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Using weaker consistency models with monitoring and recovery for improving performance of key-value stores

  • Duong NguyenEmail author
  • Aleksey Charapko
  • Sandeep S. Kulkarni
  • Murat Demirbas
Open Access
Research
  • 134 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. LADC 2018

Abstract

Consistency properties provided by most key-value stores can be classified into sequential consistency and eventual consistency. The former is easier to program with but suffers from lower performance whereas the latter suffers from potential anomalies while providing higher performance. We focus on the problem of what a designer should do if he/she has an algorithm that works correctly with sequential consistency but is faced with an underlying key-value store that provides a weaker (e.g., eventual or causal) consistency. We propose a detect-rollback based approach: The designer identifies a correctness predicate, say P, and continues to run the protocol, as our system monitors P. If P is violated (because the underlying key-value store provides a weaker consistency), the system rolls back and resumes the computation at a state where P holds.We evaluate this approach with graph-based applications running on the Voldemort key-value store. Our experiments with deployment on Amazon AWS EC2 instances show that using eventual consistency with monitoring can provide a 50–80% increase in throughput when compared with sequential consistency. We also observe that the overhead of the monitoring itself was low (typically less than 4%) and the latency of detecting violations was small. In particular, in a scenario designed to intentionally cause a large number of violations, more than 99.9% of violations were detected in less than 50 ms in regional networks (all clients and servers in the same Amazon AWS region) and in less than 3 s in global networks.We find that for some applications, frequent rollback can cause the program using eventual consistency to effectively stall. We propose alternate mechanisms for dealing with re-occurring rollbacks. Overall, for applications considered in this paper, we find that even with rollback, eventual consistency provides better performance than using sequential consistency.

Keywords

Predicate detection Distributed debugging Distributed monitoring Distributed snapshot Distributed key-value stores Rollback 

Abbreviations

AWS

Amazon Web Service

CAP

CAP theorem, also known as BrewerŠs theorem where C stands for Consistency, A for Availability, and P for Partition tolerance

CPU

Central processing unit

EC2

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

GP2

Amazon General Purpose SSD storage volume

HDFS

Hadoop Distributed File System

HLC

Hybrid Logical Clock

HVC

Hybrid vector clock

I/O

input/output

JBCS

Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society

LADC

Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing

ms

The time unit millisecond

NP in NP-complete and NP-hard

Non-deterministic polynomial time

ops

Operations per second

P

We often denote a predicate as P in this manuscript (this is not an abbreviation)

PC

Personal computer

PT

Physical time

RAM

Random access memory

s

The time unit second

TAO

Facebook’s The Associations and Objects distributed data store

VC

Vector clock

VLS

Virtual lightweight snapshots

XML

Extensible Markup Language

Introduction

Distributed key-value data stores have gained increasing popularity due to their simple data model and high performance [1]. A distributed key-value data store, according to CAP theorem [2, 3], cannot simultaneously achieve sequential consistency and availability while tolerating network partitions. Since fault tolerance, especially the provision of an acceptable level of service in the presence of node or channel failures, is a critical dependability requirement of any system, network partition tolerance is a necessity. Hence, it is inevitable to make trade-offs between availability and consistency, resulting in a spectrum of weaker consistency models such as causal consistency and eventual consistency [1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].

Weaker consistency models are attractive because they have the potential to provide higher throughput and higher customer satisfaction. On the other hand, weaker consistency models suffer from data conflicts. Although such data conflicts are infrequent [1], such incidences will affect the correctness of the computation and invalidate subsequent results.

Furthermore, developing algorithms for the sequential consistency model is easier than developing those for weaker consistency models. Moreover, since the sequential consistency model is more natural, the designer may already have access to an algorithm that is correct only under sequential consistency. Thus, in this case, the question for the designer is what to do if the underlying system provides a weaker consistency or if the underlying system provides better performance under weaker consistency models?

As an illustration of such a scenario, consider a distributed computation that relies on a key-value store to arrange exclusive access to a critical resource for the clients. If the key-value store employs sequential consistency and the clients use Peterson’s algorithm, mutual exclusion is guaranteed [10], but the performance would be impeded due to the strict requirement of sequential consistency. If eventual consistency is adopted, then mutual exclusion is violated.

In this case, the designer has two options: (1) either develop a brand new algorithm that works under eventual consistency or (2) run the algorithm by pretending that the underlying system satisfies sequential consistency but monitor it to detect violations of the mutual exclusion requirement. In case of the first option, we potentially need to develop a new algorithm for every consistency model used in practice, whereas in case of the second option, the underlying consistency model is irrelevant although we may need to rollback the system to an earlier state if a violation is found. While the rollback in general distributed systems is a challenging task, existing approaches have provided rollback mechanisms for key-value stores with low overhead [11]. Moreover, it is possible to develop efficient application-specific rollback algorithms by exploiting the properties of applications.

The predicate P to monitor depends on the application. For the mutual exclusion application we alluded to above, P might be exclusive access to the shared resource. As another example, consider the following. For many distributed graph processing applications, the clients process a given set of graph nodes. Since the state of a node depends on its neighbors, the clients need to coordinate to avoid updating two neighboring nodes simultaneously; otherwise, they may read inconsistent information. In this case, predicate P is the conjunction of smaller predicates and each smaller predicate proscribes the concurrent access to one pair of neighboring graph nodes (note that pairs of neighboring nodes belonging to the same client do not need monitoring). We note that in a general problem, a smaller predicate may involve any number of processes. The application will continue executing as long as predicate P is true. If P is violated, the system will be rolled back to an earlier correct state from where subsequent execution will resume (cf. Fig. 1).
Fig. 1

The detect-rollback approach: when the predicate of interest is violated, system state is restored to the most recent consistent snapshot and the computation resumes from there

We require that the monitoring module is non-intrusive, i.e., it allows the underlying system to execute unimpeded. To evaluate the effectiveness of the monitors, we need to identify three parameters: (1) the benefit of using the monitors instead of relying on sequential consistency, (2) the overhead of the monitors, i.e., how the performance is affected when we introduce the monitoring module, and (3) detection latency of the monitors, i.e., how long the monitors take to detect violation of P. (Note that since the monitoring module is non-intrusive, it cannot prevent violation of P.)

Contributions of the paper. We implement the monitors for linear and semilinear predicates based on the algorithms in [12, 13, 14] and develop a rollback algorithm for some graph-based applications. We integrate our prototype into LinkedIn’s Voldemort key-value store and run experiments on Amazon AWS network. Besides Amazon AWS network, we also run experiments on our local lab network where we can control network condition such as network latency. We evaluate our approach by running graph-based applications motivated by the task of Social Media Analysis on social graphs and Weather Monitoring on planar graphs. The source code and experiment results are available at [15]. The observations from the experiments are as follows:
  • On Amazon AWS network, we run both sequential consistency without the monitors and eventual consistency with the monitors. We observe that—even with the overhead of the monitors–eventual consistency achieves a higher throughput than sequential consistency does. Specifically, the aggregate client throughput was improved by 50–80% when running Social Media Analysis motivated applications and by 37% on Weather Monitoring motivated applications. Furthermore, in those experiments, we find that violation of mutual exclusion is not frequent. For example, on Social Media Analysis, a violation occurred every 4500 s on average and was detected within 3 s.

  • We also evaluate the overhead of the monitoring module if it is intended solely for debugging or runtime monitoring. We find that when the monitors were used with sequential consistency, the overhead was at most 8%. And, for eventual consistency, the overhead was less than 4%.

  • We design test cases with a large number of violations to stress the monitors. In those test cases, more than 99.9% of violations were detected within 50 ms for Amazon AWS regional network (all machines in the same region) and within 3 s for the global network (machines in multiple regions).

  • To evaluate the final benefit the applications can achieve after accounting for the cost of the monitors and rollback, we run graph-based applications with our rollback algorithm on the local lab network. We observe the final benefit varies depending on the properties of applications. Specifically, on non-terminating applications such as Weather Monitoring, the progress of the application running on eventual consistency with monitors and rollback was 45–47% faster than running on sequential consistency. On the other hand, on terminating applications such as Social Media Analysis, the final application progress benefit was 10–20%. One of the reasons for the reduced benefit in terminating applications is that at the end of terminating execution, there are a few nodes to be processed; thus, the chance of conflicts and recurring violations is increased during this time. In fact, if the application keeps using eventual consistency, the computation may stall due to repeated rollbacks (livelocks). We use some strategies such as backoff and adaptive consistency to handle the livelock issue. We also observe that terminating applications using our approach progressed 16–28% faster than using sequential consistency during the first 90 % of the work and 10–20% faster overall (because it has to switch from eventual consistency to sequential consistency during the end of the execution).

To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to experimentally quantify and analyze the benefits of eventual consistency with monitoring and rollback (compared to sequential consistency) on key-value stores. We also propose an efficient rollback algorithm for graph-based applications. Our results suggest that several correctness-sensitive applications are able to take advantage of weaker consistency models from the underlying data store to improve their performance while still preserving the correctness/safety properties. This opens an alternate design option and gives more flexibility to the application designer.

Organization of the paper: The “System architecture” section describes the architecture of the key-value store used in this paper. In “The problem of predicate detection in distributed systems” section, we define the notion of causality and identify how the uncertainty of event ordering in distributed systems affects the problem of predicate detection. The “A framework for optimistic execution” section describes the overall architecture of the system using monitors. The “Monitoring module” section explains the design of the predicate detection module used in this paper. In the “Rollback from violations” section, we discuss rollback approaches when a violation is detected and develop a rollback algorithm for some graph-based applications. The “Evaluation results and discussion” section presents experimental results and discussion. The “Related work” section compares our paper with related work and we conclude the paper in the “Conclusion” section.

System architecture

Distributed key-value store

We utilize the standard architecture for key-value stores. Specifically, the data consists of (one or more) tables with two fields, a unique key and the corresponding value. The field value consists of a list of <version,value> pairs. A version is a vector clock that describes the origin of the associated value. It is possible that a key has multiple versions when different clients issue PUT (write) requests for that key independently. When a client issues a GET (read) request for a key, all existing versions of that key will be returned. The client could resolve multiple versions for the same key on its own or use the resolver function provided from the library. To provide efficient access to this table, it is divided into multiple partitions. Furthermore, to provide redundancy and ease of access, the table is replicated across multiple replicas.

To access the entries in this table, the client utilizes two operations, GET and PUT. The operation GET(x) provides the client with the value (or values if multiple versions exist) associated with key x. The operation PUT(x,val) changes the value associated with key x to val. The state of the servers can be changed only by PUT requests from clients.

Voldemort key store

Voldemort is LinkedIn’s open source equivalence of Amazon’s Dynamo key-value store. In Voldemort, clients are responsible for handling replication. When connecting to a server for the first time, a client receives meta-data from the server. The meta-data contains the list of servers and their addresses, the replication factor (N), required reads (R), required writes (W), and other configuration information.

When a client wants to perform a PUT (or GET) operation, it sends PUT (GET) requests to N servers and waits for the responses for a predefined amount of time (timeout). If at least W (R) acknowledgments (responses) are received before the timeout, the PUT (GET) operation is considered successful. If not, the client performs one more round of requests to other servers to get the necessary number of acknowledgments (responses). After the second round, if still less than W (R) replies are received, the PUT (GET) operation is considered unsuccessful.

Since the clients do the task of replication, the values N, R, W specified in the meta-data is only a suggestion. The clients can change those values for their needs. By adjusting the value of W, R, and N, the client can tune the consistency model. For example, if W+R>N and \(W > \frac {N}{2}\) for every client, then they run on sequential consistency. On the other hand, if W+RN then they have eventual consistency.

The problem of predicate detection in distributed systems

Each process execution in a distributed system results in changing its local state, sending messages to other processes or receiving messages from other processes. In turn, this creates a partial order among local states of the processes in distributed systems. This partial order, the happened-before relation [16], is defined as follows:

Given two local states a and b, we say that a happened before b (denoted as ab) if and only if
  • a and b are local states of the same process and a occurred before b,

  • There exists a message m such that a occurred before sending message m and b occurred after receiving message m, or

  • There exists a state c such that ac and cb.

We say that states a and b are concurrent (denoted as ab) if and only if ¬(ab) ∧ ¬(ba)

The goal of a predicate detection algorithm is to ensure that the predicate of interest P is always satisfied during the execution of the distributed system. In other words, we want monitors to notify us of cases where predicate P is violated.

To detect whether the given predicate P is violated, we utilize the notion of possibility modality [17, 18]. In particular, the goal is to find a set of local states e1,e2,..en such that
  • One local state is chosen from every process,

  • All chosen states are pairwise concurrent.

  • The predicate ¬P is true in the global state 〈e1,e2,⋯,en

Vector clocks and hybrid vector clocks

To determine whether state a happened before state b, we can utilize vector clocks or hybrid vector clocks. Vector clocks, defined by Fidge and Mattern [19, 20], are designed for asynchronous distributed systems that make no assumption about underlying speed of processes or about message delivery. Hybrid vector clocks [21] are designed for systems where clocks of processes are synchronized within a given synchronization error (denoted as parameter ε in this paper). While the size of vector clocks is always n, the number of processes in the system, hybrid vector clocks have the potential to reduce the size to less than n.

Our predicate detection module can work with either of these clocks. For simplicity, we recall hybrid vector clocks (HVC) below.

Every process maintains its own HVC. HVC at process i, denoted as HVCi, is a vector with n elements such that HVCi[j] is the most recent information process i knows about the physical clock of process j. HVCi[i]=PTi, the physical time at process i. Other elements HVCi[j],ji is learned through the communication between processes. When process i sends a message, it updates its HVC as follows: HVCi[i]=PTi, HVCi[j]=max(HVCi[j],PTiε) for ji. Then HVCi is piggy-backed with the outgoing message. Upon reception of a message msg, process i will use the piggy-backed hybrid vector clock HVCmsg to update its HVC: HVCi[i]=PTi, HVCi[j]=max(HVCmsg[j],PTiε) for ji.

Hybrid vector clocks are vectors and can be compared as usual. Given two hybrid vector clock HVCi and HVCj, we say HVCi is smaller than HVCj, denoted as HVCi<HVCj, if and only if HVCi[k]≤HVCj[k]∀k and ∃l:HVCi[l]<HVCj[l]. If ¬(HVCi<HVCj)∧¬(HVCj<HVCi), then the two hybrid vector clocks are concurrent, denoted as HVCi||HVCj.

If we set ε=, then hybrid vector clocks have the same properties as vector clocks. If ε is finite, certain entries in HVCi can have the default value PTiε and their representation can be compressed. For example, if n=10,ε=20, a hybrid vector clock HVC0=[100,80,80,95,80,80,100,80,80,80] could be represented by n(10) bits 10010010001 and a list of three integers 100, 95, and 100, instead of a list of ten integers.

We use HVC in our implementation to facilitate its use when the number of processes is very large. However, in the experimental results, we ignore this optimization and treat as if ε is .

Different types of predicate involved in predicate detection

In the most general form, predicate P is an arbitrary boolean function on the global state and the problem of detecting ¬P is NP-complete [14]. However, for some classes of predicates such as linear predicates, semilinear predicates, and bounded sum predicates, there exist efficient detection algorithms [12, 13, 14]. In this paper, we adapt these algorithms for monitoring applications running on key-value stores. Since the correctness of our algorithms follows from the existing algorithms, we omit the detailed discussion of the algorithms and focus on their effectiveness in key-value stores.

A framework for optimistic execution

The overall framework for optimistic execution in key-value store (i.e., running eventual consistency with monitors and rollback) is as shown in Fig. 2. In addition to the actual system execution in the key-value store, we include local detectors for every server (cf. Fig. 3). These local detectors provide information to the monitors. Note that the desired predicate P can be a conjunction of several smaller predicates and the monitors are designed to ensure that each smaller predicate, says Pi (which involves one or more processes), continues to be true during the execution. In other words, the monitors are checking if a consistent snapshot where ¬Pi is true (thus ¬P is true) exists.
Fig. 2

An overall framework for optimistic execution in key-value store

Fig. 3

Architecture of predicate detection module

When the monitors detect violation of the desired property P, they notify the rollback module. The monitors also identify a safe estimate of the start time Tviolate at which the violation occurred, based on the timestamps of local states they received.

If the violation of predicate P is rare and the overall system execution is short, we could simply restart the computation from the beginning.

If the system computation is long, we can take periodic snapshots. Hence, when a violation is found, the rollback module notifies all clients and servers to stop the subsequent computation until the restoration to a checkpoint before Tviolate is complete. The exact length of intervals between the periodic snapshots would depend upon the cost of taking the snapshot and the probability of violating predicate P in the intervals between snapshots.

In case the violations are frequent, feedbacks from the monitor can help the clients to adjust accordingly. For example, if Voldemort clients are running in eventual consistency and find that their computations are restored too frequently, they can switch to sequential consistency by tuning the value of R and W without the involvement of the servers (recall that in the Voldemort key-value store, the clients are responsible for replication).

Alternatively, we can utilize approach such as Retroscope [11]. Retroscope allows us to dynamically create a consistent snapshot that was valid just before Tviolate if Tviolate is within its window log. This is possible if the predicate detection module is effective enough to detect the violation promptly. In [11], it authors have shown that it is possible to enable rollback for up to 10 min while keeping the size of logs manageable.

The approach in Retroscope can be further optimized by identifying the cause of the rollback. For instance, recall the example from the Introduction that considers a graph application and requires that two clients do not operate on neighboring nodes simultaneously. Suppose a violation is detected due to clients C1 and C2 operating on neighboring nodes V1 and V2. In this case, we need to rollback C1 and C2 to states before they operated on V1 and V2. However, clients that do not depend upon the inconsistent values of nodes V1 and V2 need not be rolled back. Hence, unnecessary rollback can be avoided.

Monitoring module

The monitoring module is responsible for monitoring and detecting violation of the global predicate of interest in a distributed system. The structure of the module is as shown in Fig. 3. It consists of local predicate detectors attached to each server and the monitors independent of the servers. The local predicate detector caches the state of its host server and sends information to the monitors. This is achieved by intercepting the PUT requests for variables that may affect the predicate being monitored. The monitors run predicate detection algorithm based on the information received to determine if the global predicate of interest P has been violated.

We anticipate that the predicate of interest P is a conjunction of all constraints that should be satisfied during the execution. In other words, P is of the form P1P2∧⋯Pl where each Pi is a constraint (involving one or more processes) that the program is expected to satisfy. Each Pi can be of different types (such as linear or semilinear). The job of the monitoring module is to identify an instance where P is violated, i.e., to determine if there is a consistent cut where ¬P1∨¬P2∨⋯¬Pl is true. In order to monitor multiple predicates, the designer can have multiple monitors with one monitor for each predicate Pi or one monitor for all predicates Pis. In the former case, the detection latency is small but the overheads can be unaffordable when the number of predicates is large since we need many monitor processes. In the latter case, the overhead is small but the detection latency is long. We adopt a compromise: our monitoring module consists of multiple monitors and each monitor is responsible for multiple predicates. The predicates are assigned to the monitors based on the hash of the predicate names in order to balance the monitors’ workload.

The number of monitors equals the number of servers and the monitors are distributed among the machines running the servers. We have done so to ensure that the cost of the monitors is accounted for in experimental results while avoiding overloading a single machine. An alternative approach is to have monitors on a different machine. In this case, the trade-off is between CPU cycles used by the monitors (when monitors are co-located with servers) and communication cost (when monitors are on a different machine). Our experiments suggest that in the latter approach (monitors on a different machine) monitoring is more efficient. However, since there is no effective way to compute the increased cost (of machines in terms of money), we report results where monitors are on the same machines as the servers.

Each (smaller) predicate Pi is a Boolean formula on the states of some variables. Since any Boolean formula can be converted to a disjunctive normal form, users can provide the predicates being detected (¬Pis) in disjunctive normal form. We use the XML format to represent the predicate. For example, the semilinear predicate, says ¬P1≡(x1=1∧y1=1)∨z2=1, in XML format is shown in Fig. 4. Observe that this XML format also identifies the type of the predicate (linear, semi-linear, etc.) so that the monitor can decide the algorithm to be used for detection.
Fig. 4

XML specification for ¬P≡(x1=1∧y1=1)∨z2=1

Implementation of local predicate detectors. Upon the execution of a PUT request, the server calls the interface function localPredicateDetector which examines the state change and sends a message (also known as a candidate) to one or more monitors if appropriate. Note that not all state changes cause the localPredicateDetector to send candidates to the monitors. The most common example of this is when the changed variable is not relevant to the predicates being detected. Other examples depend upon the type of predicate being detected. As an illustration, if predicate ¬P is of the form x1x2, then we only need to worry about the case where xi changes from false to true.

A candidate sent to the monitor of predicate Pi consists of an HVC interval and a partial copy of the server local state containing variables relevant to Pi. The HVC interval is the time interval on the server when Pi is violated, and the local state has the values of variables which make ¬Pi true.

For example, assume the global predicate of interest to be detected is ¬P≡¬P1∨¬P2⋯∨¬Pm where each ¬Pj is a smaller global predicate. Assume that monitor Mj is responsible for detection of predicate ¬Pj. Consider a smaller predicate, says ¬P2, and for the sake of the example, assume that it is a conjunctive predicate, i.e., \(\neg P_{2} \equiv \left (\neg LP_{2}^{1}\right) \wedge \left (\neg LP_{2}^{2}\right) \wedge... \left (\neg LP_{2}^{n}\right)\) where n is the number of servers. We want to detect when ¬P2 becomes true. On a server, say server i, the local predicate detector will monitor the corresponding local predicate \(\neg LP_{2}^{i}\) (or ¬LP2 for short, in the context of server i as shown in Fig. 5). Since ¬P2 is true only when all constituent local predicates are true, server i only has to send candidates for the time interval when ¬LP2 is true. In Fig. 5, upon the first PUT request, no candidate is sent to monitor M2 because ¬LP2 is false during interval \(\left [HVC_{i}^{0}, HVC_{i}^{1}\right ]\). After serving the first PUT request, the new local state makes ¬LP2 true, starting from the time \(HVC_{i}^{2}\). Therefore, upon the second PUT request, a candidate is sent to monitor M2 because ¬LP2 is true during the interval \(\left [HVC_{i}^{2}, HVC_{i}^{3}\right ]\). This candidate transmission is independent of whether ¬LP2 is true or not after the second PUT request is served. It depends on whether ¬LP2 is true after execution of the previous PUT request. That is why, upon the second PUT request, a candidate is also sent to monitor M3, but none is sent to M1. However, if the predicate is not a linear predicate, then upon a PUT request for a relevant variable, the local predicate detector has to send a candidate to the associated monitor anyway.
Fig. 5

Illustration of candidates sent from a server to monitors corresponding to three conjunctive predicates. If the predicate is semilinear, the candidate is always sent upon a PUT request of relevant variables

Implementation of the monitors. The task of a monitor is to determine if some smaller predicate Pi under its responsibility is violated, i.e., to detect if a consistent state on which ¬Pi is true exists in the system execution. The monitor constructs a global view of the variables relevant to Pi from the candidates it receives. The global view is valid if all candidates in the global view are pairwise concurrent.

The concurrence/causality relationship between a pair of candidates is determined as follows: suppose we have two candidates Cand1,Cand2 from two servers S1,S2 and their corresponding HVC intervals \(\left [HVC_{1}^{\text {start}}, HVC_{1}^{\text {end}}\right ], \left [HVC_{2}^{\text {start}}, HVC_{2}^{\text {end}}\right ]\). Without loss of generality, assume that \(\neg \left (HVC_{1}^{\text {start}} > HVC_{2}^{\text {start}}\right)\) (cf. Fig. 6).
  • If \(HVC_{2}^{\text {start}} < HVC_{1}^{\text {end}}\) then the two intervals have common time segment and Cand1Cand2.
    Fig. 6

    Illustration of causality relation under HVC interval perspective

  • If \(HVC_{1}^{\text {end}} < HVC_{2}^{\text {start}}\), and \(HVC_{1}^{\text {end}}[S_{1}] \leq HVC_{2}^{\text {start}}[S_{2}] - \epsilon \) then interval one is considered happens before interval two. Note that HVC[i] is the element corresponding to process i in HVC. In this case Cand1Cand2

  • If \(HVC_{1}^{\text {end}} < HVC_{2}^{\text {start}}\), and \(HVC_{1}^{\text {end}}[S_{1}] > HVC_{2}^{\text {start}}[S_{2}] - \epsilon \), this is the uncertain case where the intervals may or may not have common segment. In order to avoid missing possible violations, the candidates are considered concurrent.

When a global predicate is detected, the monitor informs the administrator or triggers a designated process of recovery. We develop detection algorithms for the monitors of linear predicates and semilinear predicates based on [13, 14] as shown in Algorithm 1 and Algorithm 2. Basically, the algorithms have to identify the correct candidates to update the global state (GS) so that we would not have to consider all possible combinations of GS as well as not miss the possible violations. In linear (or semilinear) predicates, these candidates are forbidden (or semi-forbidden) states. Forbidden states are states such that if we do not replace them, we would not be able to find the violation. Therefore, we must advance the global state along forbidden states. Semi-forbidden states are states such that if we advance the global state along them, we would find a violation if there exists any.

The procedure of advancing the global snapshot GS along a local state s (s belongs to GS) means the successor of s is added to GS. The successor of a local state s is the next local state after s on the same process. As s is replaced by its successor, the global snapshot GS “advances” forward.

When advancing global state along a candidate (which contains a local state), that candidate may not be concurrent with other candidates existing in the global state. In that case, we have to advance the candidates to make them consistent. This is done by consistent(GS) in the algorithm. If we can advance global state along a candidate without calling consistent(GS), that candidate is called an eligible state. The set of all eligible states in the global state is denoted as eligible(GS) in the algorithms. For a more detailed discussion of linear and semi-linear predicates, we refer to [14].

After a consistent global state GS is obtained, we evaluate whether predicate P is violated at this global state (P(GS)=true means P is satisfied, P(GS)=false means P is violated). If P is violated, the algorithms return the global snapshot GS as the evidence of the violation. Note that the monitors will keep running even after a violation is reported so that possible violations in the future will not be missed. This is the case when the applications, after being informed about the violation and rolling back to a consistent checkpoint before the moment when the violation occurred, continue their execution and violations occur again. Hence, the monitors have to keep running in order to detect any violations of P.

The way we evaluate P on global state GS is slightly different from the algorithms in [12, 13, 14, 22]. In those algorithms, the candidates are sent directly from the clients containing the states of the clients. In our algorithms, the candidates are sent from the servers containing the information the servers know about the states of the clients that have been committed to the store by the clients. Note that, in a key-value store, the clients use the server store for sharing variables and committing updates. Therefore, the states of clients will eventually be reflected at the server store. Since the predicate P is defined over the states of the clients, in order to detect violations of P from the states stored at the server, we have to adapt the algorithms in [12, 13, 14, 22] to consider that difference. Furthermore, the state of a client can be stored slightly differently at different servers. For example, a PUT request may be successful at the regional server but not successful at remote servers. In that case, assuming we are using eventual consistency, the regional server store will have the update while remote stores do not have the update. Our algorithms also consider this factor when evaluating P. For example, suppose variable x has version v1 at a server and version v2 at another server. Suppose that if x=v1 then P is violated, and if x=v2 then P is satisfied. To avoid missing possible violations, our algorithms check all available versions of x when evaluating P.

Since our algorithms are adapted from [12, 13, 14, 22], the correctness of our algorithms follow from those existing algorithms. We refer to [12, 13, 14, 22] for more detailed discussion and proof of correctness of the algorithms.

Handling a large number of predicates. When the number of predicates to be monitored is large (e.g., hundreds of thousands, as in Social Media Analysis application in the next section or in graph-based applications discussed in the Introduction), it is costly to maintain monitoring resources (memory, CPU cycles) for all of them simultaneously. That not only slows down the detection latency but also consumes all the resources on the machines hosting the monitors (for example, we received OutOfMemoryError error when monitoring tens of thousands of predicates simultaneously). However, we observe that not all predicates are active at the same time. Only predicates relevant to the nodes that the clients are currently working on are active. A predicate is considered inactive when there is no activity related to that predicate for a predetermined period of time, and therefore, the evaluation of that predicate is unchanged. Consequently, the monitors can clean up resources allocated for that predicate to save memory and processing time.

Automatic inference of predicate from variable names. This feature is also motivated by applications where the number of predicates to be monitored is large such as the graph-based applications. In this case, it is impossible for the users to manually specify all the predicates. However, if the variables relevant to the predicates follow some naming convention, our monitoring module can automatically generate predicates on-demand.

For example, in graph-based applications, the predicates are the mutual exclusions on any edge whose endpoints are assigned to two different clients. Let A and B are two such nodes and A_B is the edge between them. Assume A<B. If the clients are using Peterson’s mutual exclusion, the predicate for edge A_B will be
$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} \neg P_{A\_B} \equiv (flagA\_B\_A = true \wedge turnA\_B = "A") \\ \wedge (flagA\_B\_B = true \wedge turnA\_B = "B") \end{array} $$

When a server receives a PUT request from some client for a variable whose name is either flagA_B_A, or flagA_B_B, or turnA_B, it knows that the client is interested in the lock for edge A_B and the local predicate detector will generate the predicate for edge A_B so that the monitors can detect if the mutual exclusion access on edge A_B is violated. On the other hand, if the servers never see requests for variables flagA_B_A, flagA_B_B, and turnA_B, then both nodes A and B are assigned to the same client and we do not need the mutual exclusion predicate for edge A_B.

Rollback from violations

Rollback mechanism

While inconsistency is possible with eventual consistency, it is rare [1] given that networks are reliable and data conflicts are infrequent. However, such inconsistencies and data conflicts can arise and, hence, one needs to deal with these conflicts if we are using an application that relies on sequential consistency. We discuss the rollback approaches for such scenarios.

One possible approach for rollback, especially if violations can be detected quickly is as follows: we partition the work assigned to each client in terms of several tasks. Each task consists of two phases (cf. Fig. 7): (1) Read phase: the client obtains all necessary locks for all nodes in the task, reading the necessary data, and identify the values that need to be changed. However, all updates in this phase are done in local memory. (2) Write phase: the client writes the data that they are expected to change and reflect it in the data store.
Fig. 7

Two client tasks involved in a violation. Since detection latency is much smaller than the Read phase time, violation will be notified within Read phase of the current task of at least one client

In such a system, a violation could occur if clients C1 and C2 are accessing the same data simultaneously. For sake of discussion, suppose that client C1 started accessing the data before C2. Now, if the detection of violation is quick then detection would occur before client C2 enters the write phase. In this case, client C2 has not performed any changes to the key-value store. In other words, client C2 can re-start its task (that involves reading the data from the key-value store) to recover from the violation.

With this intuition, we can provide recovery as follows: when a violation is detected, if the client causing the violation is in the read phase, it aborts that task and starts that task again. On the other hand, if a client is in write phase (and this can happen to at most one task if detection is quick enough), then it continues its task normally. Note that with this approach, it is possible that two clients that result in a violation are both in the read phase. While one of the clients could be allowed to continue normally, this requires clients to know the status of other clients. We do not consider this option as it is expected that in most applications clients do not communicate directly. Rather, they communicate only via the key-value store. We utilize this approach in our rollback mechanism. In particular, when detection is quick, we use the Algorithm 3 for rollback (cf. Fig. 7 and Algorithm 3).

Other approaches for rollback are as follows:
  • Rollback via Retroscope[11]. The most general approach is to utilize an algorithm such as RetroScope [11]. Specifically, it allows one to rollback the state of the key-value store to an earlier state. The time, t, of rollback is chosen in such a way that there are no violations before time t. Upon such a rollback, we can determine the phases the clients are in at time t. If a client is in the read phase at time t, it will abort its current task and begin it again. And, if the client is in a write phase, it will finish that phase. Note that since there are no conflicts until time t, such write phases will not result in conflicts.

    While this approach is most general, it is also potentially expensive. Hence, some alternate approaches are as follows:

  • Use of self-stabilizing algorithms. One possibility is if we are using a self-stabilizing algorithm. An algorithm is self-stabilizing if it is guaranteed to recover to a legitimate state even in the presence of arbitrary state perturbation. In [23], it is shown that if the underlying algorithm is self-stabilizing, then we can simply ignore the violations as we can treat it as a state perturbation and the algorithm is already designed to handle it. In this case, there is neither a need for monitoring or rollback.

  • Use of application-specific rollbacks. Another possibility is application specific rollback. To illustrate this, consider an example of graph coloring. For sake of illustration, consider that we have three nodes A, B, C, arranged in a line with node B in the middle. Each node may have additional neighbors as well. Node A chooses its color based on the colors of its neighbors. Subsequently, node B chooses its color based on node A (and other neighbors of B). Afterward, C chooses its color based on B (and other neighbors of C). At this point, node B is required to rollback, it can still choose its color based on the new color of node C while still satisfying the constraints of graph coloring. In other words, in this application, we do not need to worry about cascading rollback.

Dealing with potential of livelocks

One potential issue with rollback is a possibility of livelocks. Specifically, if two clients C1 and C2 rollback and continue their execution, then the same violation is likely to happen again. We consider the following choices for dealing with such livelocks.
  • Random backoff. Upon rollback, clients perform a random backoff. With backoff, the requests for locks from clients arrive at different times in the key-value store. Hence, the second client is likely to observe locks obtained by the first client in a consistent manner. In turn, this will reduce the possibility of the same violation to recur.

  • Reordering of tasks. If the work assigned to clients consists of several independent tasks, then clients can reorder the tasks upon detecting a violation. In this case, the clients involved in the rollback are likely to access different data and, hence, the possibility of another violation is reduced.

  • Moving to sequential consistency. If the number of violations is beyond a certain threshold, clients may conclude that the cost of rollback is too high and, hence, they can move to sequential consistency. While this causes one to lose the benefits of an eventual consistent key-value store, there would be no need for rollback or monitoring.

Evaluation results and discussion

Experimental setup

System configurations. We ran experiments on Amazon AWS EC2 instances. The servers ran on M5.xlarge instances with 4 vCPUs, 16 GB RAM, and a GP2 general-purpose solid-state drive storage volume. The clients ran on M5.large instances with 2 vCPUs and 8 GB RAM. The EC2 instances were located in three AWS regions: Ohio, U.S; Oregon, U.S; Frankfurt, Germany.

We also ran experiments on our local lab network which is set up so that we can control network latency. We used nine commodity PCs, three for servers, six for clients, with configurations as in Table 1. Each client machine hosted multiple client processes, while each server machine hosted one Voldemort server process.
Table 1

Machine configuration in local lab experiments

Machine

CPU

RAM

Server machine 1, 2

4 Intel Core i5 3.33 GHz

4 GB

Server machine 3

4 Intel Core i3 3.70 GHz

8 GB

Client machine 1, 2

4 Intel Core i5 3.33 GHz

4 GB

Client machine 3, 4

Intel Core Duo 3.00 GHz

4 GB

Client machine 5

4 AMD Athlon II 2.8 GHz

6 GB

Client machine 6

4 Intel Core i5 2.30 GHz

4 GB

On the local network, we control the delay by placing proxies between the clients and the servers. For all clients on the same physical machine, there is one proxy process for those clients. All communication between those clients and any server is relayed through that proxy (cf. Fig. 8). Due to the proxy delays, machines are virtually arranged into three regions as in Fig. 9. Latency within a region is small (2 ms) while those across regions are high and tunable (e.g., 50 to 100 ms). Since Voldemort uses active replication, we do not place proxies between servers. The latency in the proxies is simulated to follow the gamma distribution [24,25].
Fig. 8

Simulating network delay using proxies

Fig. 9

Network arrangement with proxies

We considered replication factors (N) of 3 and 5. The parameters R (required reads) and W (required writes) are chosen to achieve different consistency models as shown in Table 2. The number of servers is equal to the replication factor N. The number of clients is varied between 15 and 90.
Table 2

Setup of consistency models with N (replication factor), R (required reads), and W (required writes)

N

R

W

Abbreviation

Consistency model

3

1

3

N3R1W3

Sequential

 

2

2

N2R2W2

Sequential

 

1

1

N3R1W1

Eventual

5

1

5

N5R1W5

Sequential

 

3

3

N5R3W3

Sequential

 

1

1

N5R1W1

Eventual

Test cases. In our experiments, we used three case studies: Social Media Analysis, Weather Monitoring, and Conjunctive.

The application motivated by Social Media Analysis considers a large graph representing users and their connections. The goal of clients is to update the state of each user (node) based on its connections. For the sake of illustration in our analysis, the attribute associated with each user is a color and the task is to assign each node a color that is different from its neighbors. We use the tool networkx [26] to generate input graphs. There are two types of graph: (1) power-law clustering graph that simulates the power-law degree and clustering characteristics of social networks and (2) random six-regular graph in which each node has six adjacent edges and the edges are selected randomly. The reason we use random regular graphs is that they are the test cases where the workload is distributed evenly between clients and throughout the execution. The graphs have 50,000 nodes with about 150,000 edges. Each client is assigned a set of nodes to be colored and run a distributed coloring algorithm [27].

Since the color of a node is chosen based on its neighbors’ colors, while a client C1 is coloring node v1, no other client is updating the colors of v1’s neighbors. The goal of the monitors is to detect violation of this requirement. This requirement can be viewed as a mutual exclusion (semi-linear) predicate where a client going to update the color of v1 has to obtain all the exclusive locks associated with the edges incident to v1. Mutual exclusion is guaranteed if clients use Peterson’s algorithm and the system provides sequential consistency [10]. However, it may be violated in the eventual consistency model. To avoid deadlock, clients obtain locks in a consistent order. For example, let A_B and C_D are the locks associated with the edges between nodes A and B, and C and D respectively. Assume A<B and C<D. Then, lock A_B is obtained before C_D when A<C or when A=C and B<D.

The number of predicates being monitored in this test case is proportional to the number of edges.

We note that the task performed by each client (i.e., choosing the color of a node) is just used as an example. It is easily generalized for other analysis of Social Media Graph (e.g., finding clusters, collaborative learning, etc.)

The application motivated by Weather Monitoring task considers a planar graph (e.g. a line or a grid) where the state of each node is affected by the state of its neighbors. In a line-based graph, all the nodes of the graph are arranged on a line and each client is assigned a segment of the line. In a grid-based graph, the graph nodes are arranged on a grid. The clients are also organized as a grid and each client is responsible for a section of the grid of nodes. In this application, we model a client that updates the state of each node by reading the state of its neighbors and updating its own state. This application can be tailored to vary the ratio of GET/PUT request. This application is relevant to several practical planar graph problem such as weather forecasting [28], radio-coloring in wireless and sensor network [29], and computing Voronoi diagram [30].

Finally, the Conjunctive application is an instance of distributed debugging where the predicate being detected (i.e., ¬P) is of the form P1P2∧⋯∧Pl. Each local predicate Pi becomes true with a probability β, and the goal of the monitors is to determine if the global conjunctive predicate ¬P becomes true. In this application, we monitor multiple conjunctive predicates simultaneously. Since we can control how frequently these predicates become true by varying β, we can use it mainly to assess monitoring latency and stress the monitors. Conjunctive predicates are also useful in distributed testing such as to specify breakpoints.

Performance metrics and measurement. We use throughput as the performance metrics in our experiments. Throughput can be measured at two perspectives: application and Voldemort server. The two perspectives are not the same but related. One application request triggers multiple requests at Voldemort client. For example, one application PUT request is translated into one GET_VERSION request (to obtain the last version of the key) and one PUT request (with a new incremented version) at the Voldemort client library. Then, each Voldemort client request causes multiple requests at servers due to replication. Failures and timeout also make the counts at the applications and the servers differ. For example, an application request is served and counted at a server, but if the server response is lost or arrives after the timeout, the request is considered unsuccessful and thus not counted at the application. Generally, servers’ counts are greater than applications’ counts. In our experiments, we use the aggregated measurement at servers to assess the overhead of our approach since the monitors directly interfere with the operation of the server and use aggregated measurement at applications to assess the benefit of our approach because that measurement is close to users’ perspective. Hence, in the following sections, for the same experiment, we note that the measurements used for overhead and benefit evaluation are different.

Results stabilization. We ran each experiment three times and used the average as the representative results for that experiment. Figure 10 shows the stabilization of different runs of an experiment. Note that the values are aggregated from all applications. We observe that in every run, after a short period of initialization, the measurements converge on a stable value. When evaluating our approach, we use the values measured at the stable phase. We also note that the aggregated throughput in Fig. 10 is not very high but expected. The pairwise round-trip latency between three AWS regions (Ohio, Oregon, Frankfurt) were 76 ms, 103 ms, and 163 ms. The average round-trip latency was 114 ms. On M5.xlarge EC2 instances with a GP2 storage volume, the average I/O latency for a read and a write operation was roughly 0.3 ms and 0.5 ms, respectively. We will roughly estimate the cost of a GET request since in Social Media Analysis, most operations are GET requests to read lock availability and colors of neighbors. Assume eventual consistency R1W1 is used, a GET request is executed by Voldemort client in two steps:
  • Perform parallel request: client simultaneously sends GET requests to all servers (N = 3) and wait for responses with a timeout of 500 ms. The wait is over when either client gets responses from all servers or the timeout expires. In this case, the client will get all responses in about 114.3 ms (114 ms for communication delay and 0.3 ms for the read operation processing time at the server).
    Fig. 10

    Illustration of result stabilization. The Social Media Analysis application is run three times on Amazon AWS with monitoring enabled. Number of servers (N) = 3. Number of clients per server (C/N) = 5. Aggregated throughput measured by Social Media Analysis application in three different runs and their average is shown. This average is used to represent the stable value of the application throughput

  • Perform serial request: client checks if it has received enough required responses. If not, it has to send addition GET requests to servers to get enough number of responses. If after the additional requests, the required number of responses is not met, the GET request is considered unsuccessful. Otherwise, the result is returned. In the current case, the number of responses received (3) is greater than the required (R = 1). Thus, this step is skipped.

From this discussion, a GET request takes roughly 115 ms to complete, on average. Since GET is the dominating operation in the Social Media Analysis application, with 15 clients, the expected aggregated throughput is \(\frac {15}{0.1143} \approx \) 131 ops. The average throughput measured in experiments was 132 ops (cf. Fig. 10).

If we run experiments where all machines are in the same region but in different availability zones, the aggregated throughput will be higher (cf. Fig. 12). For example, in the AWS North Virginia region, the average round-trip latency within an availability zone was about 0.5 ms and between different availability zones was about 1.4 ms. Based on the discussion about GET request above, a GET request takes roughly 0.8 ms (0.5 ms for network latency within an availability zone plus 0.3 ms for processing read request at the server). Similarly, a GET_VERSION request takes 0.8 ms. Since we are using R1W1 configuration, an actual PUT request can be satisfied by the server within the same availability zone. Thus, an actual PUT request takes roughly 1 ms (0.5 ms for network latency within an availability zone plus 0.5 ms for write operation processing time at the server). A PUT request (consisting of a GET_VERSION request and an actual PUT request) takes roughly 1.8 ms. Assume the workload consists of 50 % GETs and 50 % PUTs, then on average, a request takes 0.5×0.8+0.5×1.8= 1.3 ms = 0.0013 s. With ten clients, the expected aggregate throughput is \(\frac {10}{0.0013} =\) 7692 ops. If the workload consists of 75 % GETs and 25 % PUTs, a request takes 0.75×0.8+0.25×1.8= 1.05 ms = 0.00105 s, and the expected aggregate throughput is \(\frac {10}{0.00105} =\) 9524 ops. In our experiments, the aggregate throughput measured for 50 % PUT and 25 % PUT was 7782 ops and 9593 ops, respectively (cf. Fig. 12a and b).
Fig. 11

(AWS) Social Media Analysis application, 3 servers, 15 clients. The benefit of eventual consistency with monitors vs. sequential consistency without monitors (a throughput improvement compared to R1W3 and R2W2 is 57% and 78%, respectively) and the overhead of running monitors on each consistency setting (the overhead is less than 2%). b Overhead on R1W1 =1.4%. Overhead on R1W3 =1.7%. d Overhead on R2W2 =1.3%

Fig. 12

Benefit and overhead of monitors in Weather Monitoring application. Percentage of PUT requests is 25% and 50% Number of servers =5. Number of clients = 10. Machines are on the AWS North Virginia region but in different availability zones. a PUT=25%. Benefit=18%. b PUT=50%. Benefit=37%. c PUT=50%. Overhead=4%

Analysis of throughput

Comparison of eventual consistency with monitors vs. sequential consistency. As discussed in the introduction, one of the problems faced by the designers is that they have access to an algorithm that is correct under sequential consistency but the underlying key-value store provides a weaker consistency. In this case, one of the choices is to pretend as if sequential consistency is available but monitor the critical predicate P. If this predicate is violated, we need to rollback to an earlier state and resume the computation from there. Clearly, this approach would be feasible if the monitored computation with eventual consistency provides sufficient benefit compared with sequential consistency. In this section, we evaluate this benefit.

Figure 11a compares the performance of our algorithms for eventual consistency with monitors and sequential consistency without monitors in the Social Media Analysis application on the AWS environment. Using our approach, the client throughput was increased by 57 % (for N3R1W3) and 78 % (for N3R2W2). Note that the cost of a GET request is more expensive in N3R2W2 (the required number of positive acknowledgment is 2) than in N3R1W3 (the required acknowledgment is 1). Since in the Social Media Analysis application GET requests dominates, the application performs better in N3R1W3 than in N3R2W2.

Overhead of monitoring. A weaker consistency model allows the application to increase the performance on a key-value store as illustrated above. To ensure correctness, a weaker consistency model needs monitors to detect violations and trigger rollback recovery when such violations happen. As a separate tool, the monitors are useful in debugging to ensure that the program satisfies the desired property throughout the execution. In all cases, it is desirable that the overhead of the monitors is small so that they would not curtail the benefit of weaker consistency or make the debugging cost expensive.

Figures 11b, c, and d show the overhead of the monitors on different consistency settings in the Social Media Analysis application. The overhead was between 1% and 2%. At its peak, the number of active predicates being monitored reached 20,000 predicates. Thus, the overhead remains reasonable even with monitoring many predicates simultaneously.

Analysis of system and application factors

Impact of workload characteristics. In order to evaluate the impact of workload on our algorithms we ran the Weather Monitoring application where the proportional of PUT and GET was configurable. The number of servers was 5 and the number of clients was 10. The machines hosting the servers and clients were in the same AWS region (North Virginia, USA) but in five different availability zones. We choose machines in the same region to reduce the latency (to less than 2 ms), thus increasing the throughput measure and stressing the servers and the monitors. If we put the clients and servers in different regions (e.g., Frankfurt Germany, Oregon USA, Ohio USA), then the throughput for 15 clients is low. To stress it further, we would have to add hundreds of clients which is very expensive. Hence, for the stress test, we put the servers and clients in the same region.

From Fig. 12a and b, we find that when the percentage of PUT request increased from 25 to 50%, the benefit over sequential consistency (N5R1W5 in this case) increased from 18 to 37%.

This is because the cost for a PUT request is expensive in N5R1W5 as a PUT request is successful only when it is confirmed by all five servers. Thus, when the proportion of PUT increases, the performance of N5R1W5 decreases. In such cases, sequential settings that balance R and W (e.g., N5R3W3) will perform better than sequential settings that emphasize W (e.g., N5R1W5). When GET requests dominate, it is vice versa (cf. Fig. 11a). We also observe that, when PUT percentage increased and other parameters were unchanged, the aggregated throughput measured at clients decreased. That is because a PUT request consists of a GET_VERSION request (which is as expensive as a GET request) and an actual PUT request; therefore, a PUT request takes a longer time to complete than a GET request does.

Regarding overhead, Fig. 12c shows that the overhead was 4 % when PUT percentage was 50 %. Note that in Weather Monitoring application, the number of predicates being monitored is proportional to the number of clients. Thus, the overhead remains reasonable even when monitoring several predicates simultaneously and the servers are stressed.

The number of violations detected in this experiment was only one instance in executions with a total time of 18, 000 ms. The violation was detected within 20 ms.

Impact of network latency. We ran experiments on the local lab network (cf. the “Experimental setup” section) where the one-way latency within a region (cf. Fig. 9) was 1 ms and one-way latency between regions varied from 50 ms to 100 ms.

The number of clients per each server varied between 10 and 20. The values in sub-columns “server” and “app” are the aggregate throughput measured at the servers and at the applications (unit is ops).

In Table 3, the overhead is computed by comparing server measurements when the monitors are enabled and disabled. The benefit is computed by comparing application measurements on sequential consistency without monitoring to those on eventual consistency with monitoring.
Table 3

Overhead and benefit of monitors in local lab network. For Conjunctive and Weather Monitoring, PUT percentage is 50%

Latency (ms)

Application

Client/ server

Monitor

N3R1W1

N3R2W2

N3R1W3

    

Server

Overhead (%)

App

Server

Overhead (%)

App

Benefit (%)

Server

Overhead (%)

App

Benefit (%)

50

Conjunctive

20

Yes

821

−0.2

470

842

0.6

375

25.3

588

3.3

337

40.7

   

No

819

 

470

847

 

375

 

608

 

334

 
 

Weather Monitoring

20

Yes

924

0.2

454

795

7.1

345

27.2

628

3.2

312

45.0

   

No

926

 

453

856

 

357

 

649

 

313

 
 

Social Media Analysis

10

Yes

560

0.2

258

367

0.5

156

65.4

344

7.8

174

47.4

   

No

561

 

267

369

 

156

 

373

 

175

 

100

Conjunctive

20

Yes

476

0.4

270

491

−0.2

218

23.3

354

0.0

191

42.1

   

No

478

 

271

490

 

219

 

354

 

190

 
 

Weather Monitoring

20

Yes

544

0.7

266

500

1.0

209

28.5

371

0.8

176

49.4

   

No

548

 

273

505

 

207

 

374

 

178

 
 

Social Media Analysis

10

Yes

287

0.0

135

236

0.0

74

80

185

−0.5

86

60.7

   

No

287

 

133

236

 

75

 

184

 

84

 

For example, when one-way latency is 50 ms, if we run the Weather Monitoring application on N3R1W3 without monitoring, the aggregate server throughput is 649 ops (Table 3, column 12 (N3R1W3 → server) and row 6 (50 ms →Weather Monitoring → monitor = no)) and the aggregate client throughput is 313 ops. If we run the same application on N3R1W3 with monitoring, the server throughput is 628 ops (Table 3, column 12 and row 5). The overhead of monitoring Weather Monitoring application on N3R1W3 is (649−628)/649=3.2%. The client throughput when run the same application on N3R1W1 with monitoring is 454 ops (Table 3, column 7, row 5). Thus, the benefit of eventual consistency with monitoring vs. sequential consistency N3R1W3 is (454−313)/313=45%.

From Table 3, as latency increases, the benefit of eventual consistency with monitoring vs. sequential consistency increases. For example, when one-way latency increased from 50 to 100 ms, in Social Media Analysis application, the benefit of eventual consistency with monitoring vs. sequential consistency R1W3 increased from 47 to 60%. In the case of R2W2, the increase was from 65 to 80%. This increase is expected because when latency increases, the chance for a request to be successful at a remote server decreases. Due to strict replication requirement of sequential consistency, the client will have to repeat the request again. On the other hand, on eventual consistency, requests are likely to be successfully served a local server and the client can continue regardless of results at remote servers. Hence, as servers are distributed in more geographically disperse locations, the benefit of eventual consistency is more noticeable. Regarding overhead, it was generally less than 4 %. In all cases, the overhead was at most 8 %.

Analysis of violations and detection latency

Detection latency is the time elapsed between the violation of the predicate being monitored and the time when the monitors detect it. In our experiment with Social Media Analysis applications on eventual consistency (N3R1W1), in several executions of total 9000 s, we detected only two instances of mutual exclusion violations. Detection latency for those violations were 2238 ms and 2213 ms. So, for Social Media Analysis application, violations could happen on eventual consistency every 4500 s on average.

In order to evaluate the detection latency of monitors with higher statistical reliability, we need experiments where violations are more frequent. In these experiments, the clients ran Conjunctive application in the same AWS configuration as Weather Monitoring application above. The monitors have to detect violations of conjunctive predicates of the form P=P1P2∧⋯P10. Furthermore, we can control how often these predicates become true by changing when local predicates are true. In these experiments, the rate of local predicate being true (β) was 1 %, which was chosen based on the time breakdown of some MapReduce applications [31,32]. The PUT percentage was 50 %. The Conjunctive application is designed so that the number of predicate violations is large and to stress the monitors. We considered both eventual consistency and sequential consistency. Table 4 shows detection latency distribution of more than 20,000 violations recorded in the Conjunctive experiments. Predicate violations are generally detected promptly. Specifically, 99.93% of violations were detected in 50 ms, 99.97% of violations were detected in 1 s. There were rare cases where detection latency was greater than 10 s. Among all the runs, the maximum detection latency recorded was 17 s, and the average was 8 ms.
Table 4

Response time in 20,647 conjunctive predicate violations

Response time (milliseconds)

Count

Percentage (%)

< 50

20,632

99.927

50−1000

6

0.029

1000−10,000

3

0.015

10,000−17,000

6

0.029

Regarding overhead and benefit, the overhead of monitors on N5R1W1, N5R1W5, and N5R3W3 was 7.81%, 6.50%, and 4.66%, respectively. The benefit of N5R1W1 over N5R1W5 and N5R3W3 was 27.90% and 20.16%, respectively.

Evaluating strategies for handling livelocks

In this section, we evaluate the effect of rollback mechanisms. We consider the evaluation of the Social Media Analysis with a power-law graph and Weather Monitoring with grid-based graph (cf. the “Experimental setup” section for description of the graphs). We consider the execution with sequential consistency, eventual consistency with rollback but no mechanism for dealing with livelocks, and eventual consistency with one or more mechanism for dealing with livelocks. The results are shown in Fig. 13.
Fig. 13

Effectiveness of livelock handling mechanisms. Number of servers=3, number of clients=30. We observed that adaptive mechanism worked best for Social Media Analysis (Fig. 13a) and backoff mechanism worked best for Weather Monitoring (Fig. 13b)

From this figure, we observe that the impact of livelocks is not the same in different applications. In particular, for terminating applications like Social Media Analysis, if the livelock issue is ignored, the computation does not terminate. Likewise, computation does not terminate with the mechanism of reordering of remaining tasks upon rollback. This is anticipated, in part, because recurrence of rollback happens in end-stages where the number of remaining tasks is low. On the other hand, for non-terminating application like Weather Monitoring, livelocks do not cause the computation to stall. Except for adaptive consistency, the effectiveness of different livelock handling strategies are almost similar. From Fig. 13, we observe that rollback with adaptive consistency works best for terminating applications, and rollback with backoff works best for non-terminating applications. Therefore, we choose these mechanisms to handle livelocks in the detailed analysis of applications in the “Analysis of applications” section.

Analysis of applications

In this section, to illustrate the benefit of our approach, we run the recovery algorithm described in the “Rollback mechanism” section for two applications: Weather Monitoring and Social Media Analysis. We do not consider Conjunctive, as it was designed explicitly to cause too many violations for the purpose of detecting latency of violations. The analysis was performed in our local lab network with the round-trip latency varying between 5 to 50 ms. We use the approach in the “Experimental setup” section to add additional delays to evaluate the behavior of the application in a realistic setting where replicas are not physically co-located. In order to deal with livelocks, we utilize the backoff mechanism for Weather Monitoring application and adaptive mechanism for Social Media Analysis application. The number of servers was 3 and the number of clients was 30.

Weather Monitoring. When running the Weather Monitoring application with eventual consistency, first, we consider the nodes organized in a line. In this case, the application progressed 47.2% faster than running on sequential consistency (cf. Fig. 14a). Even if we extend it to a grid graph, the results are similar. In Fig. 14c, we find that in the grid graph, the application progressed 46.8% faster under eventual consistency than in sequential consistency. In both of these executions, no violations were detected in the 500 and 1000 s window, respectively.
Fig. 14

The benefit and overhead of eventual consistency + rollback vs. sequential consistency in Weather Monitoring application. The inset figure within Fig. 14b is a close-up view showing the impact of rollback. The larger points near the end of each data sequence are where we choose the representative values for the data sequences. a Line-based Weather monitoring, Put =0.5, delay =10ms, clientCoverage =1000 nodes. b Line-based Weather monitoring, Put =0.5, delay =10ms, clientCoverage =500 nodes. c Grid-based Weather monitoring, Put =0.5, delay =5ms, clientCoverage =500×500 nodes. d Line-based Weather monitoring, Put =0.5, delay =5ms, clientCoverage =300×300 nodes

To evaluate the effect of rollbacks, we increase the chance of conflicts by reducing the coverage of each client (i.e., the number of nodes in the graph assigned to each client) so that the clients work on bordering nodes more frequently. In that setting, on a line graph, eventual consistency still progressed about 45% faster than running on sequential consistency (cf. Fig. 14b), even though we had a substantial number of rollbacks (36 in 500 s). The detection latency for violation was on average 18 ms. The worst case detection latency was 55 ms. We note that the application motivated by Weather Monitoring is a non-terminating application which keeps running without termination. Hence, the number of nodes processed measured in stable phase reflects the overall progress of the application. For this reason, in order to compare the progress of different experiment configurations, we measure the progress made by the clients after the same execution duration. For example, in Fig. 14a, the larger points on each line are where we measure the progress after the execution has run for 490 s. Figure 14b also considers the progress made by the application on eventual consistency without rollback or monitoring. Thus, the resulting answer may be incorrect. The reason for this analysis is to evaluate the cost of monitoring and rollback. As shown in Fig. 14b, the cost of rollback is very small. Specifically, with rollback, the number of nodes processed decreased by about 1.4%.

In grid-based graphs, eventual consistency progressed 45.1% faster than sequential consistency did (cf. Fig. 14d) even though it had to rollback a number of times (68 times in 1000 s). The detection latency was 10 ms on average and 41 ms in the worst case. The cost of rollback was 1.4%.

Social Media Analysis. Since the Weather Monitoring task is a non-terminating task, its behavior remains the same throughout the execution. Hence, to evaluate the effect of termination, we evaluate our approach in the Social Media Analysis application. Terminating computation suffer from the following when compared with non-terminating computations: (1) at the end, some clients may have completed their task thereby reducing the level of concurrency and (2) the chance of rollback resulting in the same conflict increases, as the tasks remaining are very small. Therefore, the computation after rollback is more likely to be similar to the one before the rollback. In other words, the conflict is likely to recur.

We evaluate the effect of termination in two types of graph: (1) power-law clustering (cf. Fig. 15a) and (2) regular graphs (cf. Fig. 15b) where degrees of all nodes are close. (The details of these graphs is given in the “Experimental setup” section.)
Fig. 15

Comparing the completion time of sequential consistency (R1W3) vs. eventual consistency with rollback and adaptive consistency (R1W1 + adaptive) in Social Media Analysis application. On a power-law clustering graph, before 90% of the nodes are processed, R1W1 + adaptive progresses about 18% faster than R1W3. Overall, R1W1 + adaptive is 9.5% faster than R1W3. On a regular random graph, the benefit before 90% of the nodes are processed is 26% and the overall benefit is 20.8%. a Power-law clustering graph with 50000 nodes. b Random regular graph with 50000 nodes

On power-law clustering graphs, as shown in Fig. 15a, before the execution reached 90% completion of the work, eventual consistency—even with the cost of monitoring and rolling back—progressed about 18.5% faster than sequential consistency. However, in the remaining 10% of the work, when there were a few nodes to be colored, the chance of conflict increased. Furthermore, the same conflict occurred after rollback as well. Hence, in the final phase, execution under eventual consistency almost stalled due to frequent rollbacks. When the clients utilized adaptive consistency, then they could make progress through the final phase and finished about 9.5% faster than sequential consistency. We note that the decline in computation rate in the final phase is also true for sequential consistency, and that is related to a property of power-law cluster graph that some nodes are high degree nodes. In regular random graph, we do not observe this decline as shown in Fig. 15b. The main reason for this is that the likelihood of conflict in the power-law graph is high since there are several nodes with a high degree. Furthermore, it is difficult to distribute the workload of power-law clustering graph to the clients evenly. Therefore, in the final phase, some clients have completed before the others, thus reducing the parallelism. By contrast, in the regular graph, the likelihood of conflict in end stages remains the same and the workload can be evenly distributed among the clients. On a regular graph, eventual consistency with monitoring and rollback was 26% faster than sequential consistency before 90% of the nodes were processed and 20.8% faster overall (cf. Fig. 15b).

Discussion

In this section, we consider some of the questions raised by this work including questions raised by the reviewers of LADC 2018 and JBCS.

What is the likely effect of the number of clients on the probability of rollback? First, we note that for linear predicates (e.g., conjunctive predicates), when the number of clients increases, the number of violations decreases as it is less likely to find a consistent snapshot where the local predicate at every client is true [33]. As a result, if we increase the concurrency level, the probability of rollback decreases. Hence, in the following discussion, we limit the context to semi-linear predicates (e.g., mutual exclusion).

In general, the probability of rollback depends upon the probability that two clients are updating conflicting data. Thus, if the number of clients is too large when compared with the size of the graph (i.e., the coverage of a client is too small), the probability of conflict/rollback is high. We have validated this with experimental analysis of applications motivated by Weather Monitoring in the “Analysis of applications” section. However, in a typical deployment, the coverage of a client is usually large enough (e.g., thousands of nodes) that the chance of two clients concurrently working on neighboring nodes is small. Furthermore, when working on neighboring nodes, clients utilize mutual exclusion mechanism such as Peterson locks to prevent conflicts. Conflicts/rollbacks only happen when there is some data inconsistency related to the mutual exclusion mechanism that causes the clients concurrently updating neighboring nodes. In eventual consistency, data inconsistencies exist but are rare [34] and usually involve hardware and/or network failures. Hence, from our analysis, we anticipate that the probability of rollback is small given that each client is assigned a reasonable workload.

How do the observations in this paper relate to the CAP theorem? When latency increases, we are simulating pseudo network partition. In this case, which consistency level is better depends upon the configuration of the Voldemort servers.

As an illustration, consider the example where we have five servers and we use R2W4. Furthermore, suppose that one of the servers is partitioned from the other four servers.

With sequential consistency, the four servers and their associated clients can still make progress correctly. The partitioned server and its clients would not make progress. Hence, they could be considered as being dead. By some detection mechanism, we can detect such partitioning and assign the tasks of dead clients to other clients. And the computation could progress to the end.

With eventual consistency, all five servers and their clients make progress but the clients will process based on stale data. When the network is recovered, the data inconsistencies will invalidate the computation results of both sub-networks. When the monitor detects such partition and inconsistencies, we will have to rollback the whole systems, including the four servers and their clients (even though their results are correct, given that the partitioned server has been rolled back).

While the above discussion applies to R2W4, if the system used R1W5, then neither eventual consistency nor sequential consistency could make progress. This is because eventual consistency would result in inconsistently updated replicas. These inconsistencies would be resolved based on the implementation of Voldemort (e.g., latest write wins, minority replicas follow the majority replicas). However, this conflict resolution may not be consistent with the needs of the application. And, in sequential consistency, no write operation would succeed. However, if the nodes are not partitioned but rather suffer from a high delay (but no partition), eventual consistency may be able to make progress. However, it would need to rollback frequently. By contrast, in sequential consistency, it is likely that most write operations fail (as they take too long to complete). Consequently, sequential consistency will not be able to make progress.

What the above discussion suggests is that when the delays are very high, the above approach would work for some configurations (e.g., R2W4) but not for others (e.g., R1W5). Hence, one of the future work in this area is to allow only certain clients to rollback while allowing others to continue without rollback.

Applications that cannot be rolled back. In this paper, we assume the application has exclusive access to its data. Specifically, before the application finishes, other applications will not read this application results. If the data is shared and used by multiple applications, then the rollback approach is not suitable since it is almost impossible to rollback other applications. For instance, the results of computing shortest paths, routing information can be produced by one application and used by other applications. In this case, other approaches such as self-stabilization can be useful.

Related work

Predicate detection in distributed systems

Predicate detection is an important task in distributed debugging. An algorithm for capturing consistent global snapshots and detecting stable predicates was proposed by Chandy and Lamport [35]. A framework for general predicate detection is introduced by Marzullo and Neiger [18] for asynchronous systems and Stollers [17] for partially synchronous systems. These general frameworks face the challenge of state explosion as the predicate detection problem is NP-hard in general [14]. However, there exist efficient detection algorithms for several classes of practical predicates such as unstable predicates [22,36,37], conjunctive predicates [13,38], linear predicates, semilinear predicates, and bounded sum predicates [14]. Some techniques such as partial-order method [39] and computation slicing [40,41] are also approaches to address the NP-Completeness of predicate detection. Those works use vector clocks to determine causality and the monitors receive states directly from the constituent processes. Furthermore, the processes are static. [42,43] address the predicate detection in dynamic distributed systems. However, the class of predicate is limited to the conjunctive predicate. In this paper, our algorithms are adapted for detecting the predicate from only the states of the servers in the key-value store, not from the clients. The servers are static (except failure), but the clients can be dynamics. The predicates supported include linear (including conjunctive) predicates and semilinear predicates.

In [44,45], the monitors use Hybrid Logical Clock (HLC) to determine causality between events in a distributed execution. HLC has the advantage of low overhead but suffers from false negatives (some valid violations are not detected). In contrast, we use hybrid vector clocks to determine causality in our algorithms. In [33], the authors discussed the impact of various factors, among which is clock synchronization error, on the precision of the monitors. In this paper, we set epsilon at a safe upper bound for practical clock synchronization error to avoid missing potential violations. In other words, a hybrid vector clock is practically a vector clock. Furthermore, this paper focuses on the efficiency and effectiveness of the monitors.

Bloom clock [46] is another alternative to vector clock. Due to the overhead of the counting Bloom filter, the benefit of Bloom clock only payoffs on very large distributed systems.

Distributed data-stores

Many NoSQL data stores exist on the market today, and a vast portion of these systems provide eventual consistency. The eventual consistency model is especially popular among key-value and column-family databases. The original Dynamo [1] was one of the pioneers in the eventual consistency movement and served as the basis for Voldemort key-value store. Dynamo introduced the idea of hash-ring for data-sharding and distribution, but unlike Voldemort, it relied on server-side replication instead of active client replication. Certain modern databases, such as Cosmos DB and DynamoDB [47,48] offer tunable consistency guarantees, allowing operators to balance consistency and performance. This flexibility would enable some applications to take advantage of optimistic execution while allowing other applications to operate under stronger guarantees if needed. However, many data stores [49,50] are designed to provide strong consistency and may not benefit from optimistic execution module.

Aside from general purpose databases, a variety of specialized solutions exist. For instance, TAO [51] handles social graph data at Facebook. TAO is not strongly consistent, as its main goal is performance and high scalability, even across datacenters and geographical regions. Gorilla [52] is another Facebook’s specialized store. It operates on performance time-series data and highly tuned for Facebook’s global architecture. Gorilla also favors availability over consistency in regards to the CAP theorem. Crail-KV [53] is Samsung’s extension for Apache Crail data storage system [54] that leverages recent advances in hardware technology, especially key-value solid state drive, to provide higher I/O performance for distributed data store.

Various consistency models in distributed system are presented in the survey [55]. In [56], the authors introduce the notion of Fluctuating Eventual Consistency which is the mix of eventual consistency and strong consistency in order to provide stronger guarantee for eventual consistency. However, this correctness property is not suitable for the adaptive behavior of application since it is not sufficient to prevent violations as sequential consistency does, and it has more extra synchronization effort than eventual consistency. Consistify [57] is a framework that supports tuning the consistency level of a distributed data store. However, Consistify has to statically analyzes the semantics of the application.

Snapshots and reset

The problem of acquiring past snapshots of a system state and rolling back to these snapshots has been studied extensively. Freeze-frame file system [58] uses Hybrid Logical Clock (HLC) to implement a multi-version Apache HDFS. Retroscope [11] takes advantage of HLC to find consistent cuts in the system's global state by examining the state-history logs independently on each node of the system. The snapshots produced by Retroscope can later be used for node reset by simple swapping of data-files. Eidetic systems [59] take a different approach and do not record all prior state changes. Instead, the eidetic system records any non-deterministic changes at the operating system level and constructing a model to navigate deterministic state mutations. This allows the system to revert the state of an entire machine, including the operating system, data, and applications, to some prior point. Certain applications may not require past snapshots and instead need to quickly identify consistent snapshots in the presence of concurrent requests affecting the data. VLS [60] is one such example designed to provide snapshots for data analytics applications while supporting high throughput of requests executing against the system.

Distributed data processing

MapReduce [61] and DataFlow [62] are general-purpose distributed data processing frameworks. In the realm of distributed graph processing, many frameworks are available such as Pregel [63], GraphLab [64], GraphX [65], and PowerGraph [66]. In those works, data is persisted in semi-structural storages such Google File System, Hadoop Distributed File Systems [67], BigTable [68], or in in-memory storage such as Spark [69]. Our work focuses on the no-structure key-value stores and the impact of different consistency models on key-value store performance. Our approach’s usefulness is also not limited to graph applications.

Conclusion

Due to limitations of the CAP theorem and the desire to provide availability/good performance during network partitions (or long network delays), many key-value stores choose to provide a weaker consistency such as eventual or causal consistency. This means that the designers need to develop new algorithms that work correctly under such weaker consistency models. An alternative approach is to run the algorithm by ignoring that the underlying system is not sequentially consistent but monitoring it for violations that may affect the application. For example, in the case of graph-based applications (such as those encountered in Weather Monitoring and Social Media Analysis), each client operates on a subset of nodes in the graph. It is required that two clients do not update two neighboring nodes simultaneously. In this case, the predicate of interest is that the local mutual exclusion is always satisfied.

We demonstrated the usage of this approach in the Voldemort key-value store. We considered two types of predicates: conjunctive predicates and semi-linear predicates (such as that required for local mutual exclusion). We evaluated our approach using Amazon AWS for graph applications motivated by Social Media Analysis and Weather Monitoring. Our approach improved the client throughput performance by 50–80%. Furthermore, we find that the number of violations of predicates of interest was infrequent. Violations were also detected promptly. When all clients and servers were in the same region, the violations were detected within 50 ms whereas if they were in different regions, time for detection was higher. For example, in a network where clients and servers were located in Frankfurt Germany, Ohio USA, and Oregon USA, violations were detected in less than 3 s. In this context, the time required for a client to work on one task was at least 22 s and was on average 45 s. Thus, detection latency was significantly lower than the time for processing a task.

We developed an efficient rollback algorithm for graph-based applications with the assumption that all violations are detected quickly enough. Our rollback algorithm has mechanisms to handle livelocks (i.e., multiple rollbacks caused by a recurring violation) such as back-off and adaptive consistency where clients switch from eventual consistency to sequential consistency if violations are frequent. We observe that livelocks occur at the end of terminating computation. This is due to the fact that, in a graph processing application, when the computation is about to terminate, there are only a few nodes of the graph that need to be processed. Hence, if a conflict occurs between two clients C1 and C2, computation after their rollback is likely to have the same conflict again, as each client has only a very small set of nodes to be processed. In this case, without a livelock mechanism, eventual consistency will fail to process all the nodes. Adaptive consistency is also useful in scenarios where the network condition is unstable for an extended period of time. In this case, data inconsistencies are likely to happen and the clients process stale information and produce incorrect results. By switching to sequential consistency, some clients can make progress while some other clients those do not make progress also do not produce conflicting data. Since Voldemort uses active replication (where clients are responsible for replication), such an adaptive approach can be implemented by clients alone without any changes to the underlying server architecture. If passive replication were used, implementation of an adaptive approach would require servers to perform such a change.

We demonstrated the benefit of using eventual consistency with monitoring and rollback. On non-terminating applications such as those motivated by Weather Monitoring, our approach was 45–47% faster than running the application on sequential consistency, even occasional rollbacks occurred during the execution. Furthermore, the cost of the monitors and rollback was as low as 1.4%. On terminating applications such as those motivated by Social Media Analysis, adaptive consistency is required as eventual consistency fail to process all nodes. For this reason, the overall benefit is reduced. Specifically, when 90% of the nodes were processed, the benefit was 19–26%. However, since it needed to switch to sequential consistency at the end due to excessive recurring violations, the final benefit was reduced to 10–20%.

There are several possible future extensions of this work. Currently, the adaptive solution switches from eventual consistency to sequential consistency based on the feedback from monitors. It is possible that the increase in conflicts is temporary due to network issues. When the condition is resumed to normal, it would be beneficial to run in eventual consistency again. However, in sequential consistency, monitors are not required and, thus, there is no feedback mechanism to determine when using eventual consistency is reasonable. One needs to develop new techniques to permit this possibility.

Another issue is that the monitors used in this work suffer from false positives, i.e., they initiate rollback when it was not absolutely necessary. One possible reason for false positives is that the clients, say C1 and C2, involved in rollback had only read from the key-value store. In this case, one of the clients can continue the execution without rollback. However, in our implementation, as each client rolls back independently, both of them rollback. If this is prevented, it can not only reduce the wasted work, and it can also potentially avoid re-occurrence of conflict between C1 and C2 after rollback. Another reason for false positives is the impedance mismatch in the synchrony assumptions made by the monitors and the applications [33]. In order to reduce or eliminate the false positives, we would have to augment the clients and servers with more information and the monitors would have to examine the candidates more extensively. Consequently, that would increase the cost of monitoring but reduce the need for performing rollback.

The rollback algorithm proposed in this paper is specific for graph-based application and has the assumption on small detection latency. For a general application, we are investigating the possibility of integrating the monitor with Retroscope [11] to automate the rollback and recovery.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the reviewers of the 8th Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing (LADC 2018) for their suggestions on our work.

Authors’ contributions

Authors’ information

All authors have contributed to the methodological and research aspects of the research. All authors have also read and approved the final manuscript.

Duong Nguyen, Michigan State University, mailto:nguye476@msu.edu; Aleksey Charapko, University at Buffalo, SUNY, mailto:charapk@buffalo.edu; Sandeep S. Kulkarni, Michigan State University, mailto:sandeep@cse.msu.edu; Murat Demirbas, University at Buffalo, SUNY, mailto:demirbas@buffalo.edu.;

Funding

This work is supported in part by NSF CNS-1329807, NSF CNS-1318678, NSF XPS-1533870, and NSF XPS-1533802.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.University at Buffalo, SUNYBuffaloUSA

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