A potent immunomodulatory role of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stromal cells in preventing cGVHD
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Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising therapy for preventing chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) due to their potent immunomodulatory properties. However, the safety concerns regarding the use of MSCs remain unsolved, and conflicting effects are observed due to the heterogeneity of MSCs. Recently, exosomes were shown to mediate the paracrine effects of MSCs, making it a potential candidate for cell-free therapies. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of MSCs-derived exosomes (MSCs-exo) in an established cGVHD mouse model.
Bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs were cultured, and the supernatants of these cultures were collected to prepare exosomes using ultracentrifugation. Exosomes from human dermal fibroblasts (Fib-exo) were used as a negative control. The cGVHD model was established, and tail vein injections of MSCs-exo or Fib-exo were administered once per week for 6 weeks. The symptoms and signs of cGVHD were monitored, and histopathological changes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining. The effects of MSCs-exo on Th17, Th1, and Treg were evaluated by flow cytometry, qPCR, and Luminex. In addition, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated and treated with MSCs-exo in vitro. IL-17-expressing Th17 and IL-10-expressing Treg were evaluated by flow cytometry, qPCR, and ELISA.
We found that MSCs-exo effectively prolonged the survival of cGVHD mice and diminished the clinical and pathological scores of cGVHD. Fibrosis in the skin, lung, and liver was significantly ameliorated by MSCs-exo application. In MSCs-exo treated mice, activation of CD4+ T cells and their infiltration into the lung were reduced. Of note, MSCs-exo exhibited potent immunomodulatory effects via the inhibition of IL-17-expressing pathogenic T cells and induction of IL-10-expressing regulatory cells during cGVHD. The expressions of Th17 cell-relevant transcription factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines was markedly reduced after MSCs-exo treatment. In vitro, MSCs-exo blocked Th17 differentiation and improved the Treg phenotype in PBMCs obtained from healthy donors and patients with active cGVHD, further indicating the regulatory effect of MSCs-exo on GVHD effector T cells.
Our data suggested that MSCs-exo could improve the survival and ameliorate the pathologic damage of cGVHD by suppressing Th17 cells and inducing Treg. This finding provides a novel alternative approach for the treatment of cGVHD.
KeywordsMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) Exosome Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) Th17 cells Treg
Bone marrow transplantation
Chronic graft-versus-host disease
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Fetal bovine serum
Exosomes from human dermal fibroblasts
Hematoxylin and eosin
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Mesenchymal stromal cells
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Regulatory T cells
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the primary cause of long-term morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) [1, 2]. The pathophysiology of cGVHD remains poorly understood, and the therapeutic options for cGVHD have predominantly been limited to steroids and calcineurin inhibitors, which are incompletely effective . Therefore, there is an unmet need to clarify the pathophysiology of cGVHD and develop novel therapeutics for treating this disease.
Chronic GVHD patients present clinical features similar to other autoimmune diseases. Dysregulation of the donor cellular response has been reported to be required in the pathological process of cGVHD [4, 5]. A network of alloreactive T helper cells proliferated, infiltrated, and attacked the targeted organ, leading to the induction of cGVHD. Previous studies have shown the importance of Th1 and Th2 in cGVHD, whereas increasing evidence has indicated that Th17 and Treg cells orchestrate the immunopathological environment in cGVHD [6, 7]. Thus, how to modulate the aberrant T cell response and mitigate the pathologic changes of cGVHD need to be clarified.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been clinically tested for prophylaxis and treatment of cGVHD due to their potent immunomodulatory properties [1, 8]. Despite their development in clinical therapies, the underlying mechanism for MSC immunomodulatory activity remains tenuous . MSCs inhibit T cell responses as well as modulate the function of B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells . MSCs regulate the balance of Th17 and Treg and promote transplantation tolerance . In particular, MSCs have been reported to exert their immunosuppressive role mainly through the induction of soluble factors, such as iNOS, IL-10, TGF-b, HGF, PGE2, and IDO, and partially by cell-to-cell interaction . Infused MSCs are short-lived, and the most viable MSCs remain in the lungs . The remote immunomodulatory effect of MSCs in target organs has been regarded to depend on their secretion, which would facilitate the alternative non-cell-based therapies in replace of MSC cell-based therapies.
In addition, increasing evidence has shown that the effects of MSCs are complex and probably fluctuate due to the fascinating biology of MSCs . MSCs are intrinsically heterogeneous and mediate distinct immune modulating responses that are characterized by a pro-inflammatory MSC1 phenotype and an immunosuppressive MSC2 state [13, 14]. Although this view is simplified for the complex process of MSC function, it could explain, in part, the conflicting effects of MSCs in clinical usage. Furthermore, due to the importance of paracrine way in MSC effects, non-cell-based therapies represent an alternative, and the uniformity and standardization of non-cell agents are easier to attain via manufacturing, avoiding the polarization of MSCs in various disease conditions. Moreover, the procedures of non-cell-based therapies are less complicated, and more cell sources are available because immortalized MSC cell lines can be utilized to manufacture. Of note, non-cell-based therapies are safer than cell-based therapies due to their nonviable activity.
Exosomes are a type of nano-level membrane particle that are released from cells and serve as mediators of cell-to-cell communication [15, 16]. MSCs could secrete exosomes to exert their immunomodulatory and regenerative effects [17, 18]. It has been reported that exosomes mediate the paracrine effects of MSCs and promote tissue repair and homeostasis recovery, making them a potential candidate for cell-free therapies. MSC-derived exosomes (MSCs-exo) can recapitulate the therapeutic effects of MSCs in models of myocardial ischemia, acute lung injury/ischemia, and skin wounds [19, 20]. MSCs-exo pass through most physiological barriers due to their small size, allowing effective concentrations to be reached in target tissues . In addition, exosomes can be sterilized by filtration during their preparation for clinical usage. Thus, MSCs-exo exhibit substantial advantages for clinical usage.
To investigate the multifaceted effects of MSCs-exo and interrogate the activity of T cells in the development of systemic cGVHD, we established a murine allogeneic HSCT model and found that MSCs-exo treatment ameliorated the progression of cGVHD. This study indicated that MSC-derived exosomes recapitulated the therapeutic effects of MSCs against cGVHD and possessed the advantages of cell-free therapies.
MSC culture and exosome preparation
Human MSCs were isolated from bone marrow (BM) samples and identified as previously described [1, 4]. Briefly, the bone marrow aspirates (at least 20 mL) were diluted with cultured medium in 1:1 and MSC were isolated with Ficoll-Paque solution (1.077 g/mL; Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) after centrifugation at 800 g for 20 min. The isolated MSC cells were resuspended and cultured at a density of 5000 cells/cm2. The medium contains low glucose Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (L-DMEM; Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA) and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Hyclone). The adherent cells were cultured with medium changes every 3 days. When they were 70–80% confluent, cells were detached by trypsin-EDTA and passaged at a ratio of 1:3 and the third passage MSCs were used for exosome preparations. All these MSCs have been tested for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Flow cytometry was performed using a FACSort and analyzed with CellQuest software (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA, USA). Only the cells exhibited surface expression of mesenchymal markers (CD73, CD105, and CD166) and cell adhesion molecules (CD29, CD44, and CD90) but negative for hematopoietic markers (CD14, CD19, CD31, CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR) were identified as human MSCs, which fulfill the minimal definition criteria proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. Human dermal fibroblasts purchased from ScienCell were used as control cells. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM/high glucose medium (Invitrogen) that contained 10% FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin at 37 °C.
To manufacture exosomes, cells were cultured with exosome-free FBS for 48 h, which was prepared by a sequential centrifugation procedure as 200×g for 10 min, 2000×g for 20 min, 10,000×g for 30 min, and 110,000×g for 7 h at 4 °C, followed by filtration using a 0.22-μm filter . The culture supernatant was collected and performed ultracentrifugation with the same sequential centrifugation procedure as above. The pellet was washed twice with PBS and then filtered through the 0.22-μm filter. The prepared exosomes were stored at − 20 °C until use. The electronic microscopy was utilized for characterization of isolated exosomes. After fixation with 2% paraformaldehyde, the exosomes were negatively stained with phosphotungstic acid for 1 min and examined with a transmission electron microscopy (hitachi H-7650). Markers of exosomes, including CD63, CD9, and CD81, were analyzed by western blot as previously described . The primary antibodies included antibodies against CD63, CD9, and CD81 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA).
cGVHD mice and treatment
The mouse cGVHD model was established as previously described . Briefly, 10- to 12-week-old BALB/cJH-2d female mice (Beijing Vital River Laboratory Animal Technology Co., Ltd., China) as recipients received irradiation followed by a tail vein injection of 8 × 106 bone marrow cells and 8 × 106 spleen cells from B10.D2 male mice, the donors purchased from Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, USA. The animal experimental design and procedures were reviewed and approved by the animal experimental ethics committee of Guangdong General Hospital. Recipient mice were monitored every 3 days with respect to the clinical score, body weight loss, and activities beginning at day 14 after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Mice assigned a clinical score above 0.6 were regarded as established cGVHD. The sry gene on Y chromosome was detected in blood DNA from the female recipient mice on day 20 after BMT. The genotype result showed that all the representative recipient mice presented with sry gene expression, indicating that these mice were indeed transplanted successfully (Additional file 1: Figure S1). On day 22 after BMT, cGVHD mice received a tail vein injection of MSCs-exo or Fib-exo in a 100-μl volume at a dose of 1 μg/μl. The exosome injections were administered once per week for 6 weeks. Blank control mice received equal amounts of a PBS injection. The disease score and skin score were determined as previously described , and survival was checked daily for 60 days. The criteria of skin score were briefly determined as follows: healthy appearance = 0, skin lesions with alopecia less than 1 cm2 in area = 1, skin lesions with alopecia 1 to 2 cm2 in area = 2, and skin lesions with alopecia more than 2 cm2 in area = 3. Additionally, animals were assigned 0.3 point each for skin disease (lesions or scaling) on the ears, tail, and paws with minimum score as 0 and maximum score as 3.9. The clinical disease score was based on the clinical manifestation of the skin, body weight, and hunch. When the body weight was loss between 2 and 8%, the mouse had score a point and when more than 8%, the mouse would gain 2 points. For hunch position, the mouse would get a score when hunch quiescent and 2 points when hunch affect action. So the minimum clinical disease score was 0, and the maximum was 7.9.
Histological analysis and Masson staining
Tissues were fixed with 4% formalin overnight, embedded in paraffin and cut into 6 μm slices. H&E and Masson staining (Masson’s trichrome staining kit, Sigma) were performed separately on consecutive tissue sections, and images were obtained using a microscope (Leica DM4000, Wetzlar, Germany). Quantification of fibrosis was conducted using ImageJ (NIH) as the percentage of blue collagen-stained area relative to the total tissue in one field.
PBMCs were isolated from healthy donors and patients with active clinical manifestations of cGVHD, who provided written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. This experiment was approved by the Ethics Committees of Guangdong General Hospital. Healthy PBMCs were initially stimulated with 2.5 μg/ml PHA (Sigma, USA) and treated with Fib-exo or MSCs-exo (10 μg/ml or 50 μg/ml) for 5 days to detect Treg cells. In addition, other healthy PBMCs were cultured under the inductive condition of Th17 cells (25 μL/well Human T-Activator CD3/CD28 Dynabeads in 24-well plates (Life Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA), Il-6100 ng/ml, and TGF-β 20 ng/ml) and treated with individual exosomes to detect the percentage of Th17 cells. Finally, patients’ PBMCs were stimulated with Human T-Activator CD3/CD28 Dynabeads and treated with PBS, Fib-exo, or MSCs-exo (50 μg/ml) for 5 days. The CD4 T subsets were determined by flow cytometry and qPCR.
The cells were isolated from the spleen, lymph nodes (LNs), or lung, and cell surface protein expression was detected and quantified by flow cytometry. A single-cell suspension of lung tissue was prepared to evaluate the infiltration of CD4 T cells. Briefly, the lungs were removed, dissociated, and digested in collagenase D (2 mg/mL) at 37 °C for 30 min. The digested lungs were filtered through 40 mm cell straining to remove the debris. For intracellular cytokine detection, the cells were re-stimulated for 5 h with PMA (20 ng/ml)/ionomycin (1 μM) (Sigma, USA). Golgi-stop was added in the last hour, and intracellular cytokine staining was performed using a BD Biosciences Cytofix/Cytoperm kit as recommended (BD Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, USA). Flow cytometry analysis was performed on a Bectone-Dickinson FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences) using protein-specific monoclonal antibodies as previously described . The data were analyzed using FlowJo software (TreeStar).
Luminex and ELISA
The relevant cytokines, including IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-10, in mouse serum were analyzed using a Luminex MAGPIX system (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) according to the manufacturer’s instructions . The secretion of IL-17 and IL-10 cytokines from cultured PBMCs obtained from active cGVHD patients was detected by ELISA. The assays were performed using human IL-17A and IL-10 ELISA kits (eBioscience, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Samples were detected in triplicate relative to standards supplied by the manufacturer and analyzed for significant differences among different groups.
Real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect the mRNA levels of relevant transcription factors as previously described . Briefly, total RNA was extracted with TRIzol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and converted into first-strand cDNA using random hexamer primers and the Reverse Transcriptase Superscript II Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). PCR was then performed in a total volume of 20 μL that contained 2 μL of cDNA, 10 μL of 2 × SYBR Premix Ex Taq, 0.8 μL of 50 × ROX Reference Dye (TaKaRa Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Dalian, China), and 10 μmol/L of the primer pairs, which are listed in Additional file 2: Table S1. Gapdh was used as a reference gene. The PCR amplification protocol consisted of 95 °C for 30 s and up to 40 cycles of 95 °C for 5 s and 60 °C for 34 s according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Exosome labeling assay
Purified exosomes were labeled with a PKH26 red fluorescent labeling kit (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, the exosomes were incubated with PKH26 dye at a ratio of 5:1 at room temperature for 5 min. After washing with complete culture media (depleted exosomes by ultracentrifugation) and PBS, PKH26-labeled exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g for 90 min at 4 °C. A mixture without exosomes was used as the negative control. Then, 10 μg PKH26-labeled exosomes were applied to cultured CD3+ T cells for 12 h. The cells were fixed and stained with Alexa Fluor Phalloidin-488 and DAPI (Invitrogen, USA). Confocal imaging was performed on a confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM800, Germany).
Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 19.0 (IBM, Ehningen, Germany). The data are presented as the mean value ± standard error of the mean (SEM) and were statistically analyzed using a one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Survival curves were plotted as Kaplan-Meier curves and analyzed with log-rank tests. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001).
MSCs-exo ameliorated cGVHD responses and diminished the clinical and histopathological evidence of cGVHD
To assess the efficacy of MSCs-exo as a therapeutic intervention for cGVHD, we used a typical B10.D2 in the BALB/c mouse of the cGVHD model. Receipt mice were administered tail vein injections of PBS, Fib-exo, or MSCs-exo once per week from day 22 of BMT, when these mice had developed the clinical features of cGVHD. Thirty-five days after BMT, PBS-treated cGVHD mice served as a blank control, which showed clear weight loss and dermal lesions characterized by hair loss, redness, flaking, scabbing, or a hunched posture (Fig. 1c). In contrast to Fib-exo-treated cGVHD mice, which presented similar clinical signs to the PBS-treated mice, mice that received a MSCs-exo injection displayed little clinical features (Fig. 1c). In addition, these MSCs-exo-treated mice had a significant improvement of survival (Fig. 1d) and had the lowest disease scores and skin scores in the cGVHD pathology among all animals (Fig. 1e, f).
MSCs-exo treatment suppressed the activation of CD4 T cells and their infiltration into the lung
MSCs-exo alleviated cGVHD by inhibiting pathogenic T cells and inducing regulatory cells
MSCs-exo treatment reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production
Th17-relevant cytokine production, also a hallmark of GVHD, was detected in the serum obtained from individual group mice by Luminex. On day 39 after BMT, the expression of IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 was similar in serum obtained from the PBS and Fib-exo groups (Fig. 5e–j). By contrast, the MSCs-exo-treated group presented significantly lower levels of IL-17A (Fig. 5e), the typical cytokine produced by Th17 cells; IL-22 (Fig. 5g); and IL-21 (Fig. 5f), which has an essential role in all phases of GVHD pathophysiology to mediate tissue damage. IL-2, a T cell growth factor for amplifying lymphocyte responses, was also reduced in the MSCs-exo-treated group compared with the PBS and Fib-exo groups (Fig. 5i). It is interesting to note that there was no significant difference in IL-12, a cytokine involved in the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, between the different groups (Fig. 5j). As for the important regulatory cytokine IL-10, we found that MSCs-exo induced an approximately two-fold elevation of IL-10 (Fig. 5h). Thus, MSCs-exo may exert marked immunosuppressive effects on cytokine production.
MSCs-exo blocked Th17 differentiation and improved the Treg phenotype in PBMCs in vitro
MSC transplantation is undergoing extensive evaluation as a cellular therapy in human clinical trials, and increasing evidence shows that MSCs yield therapeutic effects, largely via the secretion of soluble factors, cytokines, and so on, which has been implicated as the primary mediator of MSC-based therapy [17, 27]. Among the secretion, exosome derived from MSCs is characterized by a small size of 40–150 nm and mediate MSCs . In this study, we found that MSCs-exo attenuated cGVHD and improved the survival of cGVHD mice, extending the usage of MSCs and providing evidence that exosomes derived from MSCs represent a safe and convenient cell-free therapy.
The immunosuppressive effect of MSCs-exo has been evaluated in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, kidney fibrosis, liver injury, and so on [20, 28, 29]. Recently, a study reported that MSC-derived extracellular vesicles could prolong the survival of acute GVHD mice and ameliorate GVHD damage [30, 31]. MSCs-exo alleviated the symptoms of a resistant grade IV aGVHD patient in a preliminary clinical study . Here, we report the dramatic efficacy of MSCs-exo in attenuating cGVHD, a progressive and drug-resistant disease. Of note, the lung complication of cGVHD significantly contributes to the late mortality after HSCT. Lung complications are currently considered diagnostic evidence of cGVHD and re-characterized by frequent non-responsiveness to treatment and irreversibility. In this study, we utilized the B10.D2→BALB/c strain pairing, which uniquely recapitulates key pathologic features of fibrotic human cGVHD in multiple organs, and our data provided evidence that MSCs-exo are a promising therapeutic tool for treating the pulmonary complications of cGVHD.
Interestingly, MSCs-exo exhibited a potent ability to suppress the activation and migration of autoreactive T cells, which participate in the pathogenesis of cGVHD. Activated T cells tend to infiltrate target tissues, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage, which was effectively inhibited by MSCs-exo in this study. CD44 + CD4+ T cells were reduced, and the reduction of IL-17-expressing pathogenic T cells correlated with the decreased expression of CCR6, suggesting that MSCs-exo might mitigate cGVHD by suppressing the trafficking of pathogenic Th17 cells and DP-Th17 cells into target organs during cGVHD. In addition, previous studies have reported that MSCs-exo showed efficacy in treating autoimmune diseases through inhibiting the activation of APCs and T cells . The expansion of Th17 cells is favored by the progressive loss of Treg, leading to cGVHD onset [33, 34]. In humans, the Th17/Treg ratio has been regarded as a specific marker of cGVHD progression [34, 35]. We found that MSCs-exo induced a remarkable reduction of Th17 cells, as well as improved the generation of IL-10-expressing Treg, thereby orchestrating an immunomodulatory condition for immune responses after BMT. Consistently, we found that PBMCs from active cGVHD patients were inclined to Th17 differentiation, which was abrogated by MSCs-exo in vitro. This effect of MSCs-exo was similar to MSCs (data not shown), further indicating that exosome secretion is possibly an important mechanism underlining the suppressive effect of MSCs. However, the underlying mechanism of MSCs-exo in suppressing immunity remains unclear. Exosomes function as a cargo enriched with cytokines, growth factors, signaling lipids, mRNAs, and regulatory miRNAs , which then influence the activity of target cells by a variety of mechanisms. It would be very interesting to clarify the specific component of MSCs-exo in treating cGHVD and the molecular mechanism of MSCs-exo modulation of Th17/Treg differentiation in the further study.
Actually, the exosome derived from MSCs have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of immunoregulatory capabilities, such as regulating the function of professional APC and influencing the differentiation and associated cytokine secretion profile of T cell subsets (1,2). In this study, human PBMCs including lymphocytes and APCs were stimulated by anti-CD3/CD28 beads in vitro and MSCs-exo blocked Th17 differentiation and improved Treg phenotype in PBMCs obtained from both healthy donors and patients with active cGVHD, indicating the regulatory effect of MSCs-exo on GVHD effector T cells in the presence of APCs. It would be very interesting to distinguish the effect of MSCs-exo on Th17/Treg in response to various stimulations in the further study.
Our in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that MSCs-exo significantly suppressed the expression of Th17-relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-2. IL-17A is the signature cytokine generated from Th17 cells, which are the main effector T cells involved in the pathogenesis of cGVHD . IL-21, another cytokine produced by Th17 cells, is also required for the induction of cGVHD, and the blockade of IL-21 has been shown to prevent GVHD [36, 37]. We found that both IL-17A and IL-21 were reduced after MSCs-exo treatment, while little change of IL-22 was observed. These findings indicate the involvement of IL-17A and IL-21 in the immunosuppressive effects of MSCs-exo on cGVHD. Of note, we found that MSCs-exo prominently promoted IL-10 production, which was consistent with previous studies that showed that MSCs-exo induced immune regulatory responses [38, 39].
Exosomes derived from MSCs exhibited potential advantages for clinical usage. First, a non-cell-based therapy using MSCs-exo would be substantially safer than MSC infusion because a non-living agent can avoid the risk of unregulated cell growth and occlusion in the microvasculature [27, 40]. Moreover, there was no death of experimental mice due to vein embolism after tail vein injections in this study. Second, exosomes from MSCs could easily migrate across any physiologic barrier due to their nano-sized level, thereby improving their effect in target tissues . Third, although the available techniques for isolating and purifying exosome remain to be improved, the manufacturing process is less arduous than that of MSCs due to the difficulty of preserving cell viability and function. It would be more amenable to prepare exosomes for clinical usage . Fourth, although exosomes are generated by parent MSCs, they are less likely to trigger an immune response due to the lack of major histocompatibility complex class I/II molecules, rendering them safer to use . As we known, MSCs immunosuppressive ability is not constitutive and these heterogeneous cells could be classified as pro-inflammatory MSC1 and immunosuppressive MSC2 phenotype in response to different TLR-priming stimulation. In addition, there is unavailable standardized protocol to assay the identity of MSC phenotype. In contrast to the heterogeneity of MSCs, exosomes were prepared from MSCs in a controlled and consistent condition such as passage 3 without any TLR-priming stimulation in this study, advancing this therapy into the clinic. Although we did not compare the effects of MSC and MSCs-exo in this study, the substantial efficacy of MSCs-exo and their safety would advance this therapy into the clinic.
Although promising effects of MSCs-exo were observed in the treatment of cGVHD mice, there are several challenges that must be addressed. As exosomes are produced by MSCs, the heterogeneity of which would affect the secretory components, which mediate the immunomodulatory role of exosomes, a standard and scalable cell culture method would be conducive to creating greater consistency in exosomes . In addition, more reliable and efficient techniques for isolating exosomes are warranted for producing cost-effective exosome products .
Our study suggests that exosomes released from MSCs can effectively ameliorate cGVHD in mice by inhibiting the activation and infiltration of CD4 T cells. Furthermore, MSCs-exo exhibits immunomodulatory potency by inducing regulatory T cells and inhibiting Th17 cells. Thus, MSCs-exo provides a new therapeutic paradigm for cell-free MSC-based therapies for cGVHD treatment. Our work supports further investigation into understanding the underlying mechanism so that the intended therapeutic effect can be translated and optimized.
This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFA0108300); National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81700825, 81300446, 81370665, 81671585, 81870121 and 81270648); Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Nos. 2014B020212009, 2014B020226002, 2015B020227003, 2015B020226001, and 2017B020230004); Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangzhou, China (Nos. 201400000003-4, 201803040005, and 201803040011); and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. S2013030013305).
Availability of data and materials
All relevant data and materials within this work are made available in this manuscript. Any additional information can be made freely available to any scientist on reasonable request.
PLL, JYW, XLL, CH, and XD conceived the study and designed the experiments. PLL, JYW, LYG, XMC, WYL, YL, TZ, SCG, CWL, and TH performed the experiments. JYW, XMC, XH, SJW, and WL analyzed the data. PLL, JYW, CH, and XD prepared the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All the animal experimental design and procedures were reviewed and approved by the animal experimental ethics committee of Guangdong General Hospital. Human PBMCs from patients with active cGVHD were obtained with informed consent for research purposes, and the procedures were approved by the Ethics Committees of Guangdong General Hospital. Consent to publish has been obtained from the participant to report individual patient data.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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