Long non-coding RNA LINC00174 promotes glycolysis and tumor progression by regulating miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 axis in glioma
Long non-coding RNA plays a crucial role in the occurrence and progression of glioma. We aimed to explore the function of LINC00174 in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and glycolysis of glioma cells, and investigate the molecular mechanism involved.
LINC00174 expression in glioma tissues and peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) tissues was examined by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization. The CCK-8, TUNEL, wound healing, transwell, and ELISA assays were performed to identify the effects of LINC00174 knockdown on cell viability, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and glycolysis, respectively. RNA immunoprecipitation, dual-luciferase reporter, RNA pull down, and western blot assays were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms of LINC00174 in glioma cells. A nude mouse xenograft model was used to investigate the role of LINC00174 in xenograft glioma growth.
LINC00174 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. LINC00174 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and glycolysis of glioma cells, and LINC00174 exerted a tumorigenesis role. LINC00174 could interact with miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 axes. The miR-152-3p inhibitor or the SLC2A1 overexpression could rescue the anti-tumor effect of LINC00174 knockdown on glioma cells. Moreover, downregulation of LINC00174 also inhibited tumor volume and delayed the tumor growth in vivo.
LINC00174 accelerated carcinogenesis of glioma via sponging miR-1523-3p and increasing the SLC2A1 expression, which could be considered as a molecular target for glioma diagnosis and therapy.
KeywordsLINC00174 Glioma SLC2A1 Glycolysis miR-152-3p
Cell Counting Kit-8
Fetal bovine serum
Glucose transporter 1
Long-chain non-coding RNA
Normal human astrocytes
Peritumoral brain edema
Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Short hairpin RNA
Small interfering RNAs
Solution vector family 2 promotes glucose transporter 1
The Cancer Genome Atlas
LINC00174 was overexpressed in glioma.
LINC00174 predicted an unfavorable prognosis in glioma patients.
LINC00174 promoted glycolysis and tumor progression by targeting miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 axes.
Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, which has the characteristics of high morbidity, high recurrence rate and high mortality, and seriously endangers people’s health . It originates from astrocyte and oligodendrocyte, which are called astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma respectively . The annual incidence of glioma in the population is 6.13/100,000 . Although surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy can partly delay the recurrence time and prolong the survival time of glioma patients, the curative effect on some glioma patients with high malignancy is still unsatisfied. The median survival time of patients with WHO grade III degenerative astrocytoma and WHO grade IV pleomorphic glioblastoma was only 2 years and 1 year, respectively, even after surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy . In the twentieth century, with the development of molecular biology and oncogenetics, people have a better understanding of the genetic characteristics of glioma, which provides a new idea for the subsequent gene therapy of glioma. Therefore, at present, the international community is focusing on the search for effective gene markers of glioma, hoping to be conducive to early intervention treatment and early prognosis judgment of glioma [4, 5, 6].
Long-chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNA with a length range of 200 nucleotides to 100,000 bases, which lacks an effective open reading framework and is transcribed by RNA polymerase II without protein coding function . The main regulation modes of lncRNA include: (1) as a transcription regulator, interfering with the binding of transcription factors to promoters, interfering with gene transcription and chromatin remodeling; (2) as a regulator, influencing the transcription of target genes, up-regulating or down-regulating the expression of target genes; (3) binding to proteins through chaperone and regulating subcellular localization of proteins; and (4) binding to transcription to inhibit replication [8, 9, 10]. Through these pathways, lncRNA can play a variety of biological functions at the transcriptional level, post-transcriptional level and epigenetic level. Recent studies have shown that abnormal expression of lncRNA may affect the occurrence and development of glioma. A lot of lncRNAs have been reported to accelerate the tumorigenesis of glioma, including MALAT1 , SNHG16 , UCA1 . According to the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data analysis, we found the expression level of lncRNA LINC00174 was up-regulated in glioma tissue samples. Shen et al. reported that increased expression of LINC00174 was observed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and cells, and LINC00174 indicated the poor prognosis of CRC patients . However, the biological function of LINC00174 in the pathogenesis and development of glioma still remains unknown. Starbase predicted that LINC00174 could interact with miR-152-3p, which acts as an anti-cancer role in glioma [15, 16]. According to the prediction of Targetscan website, it was found that miR-152-3p can directly target Solution vector family 2 promotes glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1), also known as glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a key protein in the energy metabolism pathway of cells . SLC2A1 is overexpressed in several different types of cancer, including liver cancer, lung cancer, endometrial cancer, oral cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer and glioma [18, 19, 20, 21]. These observations suggest that SLC2A1 may be one of the driving genes in tumors. However, it is not clear whether LINC00174 can regulate the expression of microRNA-152-3p and SLC2A1 to play a role in glioma. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate whether LINC00174 promotes glycolysis and glioma progression by regulating the miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 axes.
In the present study, we explored the expression of LINC00174 in glioma tissues and normal tissues. The effect of LINC00174 on glioma progression was studied, and the underlying molecular mechanism by which LINC00174 regulated glioma cell phenotype was also investigated.
Materials and methods
Clinical tissue specimens
Forty-five paired brain glioma specimens and peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) tissues were collected from surgical tumor resections performed at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China). Samples were collected between 2014 and 2017. Tissues were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at − 80 °C for subsequent analysis. All tissues were obtained with written informed consent from each patient. The present study conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Institutional Ethical Review Committee of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine.
Cell lines and cell culture
Human glioma cell lines (U251, LN229, H4, SW1783, and A172) and human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293 T were purchased from Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Cell Resource Center (Shanghai, China), while normal human astrocytes (NHAs) were purchased from Sciencell Research Laboratories (Carlsbad, CA, USA). HEK-293 T cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM, Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with glucose and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Life Technologies), glioma cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium/F12 mixed medium supplemented with 10% FBS, and NHAs were cultured in astrocyte medium (Life Technologies). All cells were cultured at 37 °C in a humidified incubator containing 5% CO2.
RNA isolation and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)
Total cellular RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientifc, Inc.), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. For miRNA expression analysis, RT-qPCR was carried out by using the TaqMan MicroRNA Reverse Transcription kit, TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.). Relative miRNA expression levels were calculated as 2-[(Ct of miRNA) – (Ct of U6)] after normalization to the expression of small nuclear RNA U6. Primers (RiboBio) used for stem-loop reverse-transcription PCR of miR-152-3p and U6 were as follows: miR-152-3p forward, 5′-AGGGTCAGTGCATGACAGA-3′ and reverse, 5′-TACCAACCAACCCACTCACT-3′; U6 forward, 5′-CGGGTGCTCGCTTCGCAGC-3′ and reverse, 5′-CCA GTGCAGGGTCCGAGGT-3′. For LINC00174 and SLC2A1 expression analysis, RT-qPCR was performed by using the TaqMan High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit, TaqMan Fast PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s instructions with corresponding primers: LINC00174 forward, 5′-GGCCCAACACTTCCCTCAAA-3′ and reverse, 5′-CAGGGAGAAACGACCTGGAG-3′; SLC2A1 forward, 5′-AAGGTGATCGAGGAGTTCTACA-3′ and reverse, 5′-ATGCCCCCAACAGAAAAGATG-3′; β-actin forward, 5′-TCCTCTGACTTCAACAGCGACAC-3′ and reverse, 5′-CACCCTGTTGCTGTAGCCAAATTC-3′. Gene expression levels were normalized to β-actin expression and were calculated as 2-[(Ct of GENES) – (Ct of β-actin)].
Two small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting LINC00174 (siLINC00174#1, and siLINC00174#2), and negative control RNAs (siNC) were generated in pLKO.1. Plasmid constructs were transfected into cells at 70–90% confluency using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) and were then transfected again 24 h later. The siRNA targeting SLC2A1 (siSLC2A1), miR-152-3p mimics, inhibitors, and relative controls were obtained from GenePharma Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Glioma cell transfection was conducted using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) at a final concentration of 50 nM. To overexpress LINC00174, glioma cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-LINC00174 using Lipofectamine 2000. After an additional 24 h, the transfected cells were collected and processed for further studies.
Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay
Glioma cells (1 × 105 cells per well) were seeded in 96-well plates and cultured for 24 h prior to analysis of cell proliferation using the CCK-8 (Dojindo Molecular Technologies, Gaithersburg, USA) assay. Cells were then cultured for a further 24, 48, or 72 h. Subsequently, all cells were incubated with 10 μL of CCK-8 solution at 37 °C for 4 h. To obtain cell growth curves, plates were read at 450 nm using a microplate spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientifc, Inc.). All experiments were performed in triplicate.
An in-situ cell death detection kit (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) was used to measure cell apoptosis. Briefly, cells were blocked with H2O2 (3% in methanol) for 5 min and then labeled with TdT labeling reaction mix for 1 h at 37 °C. Nuclei exhibiting DNA fragmentation were visualized with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) for 15 min and observed under a light microscope (Olympus Corporation,, Tokyo, Japan).
Cell migration and invasion assay
Cell migration was evaluated using a wound-healing assay. In brief, 48 h after transfection, glioma cells were cultured in 6-well plates (5 × 104 cells per well). After reaching 90–95% confluence, the monolayer of cells was scratched with a sterile plastic micropipette tip and cells were then cultured under standard conditions for 24 h. Following several washes, recovery of the wound was observed and imaged using an X71 inverted microscope (Olympus Corporation).
A transwell invasion assay was performed to assess cell invasion. Transfected cells (1 × 105) were seeded into the upper chamber of Matrigel-coated inserts containing serum-free medium. Medium supplemented with 10% FBS (Life Technologies) was added to the lower chamber as a chemoattractant. Cells were then allowed to invade for 48 h at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Cells that invaded the lower chamber of the filter were fixed in 70% ethanol for 30 min and stained with 0.1% crystal violet for 10 min at 25 °C. The number of cells that migrated to the lower chamber was counted in five randomly selected fields under an X71 inverted microscope.
Glucose uptake and lactate production assay
Glioma cells were cultured in glucose-free DMEM for 16 h, and then incubated with high-glucose DMEM under normoxic conditions for an additional 24 h. Culture medium was then removed, and intracellular glucose levels were measured using a fluorescence-based glucose assay kit (BioVision, Milpitas, California, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Lactate levels were measured using a lactate oxidase-based colorimetric assay read at 540 nm according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Beyotime, Wuxi, China) and normalized to cell number.
The target miRNAs of LINC00174 were predicted via computational algorithms, including starbase (http://starbase.sysu.edu.cn) and miRanda (http://www.microrna.org). The highest-ranked predicted target of LINC00174 was miR-152-3p. To identify genes targeted by miR-152-3p, we used the online programs, TargetScan (http://www.targetscan.org/) and miRanda (http://www.microrna.org). From the list of target genes obtained, all genes likely to contribute to glioma progression were extracted. The 3′-UTR of SLC2A1 was predicted to have miR-152-3p-binding sites.
Luciferase reporter assay
To identify the LINC00174- and SLC2A1-binding sites in the miR-152-3p promoter, miR-152-3p promoter reporter constructs containing either wild-type, mutated LINC00174-binding sites, or mutated SLC2A1-binding sites were transfected with pRL-SV40 Renilla luciferase vectors into HEK293T cells using the LT1 Transfection Reagent (Mirus, Madison, WI, USA). Luciferase assays were performed using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) 48 h after transfection. Transfections were performed in triplicate, and measurements from transfections were analyzed after normalization to firefly luciferase activity.
RNA pull-down assay
Biotinylated RNAs were transcribed using Biotin RNA Labeling Mix (Roche) and T7 polymerase (Promega) and subsequently treated with RNase-free DNase I (Promega) and RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen). Next, magnetic beads were added to each binding reaction sample and incubated at room temperature. Finally, the beads were washed, and eluted proteins were detected by RT-qPCR analysis.
RIP analysis was conducted in glioma cells using Magna RIP RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation kit (Millipore, MA) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, cells were collected after washing with cold PBS and RIP lysis buffer was added. The suspension was then centrifuged and 100 μL from each cell lysate was transferred to the RIP immunoprecipitation buffer, which contained Ago2-conjugated magnetic beads and IgG as a negative control (Millipore, MA, USA). The magnetic beads were washed with RIP wash buffer and then incubated with proteinase K at 55 °C for 30 min. Subsequently, RNA was extracted for RT-qPCR analysis.
In vivo xenograft experiments
Male BALB/c nude mice (6 weeks old, n = 6) were purchased from Beijing HFK Bioscience Co. Ltd. (Beijing, China) and were maintained under pathogen-free conditions. Animal experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine and were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations of the committee. For analysis of tumor propagation, 1 × 107 U251 tumor cells, transfected with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting either LINC00174 (shLINC00174) or a negative control shRNA (shNC), were subcutaneously injected into BALB/c nude mice. Tumors were weighed 3 weeks after injection. Tumor volume was calculated at the indicated time points using the following formula: volume = πab2/6 (a, tumor length; b, tumor width). Ki67 levels were detected by immunohistochemical staining of tumors.
Western blot analysis
Total protein lysates were resolved by 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred to polyvinyl difluoride membranes (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). Following blocking with 5% nonfat dry milk in Tris-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween-20 (TBS-T) for 30 min at 37 °C, membranes were washed four times in TBS-T and incubated with primary antibodies overnight at 4 °C. The primary anti-bodies: anti-SLC2A1 (Abcam, Cambridge, UK, ab190163, dilution: 1:1000), E-cadherin (Abcam, ab15148, dilution: 1:1000), N-cadherin (Abcam, ab202030, dilution: 1:1000), Vimentin (Abcam, ab8978, dilution: 1:800), Cleaved caspase-3 (Abcam, ab2302, dilution: 1:800), Cleaved caspase-9 (Abcam, ab2324, dilution: 1:1000), Bcl-2 (Abcam, ab32124, dilution: 1:800), and Bax (Abcam, ab32503, dilution: 1:800) were used. Following extensive washing, membranes were incubated with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat polyclonal anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (cat. no. 7074; Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA), at a dilution of 1:2000, for 1 h at room temperature. Immunoreactivity was detected by enhanced chemiluminescence (Pierce; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) and visualized using a ChemiDoc XRS imaging system and analysis software (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Hercules, CA, USA). β-actin (Abcam, ab179467, dilution: 1:800) served as a loading control.
All data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) from three independent experiments. The statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS 18.0 software (IBM, New York, USA). Differences between groups were analyzed by using Student’s t-test (two groups) or one-way ANOVA (multiple groups). Overall survival (OS) was defined either as the time from surgery to death, or the time from surgery to the date of the last recorded follow-up visit. A Kaplan-Meier curve was plotted for survival analysis, and the difference between the two groups was compared using a log-rank test. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to determine the correlations between the levels of miR-152-3p and LINC00174/SLC2A1 in glioma tissues. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
LINC00174 was over-expressed in glioma tissues and cell lines
LINC00174 promoted cell proliferation of glioma cells in vivo and in vitro
LINC00174 accelerated cell migration, invasion and glycolysis of glioma cells
LINC00174 directly targeted miR-152-3p
miR-152-3p inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion through regulating SLC2A1 expression
The rescued experiments were performed, U251 cells were transfected with NC mimics, or miR-152-3p mimics, or miR-152-3p mimics + pcDNA3.1, or miR-152-3p mimics + pcDNA3.1-SLC2A1. SLC2A1 expression was increased in U251 cells with miR-152-3p mimics + pcDNA3.1-SLC2A1 transfection (P < 0.001, Fig. 5g). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and glycolysis were then identified. As shown in Fig. 5h-l, cell proliferation, migration, invasion and glycolysis of U251 cells was significantly inhibited by miR-152-3p mimics compared with the NC mimics group (P < 0.001), cell apoptosis was increased in U251 cells transfected with miR-152-3p mimics (P < 0.001). While SLC2A1 overexpression rescued the anti-tumor effect of miR-152-3p on U251 cells (P < 0.001, Fig. 5h-l).
LINC00174 exerted the oncogenesis role in glioma via targeting miR-152-3p
Gliomas are the most common malignant tumors in the central nervous system, and the exact pathogenesis of which is still unclear. LncRNA is a kind of non-protein-coding RNA, which plays an indispensable role in the occurrence and development of various tumors. Shen et al. reported that lncRNA LINC00174 was overexpressed in colorectal cancer samples and cells, and abnormal expression of LINC00174 indicated a poor prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. In the present study, we first identified the expression of LINC00174 in the glioma tissues and cells. We found that LINC00174 was overexpressed in the glioma tissues and cells, and high expression of LINC00174 showed a unfavourable prognosis in glioma patients. The effect of LINC00174 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion was also examined, and the results exhibited that LINC00174 knockdown effectively inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis of U251 and LN229 cells. Furthermore, LINC00174 overexpression accelerated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and decreased cell apoptosis of U251 and LN229 cells. In addition, the silencing LINC00174 could delay tumor growth in vivo. These data reveals that LINC00174 acts as an oncogene in glioma and facilitates the progression of glioma.
We subsequently explored the targeted miRNA of LINC00174 by biological analysis, and miR-152-3p was predicted to combine with LINC00174, which was also verified by RIP, RNA pull down and dual luciferase reporter analysis. A number of studies reported that miR-152-3p expression was decreased in glioma , breast cancer , hepatic carcinoma , malignant melanoma , and prostate cancer . Overexpression of miR-152-3p showed anti-tumor effect on cancer cells . Sun et al. reported that miR-152-3p was down-regulated in glioma samples and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing the expression of DNMT1 . In the present study, we found that miR-152-3p could interact with LINC00174, and miR-152-3p expression was negatively correlated with LINC00174 expression in glioma clinical samples. Moreover, siLINC00174 attenuated cellular activities of glioma cells, while miR-152-3p inhibitors evidently reversed the anti-tumor effect of siLINC00174 on glioma cells. The above results investigate that LINC00174 regulates cell phenotype of glioma cells via targeting miR-152-3p.
The target mRNA of miR-152-3p was afterwards examined. SLC2A1 was the downstream target of miR-152-3p. SLC2A1 is a ratelimiting transporter for glucose uptake, and plays a crucial role in glycolysis. Cancer cells characterized by rapid proliferation require more energy produced by glycolysis than normal cells. Previous studies reported that SLC2A1 expression was up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer , colon cancer , and gastric cancer , and mediated the glucose transport in cancer cells. Chen et al. reported that cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 affected glucose transport in glioma cells by regulating the expression of GLUT1 (SLC2A1), and mediated the metabolism and progression of glioma . In this work, it was found that SLC2A1 was overexpressed in glioma samples, and SLC2A1 expression was negatively associated with miR-152-3p expression in glioma patients. By a series of cellular functional experiments, we demonstrated that LINC00174 could promote the glycolysis in glioma cells. To further identify whether LINC00174 facilitates the glycolysis by regulating miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 pathway, the rescue experiments were performed. The results displayed that miR-152-3p mimic inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and glycolysis in glioma cells, while SLC2A1 knockdown abolished the effect of miR-152-3p mimic on glioma cells. The results reveal that LINC00174 promotes glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and glycolysis through regulating miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 axes. Furthermore, the expressions of SLC2A1, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Cleaved caspase-3, Cleaved caspase-9, Bcl-2, and Bax were identified by western blot analysis. E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin are important factors participating in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which promotes the migration and invasion of cells . As well known, Cleaved caspase-3, Cleaved caspase-9, Bcl-2, and Bax play crucial role in cell apoptosis . LINC00174 knockdown evidently regulated the protein expression, while miR-152-3p inhibitor effectively abolished the effect of LINC00174 knockdown on protein expression. The results indicate that LINC00174 adjust cellular activities by regulating these proteins.
The highlights of our study are: (1) LINC00174 was overexpressed in glioma. (2) LINC00174 predicted an unfavorable prognosis in glioma patients. (3) LINC00174 promoted glycolysis and tumor progression by targeting miR-152-3p/SLC2A1 axes. Although a lot of studies demonstrates that SLC2A1 mediated the glucose transport in cancer cells, few studies focus on the detail function and the mechanism of SLC2A1 in glioma, and the pathways related with SLC2A1 in cancer progression are also rarely studied. Systematic study concerning the biological function and mechanism of SLC2A1 in glioma will be an important part of our future studies.
In general, our study investigated that LINC00174 expression was increased in glioma tissues and cell lines. High expression of LINC00174 predicted an unfavorable prognosis in glioma patients. LINC00174 promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and glycolysis via sponging miR-152-3p and up-regulating SLC2A1 expression. These results and findings provide a novel insight for glioma diagnosis and treatment.
We thank the Department of Pathology of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine.
JS and XZ designed the study. JS and YZ collected the clinical data and performed the experiments. BQ and YW performed the animal study and data analysis. JS and XZ wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LY16H090005), China.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The present study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Review Committee of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 17.Nazim B, Pascal B, Henri S. GLUT1: A novel tool reflecting proliferative activity of lung neuroendocrine tumors? Pathol Int. 2017;67:32-6.Google Scholar
- 18.Zibo Z, Lu W, Elizabeth B, et al. β-Catenin/Tcf7l2-dependent transcriptional regulation of GLUT1 gene expression by Zic family proteins in colon cancer. Sci Adv. 2019;5:eaax0698.Google Scholar
- 27.Kim SJ, Hwang SH, Kim IJ, et al. The association of 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of PET with polymorphisms in the glucose transporter gene (SLC2A1) and hypoxia-related genes (HIF1A, VEGFA, APEX1) in non-small cell lung cancer. SLC2A1 polymorphisms and FDG-PET in NSCLC patients. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.