Caprylic acid suppresses inflammation via TLR4/NF-κB signaling and improves atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice
As reported previously by our group, medium-chain triglycerides can ameliorate atherosclerosis. Given that TLR4 is closely related to atherosclerosis, we hypothesized herein that caprylic acid (C8:0) would suppress inflammation via TLR4/NF-κB signaling and further promote the amelioration of atherosclerosis in apoE- deficient (apoE−/−) mice.
Fifty 6-week male apoE−/− mice were randomly allocated into five diet groups: a high-fat diet (HFD) without or with 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), stearic acid (C18:0), or linolenic acid (C18:3). RAW246.7 cells were treated with caprylic acid (C8:0), docosahexenoic acid (DHA), palmitic acid (C16:0), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without TLR4 knock-down (TLR4-KD). The serum lipid profiles, inflammatory biomolecules, and mRNA and protein expression levels were measured. Atherosclerotic lesions that occurred in the aorta and aortic sinuses were evaluated and quantified.
Our results indicated that C8:0 reduced body fat, improved the lipid profiles, suppressed inflammatory cytokine production, downregulated aortic TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, TNF-α, IKKα, and IKKβ mRNA expression, and alleviated atherosclerosis in the apoE−/− mice (P < 0.05). In RAW 264.7 cells, C8:0 diminished the inflammatory response and both mRNA and protein expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and TNF-α compared to those in the LPS and C16:0 groups (P < 0.05). However, in the TLR4-KD RAW 264.7 cells, C8:0 significantly upregulated NF-κB mRNA and protein expression compared to those in the C16:0 and DHA groups.
These results suggest that C8:0 functions via TLR4/NF-κB signaling to improve the outcomes of apoE−/− mice through suppressing inflammation and ameliorating atherosclerosis. Thus, C8:0 may represent as a promising nutrient against chronic inflammatory diseases.
KeywordsCaprylic acid Inflammation TLR4 Atherosclerosis apoE-deficient mice
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium
High density lipoprotein cholesterol
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase β
Long-chain saturated fatty acids
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Medium-chain fatty acids
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88
Nuclear factor kappa B
Polymerase chain reaction
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids
Transforming growth factor activated kinase-1
Toll-like receptor 4
Tumor necrosis factor α
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by lipid accumulation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, necrosis, fibrosis, and local inflammation [1, 2]. Fatty acids have been deemed important dietary factors that affect the occurrence and development of this condition, and different aliphatic acids can contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis via diverse pathways. Pro-inflammatory genres, such as saturated fatty acids (SFAs) [3, 4] and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), can induce atherosclerosis, whereas n-3 fatty acids that are rich in fish oil, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can inhibit many aspects of inflammation, including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions [5, 6]. These effects of n-3 fatty acids can lower the morbidity of atherosclerosis and contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) -related complications .
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), such as caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0), carry a backbone chain with 8 to 12 carbon atoms. MCFAs, in the form of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) that are present in milk fat, palm oils, coconuts, and cuphea seed oils [8, 9]. MCFAs have been increasingly noted to be quite different from long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) both physically and metabolically, although they both belong to the SFAs. Specifically, MCFAs can reduce body fat accumulation [10, 11, 12] and improve cholesterol metabolism [13, 14, 15]. We found that, in contrast to the LCFAs, MCTs (50% C8:0 and 50% C10:0) have a potential for reducing serum LDL-C and TC levels and improving HDL-C levels in hypertriglyceridemic subjects [12, 16]. We also observed that MCTs could ameliorate atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient (apoE−/−) mice . Nevertheless, the impact of MCFAs on inflammation and atherosclerosis awaits further investigation.
The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) /nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway has significant functions in the stress response and inflammation, and recently it has been suggested to be closely related to human atherosclerosis [18, 19]. TLR4 expression has been observed in smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages . Triggered by TLR4 ligands, it activates the subsequent NF-κB signaling pathway, which increases gene transcription of many pro-inflammatory factors. Moreover, Michelsen et al. have proven that knock out of TLR4 can reduce atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta to a great extent and reduce the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines in apoE−/− mice .
Based on former studies, C8:0 herein is hypothesized to suppress the inflammatory reaction via TLR4/NF-κB signaling and to alleviate the atherosclerotic state in apoE−/− mice. To test it, we carried out a further investigation into the effects of C8:0 on inflammation, mRNA and protein expression of TLR4/NF-κB pathway components, and the atherosclerotic condition of apoE−/− mice. These effects were also investigated in RAW246.7 cells with or without TLR4 knock-down (TLR4-KD).
Materials & methods
MCFAs samples of C8:0, C10:0, as well as LCFAs samples of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and alpha linolenic acid (C18:3) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), DHA, bovine serum albumin (BSA), oil red O, fetal bovine serum (FBS) and DMEM culture medium were provided by Gibco (Grand Island, Nebraska, USA). OCT compound was from Tissue Tek (Sakura, Torrance, CA). Other reagents were available at Sigma-Aldrich.
Fifty 4-week-old male apoE−/− mice were obtained from Shanghai Model Organism (License SYXK 2018–0002) and bred in polycarbonate cages (temperature 21–23 °C, humidity 40–60%, 5 animals per cage) on a 12-h light-dark cycle. A basal diet was applied for animal adaptation for more than a week. Then, all the 50 mice (6 weeks old) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): high-fat diet (HFD) with 2% C8:0, HFD with 2% C10:0, HFD with 2% C18:0, HFD with 2% C18:3, and HFD alone. The ingredients list, amount of nutrients, and specific fatty acid compositions of all diets in this work are provided in additional files [see Additional file 1, 2]. Beijing Institute of Nutrition examined the dietary nutrients, and analyzed the dietary lipids with gas-liquid chromatography, as described in detail in our previous report .
The body weight and food intake of mice was recorded weekly. Feeding was maintained continuously for 16 weeks, followed by a fasting for more than 8 h (except for water). Subsequently, mice were euthanized via intramuscularly injection with xylazine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) for blood sampling from the abdominal and collection of tissues for detailed assays.
Measurement of serum lipid profiles
Commercial kits were employed to test serum TC and triglycerides (TG) (Wako, Osaka, Japan), to detect the level of HDL-C and LDL-C by means of sediment approach (Abcam, Cambridge, UK), and to evaluate the serum level of total bile acid (TBA) (Blue Gene, Shanghai, China). Ratio of HDL-C to LDL-C was subsequently calculated. All the measurements were performed strictly following the instructions from the manufacturer.
Measurement of inflammatory cytokines in plasma
ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) were utilized to determine the plasma interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α levels following the instructions from the manufacturer.
Assessment of atherosclerosis in the aorta and aortic sinus
At the end of the study, five mice were randomly chosen from each group to estimate the atherosclerotic plaque areas using a previously reported method . The dissected aorta from the root to the abdominal region was fixed in formalin after a careful removal of all connective tissues. A longitudinal incision was made over the rest of the entire aorta, followed by pinning in a posture with the lumen side up. After staining the aorta with oil red O, digital photographs were taken. Image-Pro Plus 6.0 was used to measure the total surface area and the total oil red O-positive lesion area. The percentage of the lesion areas to the total areas was used to assess the extent of atherosclerotic lesion.
The aortic root tissue frozen in O.C.T. was cut into 10 μm serial sections, and the total oil red O-positive lesion area was measured by NanoZoomer Digital Pathology 2.0 (Hamamatsu, Japan).
Real-time PCR analysis
Primer sequences in qRT-PCR
Sense primer (5′-3′)
Antisense primer (5′-3′)
Relative quantification was performed through the ΔCt method, with the difference in Ct between the reference gene (β-actin) and the target gene equaling the ΔCt values for the tested samples. For each sample, target gene expression was normalized according to the eq. 2−ΔΔCt(2ΔCt(actin) − ΔCt(target gene)).
Fatty acid preparation
Fatty acids were prepared referring to the operational details in our previous report . Briefly, stock solutions (20 mmol/L) of C8:0, C16:0, and DHA were procured by dissolving a preset amount of solute in ethanol. The samples were diluted to 2 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, and 0.5 mmol/L for practical use with cell culture medium containing 20 mg/L endotoxin-free BSA. Before cell addition, the obtained solutions were incubated for 1 h at 37 °C.
RAW 264.7 cell experiments
The RAW 264.7 cell line was provided by Peking Union Medical College. Cell cultivation was performed in a humidified incubator (95% air, 5% CO2, 37 °C) in DMEM supplemented with heat-inactivated FBS (10%), L-glutamine (2 mmol/L), vitamins (1×), and antibiotics (streptomycin, 100 g/L and penicillin, 100 U/mL).
The cells were cultivated for 24 h in 24-well plates at a density of 1.5 × 105 cells/well. The cultivation medium was refreshed with new medium containing LPS (100 ng/mL final concentration) supplemented with C8:0, C16:0, or DHA. Another round of cell incubation was carried out for 12, 24, or 48 h, respectively. The following RAW264.7 treatment groups were included: (1) control; (2) LPS; (3) LPS + C8:0 (50 μmol/L); (4) LPS + C8:0 (100 μmol/L); (5) LPS + C8:0 (200 μmol/L); (6) LPS + C16:0 (100 μmol/L); and (7) LPS + DHA (100 μmol/L). Afterwards, the cells were washed with PBS at low temperature (on ice) three times for media removal, and ELISA kits were employed for measurement of TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-6 in the cell lysates, following the manufacturer’s instructions. These experiments were repeated, and the cells were harvested. Finally, proteins and RNA were isolated to analyse the expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and TNF-α.
TLR4-KD in RAW 264.7 cells
The RAW264.7 cells (1.5 × 105 cells/well) were transfected with a plasmid encoding a TLR4 siRNA (Invivogen, USA) utilizing the Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Life Technologies, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, G418 (500 μg/mL) was employed for isolating stable transfectants after a 3-week selection. A limited dilution method was applied to isolate single clones of stably transfected cells. One stable clone resistant to G418 was kept in G418 (500 μg/mL) -containing medium. DMEM containing 10% FBS was utilized throughout the experimental operation, followed by refreshment with medium containing LPS (100 ng/mL final concentration). The cells were incubated for another 24 h after the addition of C8:0, C16:0, or DHA into the culture medium. The following RAW264.7 cell with TLR4-KD treatment groups were included: (1) control; (2) TLR4-KD; (3) TLR4-KD + LPS; (4) TLR4-KD + LPS + C8:0 (100 μmol/L); (5) TLR4-KD + LPS + C16:0 (100 μmol/L); and (6) TLR4-KD + LPS + DHA (100 μmol/L). Then, ELISA kits were employed to assess the TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the cell lysates, following the instructions from the manufacturer. These experiments were repeated before further analyzing the expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and TNF-α by centrifugation and collection of protein and total RNA.
Western blotting analysis
The cells were cultured for 24 h in 24-well plates at a density of 1.5 × 105 cells/well. The cultivation medium was refreshed with new media containing LPS (100 ng/mL final concentration). Another round of cell incubation was performed for 24 h after the addition of C8:0, C16:0, or DHA. Western blotting analysis of the cultured cells was performed as previously described . Briefly, 30-min harvest and cell lysis were conducted on ice with NP40 cell lysis buffer containing a protease inhibitor cocktail (1×) and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1 mM). Then, a BCA Protein Assay Kit (Pierce Chemical Company, IL, USA; no. 23225) was employed for evaluation of the protein content in the supernatant. SDS-PAGE was applied to separate 25 μg of protein extract, which was transferred subsequently to PVDF membranes. After an overnight block at 4 °C in TBS-Tween solution containing 5% milk, the membranes were incubated with the primary antibodies for 2 h. The primary antibodies against TLR4 (ab183459, 1:1000), MyD88 (ab2064, 1:1000), NF-κB (ab32360, 1:1000), TNF-α (ab6671, 1:1000), and β-actin (ab6276, 1:5000) were provided by Abcam (Cambridge, MA, USA). Afterwards, the membranes were thoroughly rinsed and subjected to another 2 h of incubation (room temperature) with a HRP-conjugated secondary antibody diluted 1:2000 in blocking buffer. A chemiluminescence detection system (GE Healthcare, Bucks, UK) was employed for observation of protein bands.
Based on a preliminary experiment, the G*Power 220.127.116.11 software (Heinrich-Heine University, Germany) was applied to calculate the minimum sample size required for the detection of a significant difference (P < 0.05). A minimum of 10 mice per group was needed for animal experiments. The numbers of samples required for the analysis of the blood lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta and aortic sinus and PCR were 10, 10, 5, 5 and 5, respectively. The power calculation indicated a minimum of 6 for the cell experiments. All data in this report are presented as mean ± standard derivation. One-way analysis of variance was performed for data analysis. The independent t-test that decided the statistical significance of differences among various groups as indicated by P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was performed with SPSS 19.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Body weight and food intake of apoE−/− mice
The serum lipid profiles in the apoE−/− mice
Serum inflammatory cytokine levels in the apoE−/− mice
The mRNA expression levels of TLR4/NF-κB signaling components in the apoE−/− mouse aortas
Atherosclerosis in the aorta and aortic sinus of the apoE−/− mice
Inflammatory cytokines and TLR4/NF-κB-related gene and protein expression levels in RAW246.7 cells
Inflammatory cytokines and TLR4/NF-κB-related gene and protein expression levels in TLR4-KD RAW246.7 cells
Herein, we explored the influences of C8:0 as a dietary supplement on the atherosclerotic lesion areas, serum cholesterol levels, and inflammation in apoE−/− mice compared with mice administered C18:0 and C18:3. The results indicated that the inflammatory cytokine expression was inhibited, plasma lipid profiles were improved, and atherosclerosis was decreased in the presence of C8:0, which was in accordance with our previous observations on these mice . Furthermore, we found that C8:0 suppressed inflammatory reactions through the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
C8:0 has positive roles in atherosclerotic alleviation
Many studies have elucidated the intimate relationship between atherosclerosis and fatty acids (either saturated or unsaturated). Omega-3, which is a type of unsaturated fatty acid, may prevent atherosclerotic progression and endothelial dysfunction, and can play a role in the regulation of atherosclerosis when administered as a supplement . However, apart from sporadic reports with conflicting results, the effects of DHA supplementation on atherosclerotic lesion areas have rarely been studied. Dietary DHA can reduce the local expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in apoE−/− mice . The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid can modify the incorporation mode into tissues and inhibit hypoxia-induced atherosclerotic progression in apoE−/− mice . Wang et al.  found that 10 weeks of n-3 PUFA fish oil supplementation alleviated atherosclerosis of the aortic root in apoE−/− mice to a significant albeit limited extent. Conversely, some studies showed that supplementing chow with n-3 PUFAs for 14  or 20 weeks  had little influence on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE−/− mice. However, a review showed that n-3 PUFAs could prevent atherosclerotic morbidity, and evidence suggested that this effect might be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction . By surpassing the effects of oxidation and inflammatory stress, fats rich in linoleic acid can prevent atherosclerotic progression in apoE−/−mice, compared to those fed a diet rich in saturated fatty acids . Substituting excessive dietary SFAs for other types of macronutrients can contribute to early induction of atherosclerosis in animals . Varying results have been reported in a great number of promising studies on the correlation of SFA intake with CVD . Unlike LCFAs (> 12 carbons), MCFAs can undergo rapid gastrointestinal hydrolysis and absorption, be directly transported via the portal veins, and undergo fast β-oxidation in the liver . This metabolic specificity, which leads to enhanced catabolism but reduced tissue storage , was in relation to the physiological effects exerted by dietary MCFAs. It is reported to be beneficial or neutral compared to the metabolism of LCFAs. Some research also demonstrated that MCTs or MCFAs could play a positive role in reducing serum LDL-C and TC not only in mice [37, 38] but also in humans [12, 15, 16, 39]. C8:0 is a type of MCFA, which we found could significantly reduce TC and LDL-C, compared to palmitic acid or stearic acid in apoE−/− mice . C8:0 can also improve the HDL-C to LDL-C ratio and reduce the atherosclerotic extent in the aorta and aortic sinus . These results suggested that C8:0 was similar to omega-3 in terms of its positive roles in atherosclerotic alleviation.
C8:0 inhibits inflammation
As a chronic inflammatory disease, atherosclerosis progresses under the regulation of a large number of modulators, such as cytokines, eicosanoids , and dietary fatty acids, which represent another critical family of regulators . SFAs [3, 4] and PUFAs, particularly n-6 PUFA , possess pro-inflammatory properties, as indicated by many studies performed both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, n-3 PUFA, such as EPA and DHA, can exert anti-inflammatory effects [42, 43]. MCFAs or MCTs can ameliorate inflammation. Bertevello et al.  achieved improvement in the colon cytokine response and damage reduction in model rats with colitis by partially replacing the n-6 fatty acids with MCTs. Papada et al.  reported the anti-inflammatory performance of a diet rich in MCTs in model rats carrying TNBS-induced colitis, in which the IL-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were decreased and glutathione S-transferase activity was reduced. Moreover, for a model rat carrying sepsis, an MCT diet could significantly reduce the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and MCP-1) in the ileum and Peyer’s patches . Herein, C8:0 has been proven to be prominently efficient in inhibiting inflammatory cytokine expression (i.e., TNF-α and MCP-1) in the plasma, and increasing the IL-10 level compared with those of the group treated with C18:0. However, a minor discrepancy was noted between the C8:0 and C18:3 groups. One meta-analysis reported that C18:3 administration had great therapeutic potential via decreasing patients’ inflammatory markers (e.g., C-reactive protein, IL-6, and TNF-α) that were associated with metabolic syndrome and related diseases . Samantha et al.  also found that C18:3 might function to alleviate the inflammatory states of M1-like macrophages via a special pathway that was different from those associated with EPA and DHA. Martínez-Micaelo et al.  confirmed that SFAs activated the nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and stimulated IL-1β secretion, whereas DHA (n-3 PUFA) functioned more positively than arachidonic acid in terms of inhibition of inflammasome activation. In vitro studies showed that levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β increased with prolongation of LPS stimulation, compared with those of control group, possibly due to increased cell stress and apoptosis. However, C8:0 inhibited production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1 in RAW246.7 cells activated by LPS, and the effects were significantly greater when treated with 100 μmol/L and 24 h. Moreover, these observations were similar to those for the DHA group. The effects of MCFAs have also been discussed recently. Tanaka et al.  reported the potentiation of C10:0 on IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells stimulated by IL-1β. Hoshimoto et al.  first discovered that IL-8 secretion from Caco-2 cells could be suppressed by C8:0 as well as medium-chain C8 triglycerides. These results suggested that C8:0, but not C10:0, inhibited inflammation. However, the mechanisms through which C8:0 dampens inflammation remain unclear.
C8:0 can suppress inflammation via TLR4/NF-κB signaling
Several studies have confirmed that inflammatory responses mediated by TLR4 may impose significant effects on the initiation and subsequent progression of atherosclerosis [21, 52]. We noted previously that MCTs could ameliorate atherosclerosis via promotion of reverse cholesterol transport , which increased the ease of cholesterol export from peripheral cells and prevented intracellular cholesterol accumulation. In this study, we found that C8:0, which is a member of the MCFAs, could suppress inflammatory signaling via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and improve atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice. TLRs can regulate both sterile inflammation and that induced by infection via endogenous molecules. Upon LPS binding, the TLR4/CD14/LBP receptor complex engages MyD88 to initiate a downstream signaling cascade, thereby triggering NF-κB and activating genes that encode pro-inflammatory factors, such as cytokines and COX2 . Numerous reports have investigated the stimulatory effects of SFAs on inflammatory responses via a TLR4-involved pathway. In particular, the stimulatory effects of the SFAs C12:0, C16:0, and C18:0 can enhance expression levels of the IL-6 gene in macrophages through this approach . In accordance, MCP-1 expression can also be enhanced by C18:0 via TLR4 . In this study, we showed that C8:0 significantly downregulated the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, TNF-α, TAK1, IKKα, and IKKβ compared to those induced by C18:0 in the aortas of apoE−/− mice. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cell type and primary inflammatory cells in atherosclerotic lesions and have an essential role during all stages of atherosclerosis . Excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages, also known as foam cell formation, is a key process during the development of atherosclerosis, leading to vascular inflammation and plaque growth. The expression of TLR4 has been found in macrophages and endothelial cells within human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions; and the TLR4 deficiency significantly reduces the in vivo rate of macrophage lipid accumulation in vascular lesions . The inflammatory responses mediated by TLR4 play important roles in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we further observed the effect of C8:0 on the TLR4/NF-κB pathway of macrophages. The assay results obtained from RAW246.7 cells were consistent. Our data showed an altered effect of C8:0 on TLR4 even as a saturated fatty acid, which was different from that of the LCFAs. Furthermore, two pathways have been proposed to underlie the mechanism of SFA-mediated inflammation (i.e., a TLR4-dependent one and a TLR4-independent pathway) [58, 59]. Whereas SFAs can stimulate TLR4 signaling, EPA and DHA have been suggested to play inhibitory roles . The first possibility is that EPA and DHA bind to G protein-coupled receptor 120, thereby inhibiting TAK1 and preventing the downstream NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways . Other explanations for the anti-inflammatory roles played by EPA and DHA include altered phospholipid fatty acid compositions in cell membranes, lipid rafts damage, downregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase production, upregulation of PPARγ activation, and inhibition of activation of NF-κB, which is a pro-inflammatory factor for transcription . Although SFAs can activate TLR4, the polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA and EPA, may exert opposite effects . We attempted to clarify the mechanism through which C8:0 suppressed the inflammatory reaction via TLR4/NF-κB signaling. In TLR4-KD RAW264.7 cells, it functioned adversely to the effects of C8:0 on inflammatory cytokines; and the effects were different from those observed without TLR4-KD. We also found a remarkable upregulation effect of C8:0 on the NF-κB mRNA and protein expression levels compared to those detected in the presence of C16:0. Despite the downregulation of TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression induced by C8:0, it significantly strengthened TNF-α and IL-1β expression, increased TNF-α and NF-κB mRNA expression, and elevated NF-κB expression compared with those obtained in the presence of DHA. These results indicated that C8:0 might affect TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. However, the mechanism through which C8:0 inhibits TLR4 is not clearly understood. Therefore, further research is needed to determine this mechanism.
Implications and limitations
There are some strengths of our study. Firstly, MCTs, mainly containing saturated fatty acids, can inhibit inflammation in ApoE−/− mice. Secondly, that anti-inflammatory effect of medium chain fatty acids is mainly C8:0, but not C10:0 in ApoE−/− mice. Last, this work should be the first case to indicate that C8:0-mediated inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling may improve atherosclerosis. It provides a theoretical basis for the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases by C8:0.
This study had some limitations. (1) We should have examined whether C8:0 had any effects on inflammation and atherosclerosis in TLR4−/− ApoE-KO mice or in ApoE−/− mice treated with a TLR4 siRNA. Additionally, these experiments do not indicate that the same effects will occur in humans. Therefore, further clinical studies are warranted. (2) Research on the mechanisms through which C8:0 regulates TLR4 is limited. The specific protein-coupled receptor to which C8:0 binds and the mechanism through which C8:0 binds TLR4 are not known. Although C8:0 can inhibit the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways to suppress inflammation, this inhibition occurs through MyD88-dependent and/or MyD88-independent pathways is uncertain. (3) TLR4 expression has been found to be broad in many cell types in the vessel wall that are related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the evaluation of how C8:0 affected TLR4 expression in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells on the vessel wall was insufficient in this work. (4) Other probable mechanisms may exist besides the TLR4/NF-κB inhibition that underlies the C8:0-mediated dampening of the inflammatory response and improvement of atherosclerosis.
We thank Yajun Lin (Beijing Geriatric Institute of Beijing Hospital) for his kind technical support.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Fund of China (no. 81541067 and 81703204).
Availability of data and materials
Please contact author (Xinsheng Zhang) for data or material requests.
CG and YL designed the research and provided research funding. XS, CX, QX, YZ, HL and FL conducted the research. XS and YL analysed the data. XS wrote the first draft. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
All the operations in designed experiments were with the approval from the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Chinese PLA General Hospital. Surgeries were conducted with anesthesia of xylazine hydrochloride, and every effort had been made for suffering minimization.
Consent for publication
The authors consent to the publication of the data.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
- 7.De Oliveira Otto MC, Wu JH, Baylin A, Vaidya D, Rich SS, Tsai MY, Jacobs DR Jr, Mozaffarian D. Circulating and dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of CVD in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000506.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 21.Michelsen KSWM, Shah PK, Zhang W, Yano J, Doherty TM, Akira S, Rajavashisth TB, Arditi M. Lack of toll-like receptor 4 or myeloid differentiation factor 88 reduces atherosclerosis and alters plaque phenotype in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10679–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Verveniotis ASG, Oikonomou E, Tsigkou V, Papageorgiou N, Zaromitidou M, Psaltopoulou T, Marinos G, Deftereos S, Vavuranakis M, Stefanadis C, Papavassiliou AG, Tousoulis D. The impact of omega 3 fatty acids in atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness: an overview of their actions. Curr Pharm Des. 2018;24:1865–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Alfaidi MA, Chamberlain J, Rothman A, Crossman D, Villa-Uriol MC, Hadoke P, Wu J, Schenkel T, Evans PC, Francis SE. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid reduces Oscillatory Wall shear stress, atherosclerosis, and hypertension, Most likely mediated via an IL-1-mediated mechanism. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1161/jaha.118.008757.
- 27.Van Noolen L, Back M, Arnaud C, Rey A, Petri MH, Levy P, Faure P, Stanke-Labesque F. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation modifies fatty acid incorporation in tissues and prevents hypoxia induced-atherosclerosis progression in apolipoprotein-E deficient mice. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2014;91:111–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Sato M, Shibata K, Nomura R, Kawamoto D, Nagamine R, Imaizumi K. Linoleic acid-rich fats reduce atherosclerosis development beyond its oxidative and inflammatory stress-increasing effect in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in comparison with saturated fatty acid-rich fats. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:896–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Koopmans SJ, Dekker R, Ackermans MT, Sauerwein HP, Serlie MJ, van Beusekom HM, van den Heuvel M, van der Giessen WJ. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Akbari M, Ostadmohammadi V, Tabrizi R, Mobini M, Lankarani KB, Moosazadeh M, Heydari ST, Chamani M, Kolahdooz F, Asemi Z. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018;15:39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Schaeffler A, Gross P, Buettner R, Bollheimer C, Buechler C, Neumeier M, Kopp A, Schoelmerich J, Falk W. Fatty acid-induced induction of toll-like receptor-4/nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in adipocytes links nutritional signalling with innate immunity. Immunology. 2009;126:233–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.