Advertisement

Advances in Difference Equations

, 2019:461 | Cite as

On the asymptotic analysis of bounded solutions to nonlinear differential equations of second order

  • Cemil TunçEmail author
  • Sizar Abid Mohammed
Open Access
Research
  • 117 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, we consider two different models of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of second order. We construct two new Lyapunov functions to investigate boundedness of solutions of those nonlinear ODEs of second order. By using the Lyapunov direct or second method and inequality techniques, we prove two new theorems on the boundedness solutions of those ODEs of second order as \(t \to \infty \). When we compare the conditions of the theorems of this paper with those of Meng in (J. Syst. Sci. Math. Sci. 15(1):50–57, 1995) and Sun and Meng in (Ann. Differ. Equ. 18(1):58–64 2002), we can see that our theorems have less restrictive conditions than those in (Meng in J. Syst. Sci. Math. Sci. 15(1):50–57, 1995) and Sun and Meng in (Ann. Differ. Equ. 18(1):58–64 2002) because of the two new suitable Lyapunov functions. Next, in spite of the use of the Lyapunov second method here and in (Meng in J. Syst. Sci. Math. Sci. 15(1):50–57, 1995; Sun and Meng in Ann. Differ. Equ. 18(1):58–64 2002), the proofs of the results of this paper are proceeded in a very different way from that used in the literature for the qualitative analysis of ODEs of second order. Two examples are given to show the applicability of our results. At the end, we can conclude that the results of this paper generalize and improve the results of Meng in (J. Syst. Sci. Math. Sci. 15(1):50–57, 1995), Sun and Meng in (Ann. Differ. Equ. 18(1):58–64 2002), and some other that can be found in the literature, and they have less restrictive conditions than those in these references.

Keywords

Nonlinear ODEs Second order Boundedness The Lyapunov second method 

MSC

34C11 34D05 34D20 

1 Introduction

It is well known that linear and nonlinear ODEs of second order can arise during many applications in various scientific areas such as physics, biology, chemistry, biophysics, mechanics, medicine, aerodynamics, economy, atomic energy, control theory, information theory, population dynamics, electrodynamics of complex media, and so on. Therefore, qualitative behaviors of solutions to ODEs of second order, stability, boundedness, convergence, instability, integrability, globally existence of solutions, etc., have been extensively investigated in the literature by this time. For a comprehensive treatment of these qualitative properties of solutions of ODEs of second order and some applications, we refer the readers to [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54] and the references cited therein. Besides, the boundedness of solutions of nonlinear ODEs of second order are of particular interest in applications (see [1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54]).

During the investigations of the qualitative properties of solutions to ODEs of second order, fixed point method, perturbation theory, variations of parameters formulas, the Lyapunov second method, and so on have been used to get information without solving equation(s) under study. It is worth mentioning that, to the best of our knowledge, probably, up to now in the related literature, the Lyapunov second method has been the most effective tool to study these qualitative properties of solutions of nonlinear ODEs of higher order without solving them. This method requires the construction of a suitable function or functional, which gives meaningful result(s) for the problem under study. However, the construction of the Lyapunov functions for nonlinear ODEs of higher order still remains an open problem in the literature for now.

As for the motivation of the results of this paper, the boundedness and square integrability, etc. of solutions of the following ODEs of second order:
$$\begin{aligned}& x'' + \bigl(q_{1}(t) + q_{2}(t)\bigr)x = 0, \end{aligned}$$
(1)
$$\begin{aligned}& \frac{d}{dt}\bigl(r(t)x'\bigr) + q(t)x = 0, \end{aligned}$$
(2)
$$\begin{aligned}& x'' + p(t)x' + \bigl(q_{1}(t) + q_{2}(t)\bigr)x = 0, \end{aligned}$$
(3)
$$\begin{aligned}& x'' + p(t)x' + \bigl(q_{1}(t) + q_{2}(t)\bigr)x = f(t), \end{aligned}$$
(4)
and
$$ \frac{d}{dt}\bigl(r(t)x'\bigr) + p(t)x' + \bigl(q_{1}(t) + q_{2}(t)\bigr)x = f(t,x) $$
(5)
have been discussed by Meng [15], Sun and Meng [23], and some others cited in the references [15] and [23]. The proofs of the results of Meng [15], Sun and Meng [23], and the others were done by using the Lyapunov second method and some well-known inequalities. In [15] and [23], the authors obtained some interesting results on the boundedness and square integrability of solutions of these ODEs of second order, (1)–(5). Here, in particular, we should insist that Meng [15] considered ODE (4). He obtained certain sufficient conditions under which all the solutions of ODE (4) are bounded and square integrable. He proved three theorems on boundedness and square integrability of solutions of ODE (4). Each of the theorems in [15] is a slight different variant of the other ones.
In this paper, motivated by the works of Meng [15] and Sun and Meng [23], firstly, we deal with the following nonlinear ODE of second order:
$$ x'' + p(t)g\bigl(x'\bigr) + q_{1}(t)h(x) + q_{2}(t)x = f \bigl(t,x,x'\bigr), $$
(6)
where \(x \in \Re \), \(\Re = ( - \infty ,\infty )\), \(t \in \Re ^{ +}\), \(\Re ^{ +} = [0,\infty )\). Throughout this paper, it is assumed that \(p, q_{2} \in C(\Re ^{ +},\Re )\), \(q_{1} \in C^{1}(\Re ^{ +},\Re )\), \(g \in C^{1}(\Re ,\Re )\), \(h \in C^{1}(\Re,\Re )\), and \(f \in C(\Re ^{ +} \times \Re ^{2},\Re )\), \(g(0) = 0\) and \(h(0) = 0\). By these assumptions, the existence of the solutions of ODE (6) is guaranteed. We also assume that the functions g, h, and f satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the unknown function x and its derivative \(x'\). Hence, the uniqueness of solutions of ODE (6) is guaranteed.

Let us compare ODEs (1)–(5) with ODE (6). It is clear that ODE (6) is a general form of ODEs (1), (3). Next, when \(p(t) = 0\) or \(g(x') = 0\), \(h(x) = x\), \(f(t,x,x') = 0\), and \(q_{1}(t) + q_{2}(t) = q(t)\), then ODE (6) is reduced to ODE (2) provided that \(r(t) = 1\).

Similarly, when \(g(x') = x'\), \(h(x) = x\) and \(f(t,x,x') = 0\) depends only on t, then ODE (6) is reduced to ODE (4). In addition, when \(g(x') = x'\), \(h(x) = x\) and \(f(t,x,x')\) depends only on t and x, then ODE (6) is reduced to ODE (5) provided that \(r(t) = 1\).

Secondly, we consider the following nonlinear ODE of second order:
$$ x'' + \phi \bigl(t,x,x'\bigr) + q_{1}(t)x + q_{2}(t)\theta (x) = q\bigl(t,x,x' \bigr), $$
(7)
where \(x \in \Re \), \(t \in \Re ^{ +}\), \(q_{1} \in C(\Re ^{ +},\Re )\), \(q _{2} \in C^{1}(\Re ^{ +},\Re )\), \(\theta \in C^{1}(\Re ,\Re )\), \(\phi \in C^{1} (\Re ^{ +} \times \Re ^{2},\Re )\) and \(q \in C(\Re ^{ +} \times \Re ^{2},\Re )\), \(\theta (0) = 0\), and \(\phi (t,x,0) = 0\). By these assumptions, the existence of the solutions of ODE (7) is guaranteed. We also assume that the functions ϕ, θ, and q satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the unknown function x and its derivative \(x'\). Hence, the uniqueness of solutions of ODE (7) is guaranteed.

Let us compare ODEs (1)–(5) with ODE (7). It is clear that ODE (7) is a general form of ODEs (1), (3), and (4). Next, ODE (7) can be reduced to ODEs (2) and (5) provided that \(r(t) = 1\). These cases can be examined in detail as before. However, we omit the details of the comparison for the sake of brevity.

Finally, when we look at ODEs (1)–(5), we see that ODEs (1)–(4) are linear and ODE (5) has a slightly modified nonlinear form. Next, ODEs (6) and (7) include and improve ODEs (1)–(4) from the linear cases to the more general nonlinear forms. In addition, ODE (5) has a simple nonlinear function; however, each of ODEs (6) and (7) has three nonlinear functions.

This paper investigates the problem of asymptotic boundedness of solutions of ODEs (6) and (7) as \(t \to \infty \). Here, instead of simple linear and nonlinear ODEs of second order, we discuss the mentioned problem for two general nonlinear ODEs of second order compared to those in [15, 23] and the one that can be found in the literature. This fact is the first contribution of this paper to the topic and the existing literature.

Next, in [15] and [23], the authors benefited from the Lyapunov second method. However, the style and arrangements through the proofs of the results of Meng [15] and Sun and Meng [23] are very different than the classical ones that can be found in the literature. Here, the authors of this paper would not like to discuss the differences for the sake of brevity. The next and second contribution of this paper is that we can obtain the results of Meng [15] and Sun and Meng [23] under less restrictive conditions in the particular cases.

Later, Meng [15] and Sun and Meng [23] gave examples to show the applicability of the theoretical results obtained in [15] and [23], respectively. However, in [15] and [23], the graphs of the orbits of the solutions of the given examples were not drawn. In this paper, two examples with the graphs of paths of their solutions are given to show and illustrate that the established conditions can be applicable clearly. This is the third contribution of this paper to the topic and the existing literature.

Finally, to best of our knowledge from the literature, no paper was devoted to the asymptotic analysis of bounded solutions of ODEs (6) and (7). By this work, we attempt to fill that gap for the relevant literature. Next, it should be noted that the construction of suitable Lyapunov functions for ODE(s) under study enables us to get more restrictive conditions for the qualitative behaviors of solutions. This can be seen when we compare the Lyapunov functions and the results of this paper with those of Meng [15], Sun and Meng [23], and those that can be found in the literature. These are the main contributions of this paper to the relevant topics and literature.

Next, let \(y(t) = \frac{dx}{dt} = x'(t)\). Hence, ODEs (6) and (7) can be transformed into the following systems of ODEs, respectively:
$$ \begin{gathered} x' = y, \\ y' = - p(t)g(y) - q_{1}(t)h(x) - q_{2}(t)x + f(t,x,y) \end{gathered} $$
(8)
and
$$ \begin{gathered} x' = y, \\ y' = - \phi (t,x,y) - q_{1}(t)x - q_{2}(t)\theta (x) + q(t,x,y). \end{gathered} $$
(9)
Let
$$\begin{aligned}& g_{1}(y) = \textstyle\begin{cases} y^{ - 1}g(y), &y \ne 0, \\ g'_{y}(0), &y = 0, \end{cases}\displaystyle \\& \theta _{1}(x) = \textstyle\begin{cases} x^{ - 1}\theta (x),& x \ne 0, \\ \theta '_{x}(0),& x = 0, \end{cases}\displaystyle \\& h_{1}(x) = \textstyle\begin{cases} x^{ - 1}h(x),& x \ne 0, \\ h'_{x}(0),& x = 0 \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}$$
and
$$ \phi _{1}(t,x,y) = \textstyle\begin{cases} x^{ - 1}\phi (t,x,y),& y \ne 0, \\ \phi '_{y}(t,x,0),& y = 0. \end{cases} $$

2 Asymptotic analysis

Firstly, we prove a theorem on the boundedness of solutions of ODE (6) as \(t \to \infty \) by using the second method of Lyapunov. Before stating the theorem, we give the following hypotheses.

Hypotheses A

(H1)
Let\(g_{0}\)and\(h_{0}\)be positive constants such that the following conditions hold:
$$ g(0) = 0, \qquad y^{ - 1}g(y) \ge g_{0} \ge 1, \quad \forall y \ne 0 \textit{ as } y \in \Re $$
and
$$ h(0) = 0, \qquad x^{ - 1}h(x) \ge h_{0} \ge 1 > 0, \quad \forall x \ne 0 \textit{ as } x\in \Re . $$
(H2)
Let\(\alpha _{1}(t)\), \(Q(t)\), and\(\lambda (t)\)be continuous functions such that the following conditions hold:
$$\begin{aligned}& p(t) > 0, \qquad q_{1} \in C^{1}[a,\infty ),\qquad q_{1}(t) > 0, \quad \forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \\& \bigl\vert f(t,x,y) \bigr\vert \le \bigl\vert \alpha _{1}(t) \bigr\vert , \quad \forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \forall x,y \in \Re , \\& Q(t) = \frac{1}{2}\bigl[q'_{1}(t) + 2p(t)q_{1}(t)\bigr] > 0, \quad \forall \in t \in \Re ^{ +}, \\& \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds < \infty ,\qquad \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{\alpha _{1}^{2}(s)}{Q(s)} \,ds < \infty , \end{aligned}$$
and
$$ \lambda ^{2}(t) \ge 1,\quad \forall t \in [a,\infty ). $$

We now give the first theorem of this paper.

Theorem 1

We suppose that hypotheses (H1) and (H2) hold. Then, any solution of ODE (6) satisfies
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \biggl\vert \frac{dx}{dt} \biggr\vert \le O\bigl(\sqrt{q_{1}(t)} \bigr) \quad \textit{as } t \to \infty . $$

Proof

To proceed with the proof, we benefit from the Lyapunov second method. Hence, we define a Lyapunov function \(W(t) = W(x,y)\) by
$$ W(x,y) = 2 \int _{0}^{x} h(\xi)\,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}y^{2}. $$
(10)
By using the hypotheses of (H1) and \((H2)\), we obtain
$$W(x,y) = 0\quad \mbox{if and only if} \quad x = 0\quad \mbox{and}\quad y = 0. $$
Next, if we use hypothesis \((H1)\), we have
$$\begin{aligned} W(x,y) &= 2 \int _{0}^{x} \frac{h(\xi)}{\xi } \xi \,d\xi + \frac{1}{q _{1}(t)}y^{2}\ge 2 \int _{0}^{x} h_{0}\xi \,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}y ^{2} \\ &\ge 2 \int _{0}^{x} \xi \,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}y^{2} \ge x^{2} + \frac{1}{q _{1}(t)}y^{2} \ge 0. \end{aligned}$$
If we differentiate the Lyapunov function W in (10) along the solutions of system of ODEs (8) and use hypotheses (H1) and \((H2)\), we derive
$$\begin{aligned} \frac{d}{dt}W &= - \frac{q'_{1}(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y^{2} - \frac{2p(t)}{q _{1}(t)}g(y)y - \frac{2q_{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{1}(t)}yf(t,x,y) \\ &\le - \frac{q'_{1}(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y^{2} - \frac{2p(t)}{q_{1}(t)}y ^{2} - \frac{2q_{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{1}(t)}yf(t,x,y) \\ &= - \frac{2}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}\biggl[\frac{q'_{1}(t)}{2} + p(t)q_{1}(t) \biggr]y^{2}- \frac{2q _{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{1}(t)}yf(t,x,y). \end{aligned}$$
Let
$$ Q(t) = \frac{1}{2}\bigl[q'_{1}(t) + 2p(t)q_{1}(t)\bigr]. $$
Then we have
$$ \frac{dW}{dt} \le - \frac{2q_{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy - \frac{2Q(t)}{q_{1} ^{2}(t)}y^{2}+ \frac{2}{q_{1}(t)}yf(t,x,y). $$
Let \(a > 0\), \(b, x \in \Re \). We consider the inequality
$$ - ax^{2} + bx \le - \frac{a}{2}x^{2} + \frac{b^{2}}{2a}. $$
(11)
If we apply this inequality, that is, inequality (11), to the terms
$$ - \frac{2Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{2}{q_{1}(t)}yf(t,x,y), $$
then we can derive
$$ - \frac{2Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{2}{q_{1}(t)}yf(t,x,y) \le - \frac{Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{f^{2}(t,x,y)}{Q(t)}. $$
Hence, we have
$$ \begin{aligned}[b] \frac{dW}{dt} &\le - \frac{2q_{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy - \frac{Q(t)}{q_{1} ^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{f^{2}(t,x,y)}{Q(t)} \\ &\le - \frac{2q_{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy - \frac{Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{\alpha _{1}^{2}(t)}{Q(t)} \end{aligned} $$
(12)
by using hypothesis \((H2)\).
Let
$$ E(t) = - \frac{2q_{2}(t)}{q_{1}(t)}xy - \frac{Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}y ^{2}. $$
We arrange this function as follows:
$$ E(t) = - \frac{Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}\biggl[\lambda (t)y + \frac{q_{1}(t)q_{2}(t)}{ \lambda (t)Q(t)}x \biggr]^{2}+ \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)}x^{2} + \frac{Q(t)}{q_{1}^{2}(t)}\bigl(\lambda ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr)y^{2}. $$
Since the first term of \(E(t)\) is negative, it is clear that
$$ E(t) \le \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)}x^{2} + \frac{Q(t)}{q _{1}^{2}(t)}\bigl( \lambda ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr)y^{2}. $$
(13)
When we consider together inequalities (12) and (13), it follows that
$$ \frac{dW}{dt} \le \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)}x^{2} + \frac{Q(t)}{q _{1}^{2}(t)}\bigl(\lambda ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr)y^{2} + \frac{\alpha _{1}^{2}(t)}{Q(t)}. $$
(14)
Next, we assume that
$$ \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)} = \frac{Q(t)}{q{}_{1}(t)}\bigl( \lambda ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr). $$
Hence, from the last inequality, we can derive that
$$ \lambda ^{2}(t) = \frac{Q^{2}(t) + \sqrt{Q^{4}(t) + 4q_{1}(t)q_{2} ^{2}(t)Q^{2}(t)}}{2Q^{2}(t)},\quad t \in [a,\infty ). $$
From this equality, we can see that
$$ \lambda ^{2}(t) \ge 1,\quad t \in [a,\infty ). $$
Thus, we obtain
$$ E(t) \le \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)}\biggl[x^{2} + \frac{1}{q _{1}(t)}y^{2} \biggr]. $$
(15)
We observe from inequalities (14) and (15) that
$$ \frac{dW}{dt} \le \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)}\biggl[x^{2} + \frac{1}{q _{1}(t)}y^{2}\biggr] + \frac{\alpha _{1}^{2}(t)}{Q(t)}. $$
We also have
$$ x^{2} + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}y^{2} \le W(t). $$
Clearly, by the last inequality, we can derive
$$ \frac{dW}{dt} - \frac{q_{2}^{2}(t)}{\lambda ^{2}(t)Q(t)}W(t) \le \frac{ \alpha ^{2}(t)}{Q(t)}. $$
Multiplying this inequality by \(\exp ( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{ \lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds)\), we obtain
$$ \frac{d}{dt}\biggl[W(t)\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds\biggr) \biggr] \le \frac{\alpha ^{2}(t)}{Q(t)}\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds\biggr). $$
Integrating this inequality from a to t, we get
$$ W(t)\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds\biggr) - W(a) \le \int _{a}^{t} \biggl[\frac{\alpha ^{2}(s)}{Q(s)}\exp \biggl( - \int _{a} ^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(\tau )}{\lambda ^{2}(\tau )Q(\tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds. $$
Hence, it follows that
$$\begin{aligned} W(t) &\le W(a)\exp \biggl( \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds\biggr) + \int _{a}^{t} \biggl[\frac{ \alpha ^{2}(s)}{Q(s)}\exp \biggl( \int _{s}^{t} \frac{q_{2}^{2}(\tau )}{\lambda ^{2}(\tau )Q(\tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds \\ &\le W(a)\exp \biggl( \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds\biggr) + \int _{a}^{\infty } \biggl[\frac{ \alpha ^{2}(s)}{Q(s)}\exp \biggl( \int _{s}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(\tau )}{ \lambda ^{2}(\tau )Q(\tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds. \end{aligned}$$
By hypothesis \((H2)\), we know that
$$ \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{\alpha ^{2}(s)}{Q(s)} \,ds < \infty , \qquad \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds < \infty \quad \text{and}\quad \int _{s}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(\tau )}{ \lambda ^{2}(\tau )Q(\tau )} \,d\tau < \infty . $$
Hence, we can assume that
$$ \begin{aligned} &W(a)\exp \biggl( \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds\biggr)\\ &\quad {} + \int _{a}^{\infty } \biggl[\frac{\alpha ^{2}(s)}{Q(s)}\exp \biggl( \int _{s}^{ \infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(\tau )}{\lambda ^{2}(\tau )Q(\tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds = C_{0},\quad C_{0} > 0, C_{0} \in \Re . \end{aligned} $$
Now, it is observed that
$$ W(t) \le C_{0} $$
and
$$ x^{2} + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}y^{2} \le W(t) \le C_{0}. $$
Therefore, we can conclude that
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le \sqrt{C_{0}},\qquad \bigl\vert y(t) \bigr\vert \le \sqrt{C _{0}q_{1}(t)}. $$
Thus, we have
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \bigl\vert y(t) \bigr\vert \le O\bigl(\sqrt{q_{1}(t)} \bigr)\quad \text{as } t \to \infty . $$
These two inequalities complete the proof of Theorem 1. □

Example 1

In a particular case of ODE (6), we consider the following nonlinear ODE of second order:
$$ \begin{aligned}[b] &x'' + \biggl( \frac{1}{t^{10}} - \frac{6}{t}\biggr) (2x' + x'\exp \bigl( - \bigl(x'\bigr)^{2} \bigr) + t ^{12}\bigl(3 + \sin x\bigr)x - t^{\alpha } x \\ &\quad = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 + t^{2} + x^{2} + (x')^{2}}},\quad t \ge 2, \alpha < 5, \alpha \in \Re . \end{aligned} $$
(16)
Let \(y = \frac{dx}{dt}\). Then ODE (16) can be stated as the following system of ODEs:
$$ \begin{gathered} \frac{dx}{dt} = y, \\ \frac{dy}{dt} = - \biggl(\frac{1}{t^{10}} - \frac{6}{t} \biggr) \bigl(2y + y\exp \bigl( - y ^{2}\bigr)\bigr) - t^{12}(3 + \sin x)x \\ \hphantom{\frac{dy}{dt} =}{}+ t^{\alpha } x + \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 + t^{2} + x^{2} + y^{2}}},\quad t \ge 2, \alpha < 5, \alpha \in \Re . \end{gathered} $$
(17)
Let us compare system (17) with system (8). Then the existence of the following relations can be derived respectively:
$$\begin{aligned}& g(y) = 2y + y\exp \bigl( - y^{2}\bigr),\quad g(0) = 0, \\& y^{ - 1}g(y) = 2 + \exp \bigl( - y^{2}\bigr) \ge 2 = g_{0} > 1, \quad \forall y \ne 0 \text{ as } y \in \Re , \\& h(x) = (3 + \sin x)x,\quad h(0) = 0, \\& x^{ - 1}h(x) = 3 + \sin x \ge 2 = h_{0} > 1, \quad \forall x \ne 0 \text{ as } x \in \Re , \\& p(t) = \frac{1}{t^{10}} - \frac{6}{t} > 0, \quad t \ge 2, \forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \\& q_{1}(t) = t^{12} > 0,\quad t \ge 2, \qquad q_{2}(t) = - t^{\alpha },\qquad \alpha < 5,\quad \alpha \in \Re , \text{ say } \alpha = 4, \\& f(t,x,y) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 + t^{2} + x^{2} + (x')^{2}}}, \\& \bigl\vert f(t,x,y) \bigr\vert \le \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 + t^{2}}} = \alpha (t), \\& Q(t) = \frac{1}{2}\bigl[q'_{1}(t) + 2p(t)q_{1}(t)\bigr] = t^{2} > 0,\quad t \ge 2 = a, \\& \begin{aligned} \lambda ^{2}(t) &= \frac{Q^{2}(t) + \sqrt{Q^{4}(t) + 4q_{1}(t)q_{2} ^{2}(t)Q^{2}(t)}}{2Q^{2}(t)} \\ &= \frac{t^{4} + \sqrt{t^{8} + 4t^{16 + 2\alpha }}}{2t^{4}} \\ &= \frac{1 + \sqrt{1 + 4t^{8 + 2\alpha }}}{2} > 1, \end{aligned} \\& \lambda ^{2}(t) > 1,\quad t \in [2,\infty ), \\& \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{\alpha ^{2}(s)}{Q(s)} \,ds = \int _{2}^{\infty } \frac{1}{s^{2}(s^{2} + 1)} \,ds = \frac{1}{2} + \operatorname{arctg}2 - \frac{\pi }{2} < \infty , \end{aligned}$$
and
$$ \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{2}^{2}(s)}{\lambda ^{2}(s)Q(s)} \,ds = 2 \int _{2}^{\infty } \frac{t^{2\alpha }}{t^{2} + \sqrt{t^{4} + 4t^{12 + 2 \alpha }}} \,ds\le \int _{2}^{\infty } \frac{t^{2\alpha }}{t^{6 + \alpha }} \,ds = \int _{2}^{\infty } \frac{1}{t^{6 - \alpha }} \,ds < \infty . $$
It is now notable that the above discussion shows that all the hypotheses of Theorem 1, (H1) and \((H2)\), can be applicable. Therefore, all the solutions of system (17) satisfy
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \bigl\vert y(t) \bigr\vert \le O\bigl(t^{6}\bigr)\quad \text{as } t \to \infty . $$
Then we can say the same for all the solutions of ODE (16) and their first derivatives.
We can observe the behaviors of the paths of ODE (16) by Figs. 14. Example 1 has been solved with MATLAB-Simulink and the following graphs have been obtained.
Figure 1

Trajectory of \(x(t)\) for Example 1 when \(x(2)=0\) and \(y(2)=0\)

Figure 2

Trajectory of \(y(t)\) for Example 1 when \(x(2)=0\) and \(y(2)=0\)

Figure 3

Trajectory of \(x(t)\) for Example 1 when \(x(2)=0\) and \(y(2)=1\)

Figure 4

Trajectory of \(y(t)\) for Example 1 when \(x(2)=0\) and \(y(2)=1\)

Next, we prove the boundedness properties of solution of ODE (7) as \(t \to \infty \) using also the Lyapunov direct or second method. Below are the hypotheses required for the results.

Hypotheses B

(H3)
Let\(\theta _{0}\)and\(\phi _{0}\)be positive constants such that the following conditions hold:
$$ \theta (0) = 0, \qquad x^{ - 1}\theta (x) \ge \theta _{0} \ge 1\quad \textit{for all } x \ne 0 \textit{ as } x \in \Re , $$
and
$$ \phi (t,x,0) = 0, \qquad y^{ - 1}\phi (t,x,y) \ge \phi _{0} \ge 1\quad \textit{for all } t \in \Re ^{ +},y \ne 0, \textit{ as } x, y \in \Re . $$
(H4)
Let\(\beta (t)\), \(Q_{1}(t)\), and\(\mu (t)\)be functions such that the following conditions hold:
$$\begin{aligned}& \bigl\vert q(t,x,y) \bigr\vert \le \bigl\vert \beta (t) \bigr\vert \quad \textit{for } \forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \forall x,y \in \Re , \\& q_{2}(t) > 0, \quad \forall t \in \Re ^{ +},\qquad Q_{1}(t) = \frac{q'_{2}(t)}{2} + q_{2}(t), \\& \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{\beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)} \,ds < \infty , \qquad \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds < \infty , \end{aligned}$$
and
$$ \mu ^{2}(t) \ge 1,\quad \forall t \in [a,\infty ). $$

The next result of this paper is given below.

Theorem 2

Suppose that hypotheses (H3) and (H4) hold. Then any solution of ODE (7) satisfies
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \biggl\vert \frac{dx}{dt} \biggr\vert \le O\bigl(\sqrt{q_{2}(t)} \bigr) \quad \textit{as } t \to \infty . $$

Proof

We define a Lyapunov function \(W_{1}(t) = W_{1}(x,y)\) by
$$ W_{1}(x,y) = 2 \int _{0}^{x} \theta (\xi )\,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y ^{2}. $$
(18)
By the hypotheses of Theorem 2, it follows that
$$W_{1}(x,y) = 0 \quad \mbox{if and only if} \quad x = 0\quad \mbox{and} \quad y = 0. $$
In addition, by hypothesis \((H3)\), we get
$$\begin{aligned} W_{1}(x,y) &= 2 \int _{0}^{x} \frac{\theta (\xi )}{\xi } \xi \,d\xi + \frac{1}{q _{2}(t)}y^{2} \\ &\ge 2 \int _{0}^{x} \xi \,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y^{2} \\ &= x^{2} + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y^{2} \ge 0. \end{aligned}$$
Next, if we calculate the time derivative of the function \(W_{1}(x,y)\) given by (18) along solutions of system (9), we have
$$\begin{aligned} \frac{d}{dt}W_{1} &= - \frac{q'_{2}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} - \frac{2}{q _{2}(t)}\phi (t,x,y)y - 2\frac{q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y) \\ &= - \frac{q'_{2}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} - \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)} \frac{ \phi (t,x,y)}{y}y^{2} - 2\frac{q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y). \end{aligned}$$
Using hypothesis \((H3)\), we obtain
$$\begin{aligned} \frac{d}{dt}W_{1} &\le - \frac{q'_{2}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} - \frac{2}{q _{2}(t)}y^{2} - 2\frac{q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y) \\ &= - \frac{2}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}\biggl[\frac{q'_{2}(t)}{2} + q_{2}(t) \biggr]y^{2}- \frac{2q _{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy+ \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y). \end{aligned}$$
Let
$$ Q_{1}(t) = \frac{q'_{2}(t)}{2} + q_{2}(t). $$
This representation yields that
$$ \frac{dW_{1}}{dt} \le - \frac{2q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy - \frac{2Q_{1}(t)}{q _{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2}+ \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y). $$
If we consider inequality (11) and the following terms:
$$ - \frac{2Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y), $$
then we have
$$ - \frac{2Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{2}{q_{2}(t)}yq(t,x,y) \le - \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{q^{2}(t,x,y)}{Q_{1}(t)}. $$
Hence, we observe that
$$ \begin{aligned}[b] \frac{dW_{1}}{dt} &\le - \frac{2q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy - \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q _{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2} + \frac{q^{2}(t,x,y)}{Q_{1}(t)} \\ &\le - \frac{2q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy - \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y ^{2} + \frac{\beta ^{2}(t)}{Q_{1}(t)} \end{aligned} $$
(19)
by hypothesis \((H4)\).
Let
$$ E_{1}(t) = - \frac{2q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}xy - \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}y^{2}. $$
We can arrange this function as follows:
$$ E_{1}(t) = - \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}\biggl[\mu (t)y + \frac{q_{1}(t)q _{2}(t)}{\mu (t)Q_{1}(t)}x\biggr]^{2}+ \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)}x^{2} + \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2} ^{2}(t)}\bigl(\mu ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr)y^{2}. $$
Clearly, from this expression, it follows that
$$ E_{1}(t) \le \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)}x^{2} + \frac{Q _{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}\bigl(\mu ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr)y^{2}. $$
(20)
Using inequalities (19) and (20), we obtain
$$ \frac{dW_{1}}{dt} \le \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)}x^{2} + \frac{Q _{1}(t)}{q_{2}^{2}(t)}\bigl(\mu ^{2}(t) - 1\bigr)y^{2} + \frac{\beta ^{2}(t)}{Q _{1}(t)}. $$
(21)
Now, we assume that
$$ \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)} = \frac{Q_{1}(t)}{q_{2}(t)}\bigl( \mu ^{2}(t) - 1 \bigr). $$
Hence, we can derive that
$$ \mu ^{2}(t) = \frac{Q_{1}^{2}(t) + \sqrt{Q_{1}^{4}(t) + 4q_{2}(t)q _{1}^{2}(t)Q_{1}^{2}(t)}}{2Q_{1}^{2}(t)},\quad t \in [a,\infty ). $$
From this equality, we have
$$ \mu ^{2}(t) \ge 1,\quad t \in [a,\infty ). $$
Then we obtain
$$ E_{1}(t) \le \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)}\biggl[x^{2} + \frac{1}{q _{2}(t)}y^{2}\biggr]. $$
(22)
Inequalities (21) and (22) together yield that
$$ \frac{dW_{1}}{dt} \le \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)}\biggl[x^{2} + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y^{2}\biggr] + \frac{\beta ^{2}(t)}{Q_{1}(t)}. $$
Since
$$ x^{2} + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y^{2} \le W_{1}(t), $$
then
$$ \frac{dW_{1}}{dt} - \frac{q_{1}^{2}(t)}{\mu ^{2}(t)Q_{1}(t)}W_{1}(t) \le \frac{\beta ^{2}(t)}{Q_{1}(t)}. $$
Multiplying this inequality by \(\exp ( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{ \mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds)\), we obtain
$$ \frac{d}{dt}\biggl[W_{1}(t)\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds\biggr) \biggr] \le \frac{\beta ^{2}(t)}{Q_{1}(t)}\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds\biggr). $$
Integrating this inequality from a to t, we get
$$ W_{1}(t)\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds\biggr) - W_{1}(a) \le \int _{a}^{t} \biggl[\frac{\beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)}\exp \biggl( - \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(\tau )}{\mu ^{2}(\tau )Q_{1}(\tau )} \,d \tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds. $$
Hence, it follows that
$$\begin{aligned} W_{1}(t) &\le W_{1}(a)\exp \biggl( \int _{a}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q _{1}(s)} \,ds\biggr) + \int _{a}^{t} \biggl[\frac{\beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)}\exp \biggl( \int _{s}^{t} \frac{q_{1}^{2}(\tau )}{\mu ^{2}(\tau )Q_{1}(\tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds \\ &\le W_{1}(a)\exp \biggl( \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q _{1}(s)} \,ds\biggr) + \int _{a}^{\infty } \biggl[\frac{\beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)} \exp \biggl( \int _{s}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(\tau )}{\mu ^{2}(\tau )Q_{1}( \tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds. \end{aligned}$$
By hypothesis \((H4)\), we know
$$ \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{\beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)} \,ds < \infty , \qquad \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds < \infty \quad \text{and}\quad \int _{s}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(\tau )}{\mu ^{2}( \tau )Q_{1}(\tau )} \,d\tau < \infty . $$
Hence, we can assume that
$$ \begin{aligned} &W_{1}(a)\exp \biggl( \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds\biggr)\\ &\quad {} + \int _{a}^{\infty } \biggl[\frac{ \beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)}\exp \biggl( \int _{s}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}( \tau )}{\mu ^{2}(\tau )Q_{1}(\tau )} \,d\tau \biggr)\biggr] \,ds = M_{0},\quad M_{0} > 0, M_{0} \in \Re . \end{aligned} $$
Now, it is observed that
$$ W_{1}(t) \le M_{0} $$
and
$$ x^{2} + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y^{2} \le W_{1}(t) \le M_{0}. $$
Therefore, we can conclude that
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le \sqrt{M_{0}},\qquad \bigl\vert y(t) \bigr\vert \le \sqrt{M _{0}q_{2}(t)}. $$
That is, we have
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \bigl\vert y(t) \bigr\vert \le O\bigl(\sqrt{q_{2}(t)} \bigr)\quad \text{as } t \to \infty . $$
These two estimates finish the proof of Theorem 2. □

Example 2

As a particular case of ODE (7), we consider the nonlinear ODE of second order
$$ \begin{aligned}[b] &x'' + \bigl(3x' + x'\exp \bigl( - t^{2} - x^{2}\bigr) \bigr) + \bigl(6\exp (2t)\bigr)x + \exp (8t) (2x + \sin x) \\ &\quad = \frac{\sin t}{\exp (t)(1 + \exp (x^{2}))}. \end{aligned} $$
(23)
Let \(y = \frac{dx}{dt}\). Then ODE (23) can be expressed as the following system:
$$ \begin{gathered} \frac{dx}{dt} = y, \\ \frac{dy}{dt} = - (3y + y\exp \bigl( - t^{2} - x^{2}\bigr) - \bigl(6\exp (2t)\bigr)x \\ \hphantom{\frac{dy}{dt} =}{}- \exp (8t) (2x + \sin x) + \frac{\sin t}{\exp (t) (1 + \exp (x^{2}))}. \end{gathered} $$
(24)
Let us compare system (24) with system (9). It can be observed that the following relations hold respectively:
$$\begin{aligned}& \theta (x) = 2x + \sin x,\quad \theta (0) = 0, \\& \frac{\theta (x)}{x} = 2 + \frac{\sin x}{x} \ge 1 = \theta _{0}, \quad \forall x \ne 0, x \in \Re , \\& \phi (t,x,y) = 3y + y\exp \bigl( - t^{2} - x^{2}\bigr),\quad \phi (t,x,0) = 0, \\& \frac{\phi (t,x,y)}{y} = 3 + \exp \bigl( - t^{2} - x^{2} \bigr) \ge 3 = \phi _{0} > 1, \quad \forall t \in \Re ^{ +},\forall y \ne 0\text{ as } x,y \in \Re , \\& q_{1}(t) = 6\exp (2t), \qquad q_{2}(t) = \exp (8t),\quad \forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \\& q(t,x,y) = \frac{\sin t}{\exp (t)(1 + \exp (x^{2}))},\qquad \bigl\vert q(t,x,y) \bigr\vert \le \frac{1}{\exp (t)} = \beta (t), \\& Q_{1}(t) = \frac{q'_{2}(t)}{2} + 2q_{2}(t) = 6\exp (8t) > 0,\quad \forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \\& \begin{aligned} \mu ^{2}(t) &= \frac{Q_{1}^{2}(t) + \sqrt{Q_{1}^{4}(t) + 4q_{2}(t)q _{1}^{2}(t)Q_{1}^{2}(t)}}{2Q_{1}^{2}(t)} \\ &= \frac{36\exp (16t) + \sqrt{(36)^{2}\exp (32t) + 4(36)^{2}\exp (28t)}}{72\exp (16t)} \\ &= \frac{1 + \sqrt{1 + 4\exp ( - 8t)}}{2} > 1, \quad \mu ^{2}(t) \ge 1,\forall t \in \Re ^{ +}, \end{aligned} \\& \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{\beta ^{2}(s)}{Q_{1}(s)} \,ds = \frac{1}{6} \int _{0}^{\infty } \frac{1}{\exp (10s)} \,ds = \frac{1}{60} < \infty , \end{aligned}$$
and
$$ \int _{a}^{\infty } \frac{q_{1}^{2}(s)}{\mu ^{2}(s)Q_{1}(s)} \,ds \le 6 \int _{0}^{\infty } \frac{1}{\exp (2s)} \,ds = 3 < \infty . $$
It is now notable that the discussion given shows that all the hypotheses of Theorem 2, (H3) and \((H4)\), can be applied and hold. Thus, all the solutions of system (24) satisfy
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \bigl\vert y(t) \bigr\vert \le O\bigl(\sqrt{6} \exp (t)\bigr)\quad \text{as } t \to \infty . $$
Therefore, all the solutions of ODE (23) and their first derivatives satisfy the inequalities
$$ \bigl\vert x(t) \bigr\vert \le O(1), \qquad \bigl\vert x'(t) \bigr\vert \le O\bigl(\sqrt{6} \exp (t)\bigr)\quad \text{as } t \to \infty . $$
The results above as \(t \to \infty \) can be seen as shown in Figs. 5 and 6. Example 2 has been solved using MATLAB-Simulink and the following graphs have been obtained.
Figure 5

Trajectories of \(x(t)\) for Example 2 when \(x(0)=-1\), \(x(0)=1\) and \(x(0)=0.5\)

Figure 6

Trajectories of \(y(t)\) for Example 2 when \(y(0)=0\), \(y(0)=1\) and \(y(0)=-1\)

3 Discussion

Let us compare the results of this paper, Theorem 1 and Theorem 2, with those of Meng [15] and Sun and Meng [23], respectively.
(10)

We observe that our equations ODEs (6) and (7) generalize and improve ODEs (1)–(4) from the linear ODEs to the nonlinear ODEs. Next, ODEs (6) and (7) also generalize and improve ODE (5) for the case as \(r(t) = 1\).

(20)
The Lyapunov function
$$ V(t) = F(t)\biggl[x^{2}(t) + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}\biggl( \frac{dx}{dt}\biggr)^{2}\biggr] $$
was employed by Meng [15]. This Lyapunov function includes the function F but this function is not involved in ODE (4). However, in this paper, as a basic tool, we constructed two new Lyapunov functions as follows:
$$ W(x,y) = 2 \int _{0}^{x} h(\xi)\,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{1}(t)}y^{2} $$
and
$$ W_{1}(x,y) = 2 \int _{0}^{x} \theta (\xi )\,d\xi + \frac{1}{q_{2}(t)}y ^{2}. $$
These Lyapunov functions depend only on the functions appearing in ODEs (6) and (7), respectively, but they do not depend on the function F. Hence, we obtain the results of Meng [15] and Sun and Meng [23] under less restrictive conditions by using these two Lyapunov functions. In the proofs of Theorem 1 and Theorem 2, we did not need the conditions
$$ F(t) > 0, \qquad \frac{d}{dt}F(t) \ge 0. $$

In addition, the functions \(Q(t)\), \(\lambda (t)\) and \(Q_{1}(t)\), \(\mu (t)\) in Theorem 1 and Theorem 2, respectively, have very simple forms compared to the functions \(Q(t)\), \(\lambda (t)\) used in Meng [15, Theorem 1]. Moreover, the integrability conditions in Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 have much simpler forms than those used in Meng [15, Theorem 1].

(30)

Let \(r(t) = 1\) in ODE (5). We can observe that the conditions of Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 are less restrictive than those of Sun and Meng [23, Theorem 2]. Hence, we obtain the results of Sun and Meng [23] under weaker conditions.

Thus, the results of this paper improve and include the results of [23].

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors of the paper are thankful to the editorial board and the anonymous reviewer whose comments improved the quality of the paper.

Availability of data and materials

All of the authors declare that there is no data for the numerical simulation section.

Authors’ contributions

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This research was not supported by any project.

Competing interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Ademola, A.T.: Boundedness and stability of solutions to certain second order differential equations. Differ. Equ. Control Process. 3, 38–50 (2015) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad, S., Rama Mohana Rao, M.: Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. With Applications in Biology and Engineering. Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (1999) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alaba, J.G., Ogundare, B.S.: On stability and boundedness properties of solutions of certain second order non-autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Kragujev. J. Math. 39(2), 255–266 (2015) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Awrejcewicz, J.: Ordinary Differential Equations and Mechanical Systems. Springer, Cham (2014) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baliki, A., Benchohra, M., Graef, J.R.: Global existence and stability for second order functional evolution equations with infinite delay. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2016, Paper No. 23, 10 pp. (2016) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burton, T.A.: Stability and Periodic Solutions of Ordinary and Functional Differential Equations. Academic Press, Orlando (1985) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chicone, C.: Ordinary Differential Equations with Applications. Texts in Applied Mathematics, vol. 34. Springer, New York (1999) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de la Sen, M.: Lyapunov stability and adaptive regulation of a class of nonlinear nonautonomous second-order differential equations. Nonlinear Dyn. 28(3–4), 261–272 (2002) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feng, Z., Chen, G., Hsu, S.-B.: A qualitative study of the damped Duffing equation and applications. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. B 6(5), 1097–1112 (2006) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hsu, S.-B.: Ordinary Differential Equations with Applications, 2nd edn. Series on Applied Mathematics, vol. 21. World Scientific, Hackensack (2013) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang, W.Z., Zhang, C.Y.: Qualitative analysis for a class of nonlinear differential equations. J. Syst. Sci. Math. Sci. 16(2), 172–180 (1996) (Chinese) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jordan, D.W., Smith, P.: Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations: Problems and Solutions. A Sourcebook for Scientists and Engineers. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2007) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Korkmaz, E., Tunç, C.: Convergence to non-autonomous differential equations of second order. J. Egypt. Math. Soc. 23(1), 27–30 (2015) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krasovskii, N.N.: Stability of Motion. Applications of Lyapunov’s Second Method to Differential Systems and Equations with Delay. Stanford University Press, Stanford (1963) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meng, F.W.: Quadratic integrability and boundedness of solutions to second-order inhomogeneous linear differential equations. J. Syst. Sci. Math. Sci. 15(1), 50–57 (1995) (Chinese) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mustafa, O.G., Tunç, C.: Asymptotically linear solutions of differential equations via Lyapunov functions. Appl. Math. Comput. 215(8), 3076–3081 (2009) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Napoles Valdes, J.E.: Boundedness and global asymptotic stability of the forced Lienard equation. Rev. Unión Mat. Argent. 41(4), 47–59 (2000) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Qarawani, M.N.: Boundedness and asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a second order nonlinear differential equation. J. Math. Res. 4(3), 121–127 (2012) MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reissig, R., Sansone, G., Conti, R.: Non-linear Differential Equations of Higher Order. Noordhoff, Leyden (1974). Translated from the German zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Remili, M.: Oscillation criteria for second order nonlinear perturbed differential equations. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2010, No. 25, 11 pp. (2010) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sideris, T.C.: Ordinary Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems. Atlantis Studies in Differential Equations, vol. 2. Atlantis Press, Paris (2013) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith, H.: An Introduction to Delay Differential Equations with Applications to the Life Sciences. Texts in Applied Mathematics, vol. 57. Springer, New York (2011) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sun, Y., Meng, F.: Quadratic integrability and boundedness for the solutions of second order nonlinear differential equations. Ann. Differ. Equ. 18(1), 58–64 (2002) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tunç, C.: Some new stability and boundedness results on the solutions of the nonlinear vector differential equations of second order. Iran. J. Sci. Technol., Trans. A, Sci. 30(2), 213–221 (2006) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tunç, C.: A new boundedness theorem for a class of second order differential equations. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. AJSE Math. 33(1), 83–92 (2008) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tunç, C.: Some stability and boundedness results to nonlinear differential equations of Lienard type with finite delay. J. Comput. Anal. Appl. 11(4), 711–727 (2009) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tunç, C.: Some new stability and boundedness results of solutions of Lienard type equations with a deviating argument. Nonlinear Anal. Hybrid Syst. 4(1), 85–91 (2010) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tunç, C.: A note on boundedness of solutions to a class of non-autonomous differential equations of second order. Appl. Anal. Discrete Math. 4(2), 361–372 (2010) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tunç, C.: New stability and boundedness results of Lienard type equations with multiple deviating arguments. Izv. Nats. Akad. Nauk Armenii Mat. 45(4), 47–56 (2010) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tunç, C.: Boundedness results for solutions of certain nonlinear differential equations of second order. J. Indones. Math. Soc. 16(2), 115–128 (2010) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tunç, C.: On the boundedness of solutions of a non-autonomous differential equation of second order. Sarajevo J. Math. 7(19), 19–29 (2011) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tunç, C.: Stability, boundedness and uniform boundedness of solutions of nonlinear delay differential equations. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 2011, Dynamical systems, differential equations and applications. 8th AIMS Conference, Suppl. vol. II, 1395–1403 (2011) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tunç, C.: Stability and boundedness of solutions of non-autonomous differential equations of second order. J. Comput. Anal. Appl. 13(6), 1067–1074 (2011) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tunç, C.: A note on the bounded solutions to \(x'' + c(t,x,x') + q(t)b(x) = f(t)\). Appl. Math. Inf. Sci. 8(1), 393–399 (2014) MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tunç, C.: On the qualitative behaviors of a functional differential equation of second order. Appl. Appl. Math. 12(2), 813–2842 (2017) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tunç, C.: On the properties of solutions for a system of non-linear differential equations of second order. Int. J. Math. Comput. Sci. 14(2), 519–534 (2019) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tunç, C., Çinar, I.: On the existence of periodic solutions to nonlinear differential equations of second order. Differ. Equ. Control Process. 3, 20–25 (2008) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tunç, C., Dinç, Y.: Qualitative properties of certain non-linear differential systems of second order. J. Taibah Univ. Sci. 11(2), 359–366 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tunç, C., Erdur, S.: New qualitative results for solutions of functional differential equations of second order. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2018, Art. ID 3151742, 13 pp. (2018) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tunç, C., Şevli, H.: Stability and boundedness properties of certain second-order differential equations. J. Franklin Inst. 344(5), 399–405 (2007) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tunç, C., Tunç, E.: On the asymptotic behavior of solutions of certain second-order differential equations. J. Franklin Inst. 344(5), 391–398 (2007) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tunç, C., Tunç, O.: A note on certain qualitative properties of a second order linear differential system. Appl. Math. Inf. Sci. 9(2), 953–956 (2015) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tunç, C., Tunç, O.: On the boundedness and integration of non-oscillatory solutions of certain linear differential equations of second order. J. Adv. Res. 7(1), 165–168 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tunç, C., Tunç, O.: A note on the stability and boundedness of solutions to non-linear differential systems of second order. J. Assoc. Arab Univ. Basic Appl. Sci. 24, 169–175 (2017) Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tunç, C., Tunç, O.: Qualitative analysis for a variable delay system of differential equations of second order. J. Taibah Univ. Sci. 13(1), 468–477 (2019) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tunç, O., Tunç, C.: On the asymptotic stability of solutions of stochastic differential delay equations of second order. J. Taibah Univ. Sci. 13(1), 875–882 (2019) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tunç, C., Yazgan, R.: Existence of periodic solutions to multidelay functional differential equations of second order. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2013, Article ID 968541, 5 pp. (2013) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wu, C., Hao, S., Xu, C.: Global existence and boundedness of solutions to a second-order nonlinear differential system. J. Appl. Math. 2012, Article ID 603783, 12 pp. (2012) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ye, G.R., Ding, H.S., Wu, X.L.: Uniform boundedness of solutions for a class of Liénard equations. Electron. J. Differ. Equ. 2009, 97, 5 pp. (2009) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yin, Z.: Global existence and boundedness of solutions to a second order nonlinear differential system. Studia Sci. Math. Hung. 41(4), 365–378 (2004) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yoshizawa, T.: Stability Theory by Liapunov’s Second Method. The Mathematical Society of Japan, Tokyo (1966) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhang, B.: Boundedness and stability of solutions of the retarded Lienard equation with negative damping. Nonlinear Anal. 20(3), 303–313 (1993) MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhao, L.: On global asymptotic stability for a class of second order differential equations. Adv. Math. 35(3), 378–384 (2006) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhou, Z.F., Jiang, W.: Stability and boundedness of retarded Lienard-type equation. Chin. Q. J. Math. 18(1), 7–12 (2003) MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics, Faculty of SciencesVan Yuzuncu Yil UniversityVanTurkey
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsCollege of Basic EducationDuhokIraq

Personalised recommendations