interpretations. The most parsimonious explanation for the data is that estrogen directly decreased Fas expression. Alternatively, since estrogen also promotes neuroblast proliferation , estrogen could have led to the expansion of a progenitor pool that did not express Fas on the cell surface.
We had previously observed that estrogen prevented apoptosis in T-antigen-synchronized cultures, following p53 activation (as indicated by p53 phosphorylation at serine 392, and activation of prototypic p53-responsive genes like MDM2, p21/Waf-1 and Bax) . In the current study on non-synchronized primary cortical neuroblasts, we observed a non-statistically significant trend towards an estrogen-mediated decrease in apoptosis as reflected by the presence of cells with less than G0 DNA content. However, when we restricted the analysis to the Fas population, we found that estrogen induced a statistically significant decrease in the numbers of Fas-expressing cells that were apoptotic. Since Fas expression was positively associated with p53 phosphorylation, it is likely that estrogen protection against apoptosis is contextual, i.e., dependent on the activation of p53. Thus, following p53 activation in our CHB50 cortical progenitors, we found that estrogen also led to a significant decrease in Fas expression. Interestingly, the estrogen receptor antagonist, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, did not block estrogen suppression of Fas expression. We previously observed a similar tamoxifen-independent effect of estrogen on the regulation of p53 itself , suggesting that estrogen may regulate cell-surface Fas expression by non-classical mechanisms including transcriptional activation mediated by AP-1  or activation of protein kinase pathways [79, 80].
One issue that remains to be addressed is whether estrogen suppresses cell-surface Fas expression by acting as a non-classical transcription repressor, or by suppressing translocation of Fas from intracellular compartments to the cell-surface in a manner that is antagonistic to that observed for p53 . The timeframe of estrogen's actions is certainly more consistent with transcription repression, and perhaps, an antagonism of p53-mediated transcription. Both the mouse and human Fas genes contain a p53 response element (p53RE) within intron #1 that drives transcription of the Fas gene . In silico analysis of the murine Fas gene (GenBank Accession #AF282865) also indicates a potential estrogen response element (ERE) in intron#1. This presumptive ERE consists of a perfect palindrome whose halves are separated by an integer multiple of 3 random base-pairs GGTCA(NNN)83TGACC (where the canonical ERE is GGTCA(NNN)TGACC ). Four additional hemi-palindromic sequences, identical to half a canonical ERE are dispersed throughout intron#1, and may also contribute to estrogen repression of Fas. These possibilities are supported by our previous research showing that intronic EREs (e.g., in the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF gene) are functional and can contain integer multiples of the canonical triplet base-pair spacer, between two adjacent hemi-palindromes . Furthermore, repressor functions have been ascribed to estrogen receptors acting at the promoters for IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor in aortic smooth muscle cells  and specific residues on ERα recruit co-repressor protein complexes . One hypothesis that remains to be tested, is that estrogen receptors and p53 may be mutually repressive. While our data indicates that estrogen suppresses the expression of p53-induced proteins like Bax  and Fas, other data indicates that p53 can suppress estrogen receptor activation , by preventing ER-alpha binding to EREs.
Since estrogen induces neuroblasts to enter S-phase of cell cycle, while suppressing the cell-surface expression of Fas, we decided to examine the extent to which estrogen regulates cell cycle proteins concurrent with Fas activation. We were particularly interested in the regulation of dual-purpose proteins like cyclin-A, p21/waf-1 and PCNA that not only regulate progression through cell cycle, but also participate in DNA repair and blockage of apoptosis. For example PCNA and p21/waf-1 initiate repair of double-strand DNA breaks (a hallmark of apoptosis)  while cyclin A prevents apoptosis by disrupting p53 signaling . Unexpectedly, concurrent exposure to both estrogen and to sFasL led to a decrease in the expression of both PCNA and p21/waf1. Since these proteins play antagonistic roles during cell cycle, it is likely that this co-regulation will have little net effect on cell cycle per se. On the other hand, it is likely that capacity to repair double stranded DNA breaks is curtailed. It is unclear at this time why the coordinate activation of a suicide receptor and a hormone receptor would decrease both PCNA and p21/waf1, potentially compromising DNA repair capacity. Perhaps, once cell suicide is initiated, and caspase-activated DNAses create double strand breaks, DNA repair would be an inefficient mechanism to reverse apoptosis. In this context, the role of estrogen may be to cleanly facilitate suicide. This hypothesis is consistent with observations from other laboratories [76, 77] that estrogen can induce apoptosis in specific brain regions. Estrogen's anti-apoptotic role may be to prevent the initiation of apoptosis in the first place, by suppressing expression of p53-activated proteins like Fas (as reported above) and Bax  or alternatively, antagonizing p53 more directly. The latter hypothesis is supported by our observation that estrogen and Fas-ligand both separately and together, significantly increased Cyclin-A. Cyclin-A is a G1/S-phase cyclin, so it is not surprising that estrogen would up-regulate this cyclin as a consequence of increasing the number of neuroblasts that enter S-phase. However, cyclin-A can also antagonize p53-dependent apoptosis  by preventing the association between p53 and E2F, and therefore, may represent the preferred intermediary for estrogen suppression of apoptosis. Interestingly, cyclin-E, which does not compete with E2F for binding to p53 , was not induced by estrogen in our experiments. Additionally, cyclin-A complexes with CDK2 to induce phosphorylation of ER-alpha on serines 104 and 106, and consequent transactivation . It is likely therefore, that the induction of cyclin-A increases activation of associated kinases, even though CDK2 levels were not altered, leading to feedback activation of the estrogen receptor, further suppression of Fas expression, and neuro-protection. If cyclin-A represents a means for limiting apoptosis, then the induction of cyclin A by sFasL, suggests that neuronal precursors may initiate adaptive anti-apoptotic mechanisms (aside from FLIP expression), in response to the activation of a suicide receptor.
Overall, our results indicate that cell-surface Fas expression identifies two distinct sub-populations of cortical neuroblasts, the FasHi and FasMod populations, with FLIP co-expressing cells comprising perhaps a third population. Developmentally, cell-surface Fas expression is modulated by a variety of competing factors including cell-cycle stage, extracellular matrix interactions, p53 phosphorylation and hormone availability. Dynamic changes in suicide Fas-mediated sensitivity during development are likely to play a significant role in the genesis of a variety of developmental neurodegenerative diseases including the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome , neonatal cerebral ischemia , neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus , neonatal brain trauma , and genetic diseases resulting from the expansion of polyglutamine repeats .
Timed-pregnant rats (Sprague Dawley) were purchased from Harlan (TX). Gestational Day (GD) zero was defined as the day on which dams were sperm positive. GD-15 rat fetuses were obtained under aseptic conditions, from pregnant dams that were anesthetized with Phenobarbital (50 mg). Fetal brains were dissected out aseptically and, in all cases, care was taken to minimize any pain and discomfort to the animals.
Dissociated primary embryonic cortical cultures
The cerebral cortical mantle of GD-15 rat fetuses was dissected out under sterile conditions, and separated from overlying meningeal tissue under a microscope. We selected GD15 because this age represents the peak period for proliferation within the cortical neuroepithelium, to generate neurons of the cortical plate. At GD15, the neuroepithelium is the dominant cortical structure, though a smaller number of differentiated neurons (the cortical preplate) and radial glia are also present. Furthermore, at this age, the neuroepithelium is mainly comprised of proliferating neuronal (rather than glial) precursors (for review see ). The earliest developing layer of the cortical plate (layer VI) does not form until one day later (GD16-17). Morphologically, these cortical cultures are immature and continue to proliferate in vitro, but over a period of 24 hours, cultured neuroblasts become increasingly polarized and exhibit growth cones and process characteristic of early differentiating neurons. Cultures were established according to our previously published protocols . Briefly, neuroblasts were dispersed by trituration in 0.5% trypsin and 6.84 mM EDTA (Sigma) and were plated on collagen-coated 24-well plates in sterile culture medium (89% Dulbecco's modified eagle media [DMEM], 10% gelding serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin). Cultures were maintained at 37°C for 24 hours and the culture medium was replaced. For initial experiments, whole cultures were assayed 24 hours later by FACS (Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting) analysis. For subsequent experiments, only adherent cells were harvested at 24 hours and fixed for FACS analysis. For some experiments, soluble protein was extracted for western immunoblot analysis. Some experimental groups were exposed to soluble Fas Ligand (sFasL 5 ng/ml, Alexis Corp.), estradiol-17β (2 nM, Sigma) or sFasL together with estradiol-17β. Control and sFasL-treated cultures were maintained at 37°C in normal culture medium for 24 hours and then exposed to the appropriate treatments. Estrogen-treated cultures were pre-treated with estradiol-17β for 24 hours and then re-fed with estrogen alone or estrogen concurrently with sFasL for 12 hours.
Immortalized cerebral cortical culture model
To examine the regulation of Fas by p53 and estrogen, we also utilized a rodent cerebral cortical cell line (CHB50) conditionally immortalized with a temperature sensitive mutation of the SV40 large T antigen (tsTA) that we had previously developed and characterized . In the +tsTA condition (incubation at 33°C), neuroblasts proliferate indefinitely and p53 is inactive. However, cessation of large T antigen expression (-tsTA, 39°C) is accompanied by induction of the p53 phosphorylation and the induction of p53-dependent proteins, p21/Waf1, Bax and MDM2 that lead to cell cycle-arrest, suicide, and p53 inhibition/cell cycle re-entry respectively. We had previously observed that CHB50 neuroblasts express the estrogen receptor ER-α and are estrogen-responsive. Estrogen prevents apoptosis following p53 activation and induces both neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation in this cell line. CHB50 cortical neuroblasts were therefore cultured under the +tsTA and -tsTA conditions as published previously  to examine the p53-related expression of Fas, and under the -tsTA conditions to examine the estrogen regulation of Fas during neuroblast differentiation (in the context of p53 activation).
Flow cytometric analysis
Triple parameter flow cytometric analysis was used to measure immunolabeled cell surface Fas protein, BrdU incorporation (a measure of DNA incorporation) and DNA content [propidium iodide (PI) dye intercalation] as a measure of cell cycle distribution. Dissociated embryonic cortical cultures were administered a single BrdU pulse (24 hours) at the time the cultures were established. Non-adherent and adherent [harvested by administration of collagenase (Sigma, 30 units)] cells were obtained after the initial 24-hour BrdU pulse and centrifuged at 300 × g to sediment the cells. The pellet was washed with Dulbecco's Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde and re-suspended in PBS. Cells were sedimented by centrifugation between subsequent immunohistochemical steps. To detect cell-surface Fas/Apo-1, immuno-histofluorescence chemistry was performed in the absence of detergent. Following exposure to a blocking solution (in Tris-buffered saline, (TBS) pH 7.4, with 0.1%Bovine Serum Albumin, and 2% Normal Goat Serum), cell-surface Fas/Apo-1 expression was detected with a rabbit polyclonal anti-Fas antibody (Santa Cruz, 1:500), followed by biotinylated, secondary donkey anti-rabbit (Jackson Immunochemicals, 1:1000) conjugated to streptavidin-FITC. Following Fas/Apo-1 immunofluorescence, cells were permeabilized with detergent (0.3% Trition-X100) in blocking solution. BrdU incorporation was detected with a primary anti-BrdU antibody (Sigma, 1:500) followed by biotinylated, secondary horse anti-mouse (Vector, 1:1000), conjugated to streptavidin-allophycocyanin (APC, Molecular Probes, 1:500). The cells were then washed with PBS and exposed to a PI solution (see above) for 10 minutes at room temperature. BrdU-allophycocyanin, Fas-FITC and PI fluorescence was analyzed from 104 cells with excitation at 488 nm (argon laser) and detection of FITC fluorescence at approximately 530 nm, PI fluorescence at 585 nm and allophycocyanin at 650 nm.
In studies examining the relationship between cell surface Fas and Fas-associated protein expression, binding of the primary antibody, mouse monoclonal antibody to Fas (Transduction Laboratories, 1:500), was detected using a rat-absorbed, biotinylated horse-anti-mouse secondary antibody (Vector, 1:1000), conjugated to streptavidin-APC or rabbit polyclonal anti-Fas antibody (Santa Cruz, 1:500), followed by biotinylated, secondary donkey anti-rabbit (Jackson Immunochemicals, 1:1000) conjugated to streptavidin-FITC. Subsequently, FLIP or phosphorylated P53 was detected using rabbit polyclonal anti-FLIP (gift from Drs. Sato and Walsh, Tufts University School of Medicine; 1:500) or phospho-p53 at serine 392 (New England BioLabs, 1:500) followed by a secondary donkey anti-rabbit (Jackson Immunochemicals, 1:1000) conjugated to streptavidin-FITC. FADD was detected using a monoclonal anti-FADD antibody (Transduction Laboratories, 1:500) followed by a rat-absorbed, biotinylated horse-anti-mouse secondary antibody (Vector, 1:1000). Phosphorylation of the casein kinase II-sensitive site at serine 392 was used as a marker for activated p53. Phosphorylation at this site promotes tetramerization of p53  and specificity of p53 binding to DNA , while regulating re-annealing of double-stranded DNA . Cells were then washed with PBS and exposed to a PI solution [PBS, 0.1% triton (Sigma), 0.5 mmol EDTA, 0.05 mg/ml RNAse A and 50 mg/ml PI] for 10 minutes at room temperature. Fas-FITC and PI fluorescence was analyzed from 10,000 cells using a flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson) with excitation at 488 nm (argon laser) and detection of FITC fluorescence at approximately 530 nm and PI fluorescence at 585 nm. The specificity of all antibodies used for flow cytometric analysis was previously verified by western immunoblot analysis and/or immunohistochemical analysis [9, 37]. Immunological controls were exposed to pre-immune serum in place of the appropriate primary antibody and were used to determine background immunofluorescence.
Western immunoblot analysis
The expression of cell cycle elements that regulate S-phase [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)], the G1/S transition [cyclin dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) and cyclin E], the G2/M transition [cyclin dependent kinase (cdk1) and cyclin A], and a cell cycle arrest factor [p21/wild-type p53-activated fragment (Waf1)/Cip1 (cdk-interacting protein-1)], and Fas were verified by western immunoblot analysis of E15 cortical neuroblasts, according to our previously published protocols [9, 37, 93, 94]. Detergent (1% SDS) soluble protein was isolated using the Trizol reagent (Invitrogen). Protein samples were size fractionated on an 8% SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and blotted onto supported nitrocellulose (Hibond-C-super, Amersham). Blots were blocked (5% milk, TBS (1.4 M NaCl, 0.2 M Tris)-0.1% Tween 20), exposed to primary antibody [mouse monoclonal anti-PCNA antibody (Calbiochem, 1:66); rabbit polyclonal anti-cyclin E (Calbiochem, 1:250); mouse monoclonal anti-cyclin A (Calbiochem, 1:100), mouse monoclonal anti-cdk2 (Transduction Laboratories, 1:500), mouse monoclonal anti-cdk1 (Calbiochem, 1:100) or mouse monoclonal anti-Fas (Transduction Labs)], washed and exposed to horse-anti-mouse secondary antibody (Vector, 1:1000) or donkey anti-rabbit (Jackson Laboratories, 1:5000), washed again and exposed to streptavidin horseradish-peroxidase conjugate (Amersham). Immunoreactive bands were detected using enzyme-linked chemiluminescense (NEN).
Data analyses for the experiments reported here were based on 5–9 independent samples. For FACS analysis, the incorporation of PI into cellular DNA was used to categorize cells in G0/G1 (diploid DNA content), S/G2/M (hyper-diploid DNA content) and apoptosis (sub-diploid DNA content) [95, 96, 97]. Cells were categorized, and intensities calculated using standard cell sorting software (Cell Quest, Becton Dickinson). Western immunoblots were analyzed using standard densitometric software (Molecular Analyst, Bio-Rad). Sample size for western blot analyses was 6. Statistical differences were calculated using ANOVAs followed by post-hoc tests (Student-Newman-Keuls, p < 0.05). Correlational analyses were calculated by combining mean intensity values from 6–8 replications using Pearson's product moment correlation (r) followed by a two-tailed test for the significance of the correlation coefficient. Levels of statistical significance were set at p < 0.05. Data were expressed in terms of mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM).
The authors would like to thank Jane Miller for technical assistance, and Dr. Kenneth Walsh (Tufts University School of Medicine) for the gift of the anti-FLIP antibody. This study was funded by grants from NIH (AA13440 and MH55724) to RCM.
- 8.Blaschke AJ, Weiner JA, Chun J: Programmed cell death is a universal feature of embryonic and postnatal neuroproliferative regions throughout the central nervous system. Journal of Comparitive Neurology. 1998, 396: 39-50. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19980622)396:1<39::AID-CNE4>3.0.CO;2-J.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Felderhoff-Mueser U,, Taylor DL, Greenwood K, Kozma M, Stibenz D, Joashi UC, Edwards AD, Mehmet H: Fas/CD95/APO-1 can function as a death receptor for neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo and is upregulated following cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury to the developing rat brain. Brain Pathol. 2000, 10: 17-29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Amson R, Lassalle JM, Halley H, Prieur S, Lethrosne F, Roperch JP, Israeli D, Gendron MC, Duyckaerts C, Checler F, Dausset J, Cohen D, Oren M, Telerman A: Behavioral alterations associated with apoptosis and down-regulation of presenilin 1 in the brains of p53-deficient mice. PNAS. 2000, 97: 5346-5350. 10.1073/pnas.97.10.5346.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Munsch D, Watanabe-Fukunaga R, Bourdon J-C, Nagata S, May E, Yonish-Rouach E, Reisdorf P: Human and Mouse Fas (APO-1/CD95) Death Receptor Genes Each Contain a p53-responsive Element That Is Activated by p53 Mutants Unable to Induce Apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 3867-3872. 10.1074/jbc.275.6.3867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Bayer SA, Altman J: Principles of Neurogenesis, Neuronal Migration, and Neural Circuit Formation. The Rat Nervous System. Edited by: Paxinos G. 1995, San Diego, Academic Press, Inc., 1079-1098. 2Google Scholar
- 45.Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Ottilie S, Bullrich F, Banks S, Wang Y, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Croce C, Litwack G, Tomaselli KJ, Armstrong RC, Alnemri ES: FLAME-1, a novel FADD-like anti-apoptotic molecule that regulates Fas/TNFR1-induced apoptosis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1997, 272: 18542-18545. 10.1074/jbc.272.30.18542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Grossmann J, Walther K, Artinger M, Kiessling S, Scholmerich J: Apoptotic signaling during initiation of detachment-induced apoptosis ("anoikis") of primary human intestinal epithelial cells. Cell Growth & Differentiation. 2001, 12: 147-155.Google Scholar
- 62.Gendron S, Couture J, Aoudjit F: Integrin alpha2 beta1 inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in T lymphocytes by protein phosphatase 2A-dependent activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003, [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
- 72.Couse JF, Lindzey J, Grandien K, Gustafsson J, Korach KS: Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERalpha-knockout mouse. Endocrinology. 1997, 138: 4613-4621. 10.1210/en.138.11.4613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 84.Huang HJ, Norris JD, McDonnell DP: Identification of a negative regulatory surface within estrogen receptor alpha provides evidence in support of a role for corepressors in regulating cellular responses to agonists and antagonists. Mol Endocrinol. 2002, 16: 1778-1792. 10.1210/me.2002-0089.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 88.Felderhoff-Mueser U, Buhrer C, Groneck P, Obladen M, Bartmann P, Heep A: Soluble Fas (CD95/Apo-1), soluble Fas ligand, and activated caspase 3 in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants with posthemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Pediatr Res. 2003, 54: 659-664. 10.1203/01.PDR.0000084114.83724.65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 94.Donovan M, Miranda R, Kraemer R, McCaffrey T, Tessarollo L, Mahadeo D, Kaplan D, Tsoulfas P, Parada L, Toran-Allerand D, Hajjar D, Hempstead B: Neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells: Regulation of expression in response to injury. Am.J.Path. 1995, 147: 309-324.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 98.Forster E, Tielsch A, Saum B, Weiss KH, Johanssen C, Graus-Porta D, Muller U, Frotscher M: Reelin, Disabled 1, and beta 1 integrins are required for the formation of the radial glial scaffold in the hippocampus. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99: 13178-13183. 10.1073/pnas.202035899.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.