Medical 3D printing for vascular interventions and surgical oncology: a primer for the 2016 radiological society of North America (RSNA) hands-on course in 3D printing
Medical 3D printing holds the potential of transforming personalized medicine by enabling the fabrication of patient-specific implants, reimagining prostheses, developing surgical guides to expedite and transform surgical interventions, and enabling a growing multitude of specialized applications. In order to realize this tremendous potential in frontline medicine, an understanding of the basic principles of 3D printing by the medical professionals is required. This primer underlines the basic approaches and tools in 3D printing, starting from patient anatomy acquired through cross-sectional imaging, in this case Computed Tomography (CT). We describe the basic principles using the relatively simple task of separation of the relevant anatomy to guide aneurysm repair. This is followed by exploration of more advanced techniques in the creation of patient-specific surgical guides and prostheses for a patient with extensive pleomorphic sarcoma using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software.
Keywords3D Printing Aneurysm repair Cancer Segmentation Computer-aided design Orthopedic Surgery Implant Surgical Guide Radiological Society of North America Precision Medicine
Anterior superior iliac spine
Digital imaging and communications in medicine
United States Food and Drug Administration
Magnetic resonance imaging
Region of interest
Radiological Society of North America
Standard Tessellation Language
No funding sources to declare for this study.
AS and LC conceived the design, analyzed the data, drafted, edited and critically revised the manuscript. AG and TH contributed significant portions of the manuscript. AW provided customized illustrations. LC carried out data collection and analysis. AS, AG, AW, CT, SK, EA, DM, LC interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors have read and have given final approval of the version to be published. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
The DICOM patient images used this this publication are obtained from open anonymized online repositories publishing patient data with patient consent. Statements to this effect are available on the respective websites of the OsiriX Image Library  and the Cancer Imaging Archive .
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