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Precipitation in powder-metallurgy, nickel-base superalloys: review of modeling approach and formulation of engineering methods to determine input data

  • S. L. SemiatinEmail author
  • F. Zhang
  • R. Larsen
  • L. A. Chapman
  • D. U. Furrer
Research

Abstract

Methods for determining the various thermodynamic and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder-metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These parameters comprise the composition of the γ′ phase, the γ′ solvus temperature/equilibrium solvus approach curve, the free energy (∆G*) associated with the decomposition of the γ matrix to form γ′, the γ/γ′ interfacial energy σ, and an effective diffusivity for use in nucleation, growth, and coarsening calculations. Techniques to obtain the material data include phase extraction (for the average composition of γ′) and heat-treatment/quantitative metallography (for a two-parameter fit of the solvus approach curve). With regard to ∆G*, two methods, one based on the instantaneous composition of the γ and γ′ phases and the other on the enthalpy of transformation and the solvus temperature, are summarized. It is shown that the interfacial energy σ can be determined from the nucleation-onset temperature as indicated by on-cooling specific-heat measurements. Last, the use of a limited set of static-coarsening measurements to estimate the effective diffusivity is described. The application of the various protocols is illustrated for typical first-, second-, and third-generation PM superalloys, i.e., IN-100, René 88, and LSHR/ME3, respectively.

Keywords

Precipitation Superalloys Gamma prime Nucleation Growth Coarsening Solvus approach curve Interface energy Free energy of transformation Diffusivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was conducted as part of the in-house research of the Metals Branch of the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Materials and Manufacturing Directorate. The support and encouragement of the Laboratory management is greatly appreciated. Technical discussions with T.P. Gabb and C.K. Sudbrack (NASA Glenn Research Center) are also gratefully acknowledged.

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© Semiatin et al. 2016

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. L. Semiatin
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Zhang
    • 2
  • R. Larsen
    • 3
  • L. A. Chapman
    • 4
  • D. U. Furrer
    • 5
  1. 1.Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing DirectorateAFRL/RXCMWright-Patterson Air Force BaseUSA
  2. 2.CompuTherm, LLCMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Thermophysical Properties Research Laboratory, Inc.West LafayetteUSA
  4. 4.National Physical LaboratoryTeddingtonUK
  5. 5.Pratt & WhitneyEast HartfordUSA

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