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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases in northern Pakistan

  • Khafsa MalikEmail author
  • Mushtaq AhmadEmail author
  • Muhammad Zafar
  • Riaz Ullah
  • Hafiz Majid Mahmood
  • Bushra Parveen
  • Neelam Rashid
  • Shazia Sultana
  • Syed Nasar Shah
  • Lubna
Open Access
Research article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Patterns of use, knowledge and attitudes

Abstract

Background

Skin diseases are a major health concern especially in association with human immune deficiency syndrome and acquired an immune deficiency. The aim of this study was to document the ethnomedicinal information of plants used to treat skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of therapeutic herbs utilized by the indigenous people of Northern Pakistan for skin diseases.

Methods

Interviews were taken to obtain information from 180 participants. Quantitative methods including fidelity level (FL), Frequency of citation (FC), Use-value (UV), Jaccard indices (JI), Family importance value (FIV), Relative frequency of citation (RFC) and Chi-square test were applied. Medicinal plants uses are also compared with 50 national and international publications.

Results

In this study, we recorded 106 plant species belonged to 56 floral families for treatment of skin ailments. The dominant life form reported was herb while the preferred method of utilization was powder, along with leaf as the most used plant part. RFC ranges from 0.07 to 0.25% whereas the highest FIV was recorded for family Pteridaceae. FL values range from 36.8 to 100%. The study reported 88% of new plant reports for the treatment of skin diseases.

Conclusion

The present study revealed the importance of several plants used to treat skin diseases by the local communities of Northern Pakistan. The available literature supported the evidence of plant dermatological properties. Plants having high UV and RFC can be considered for further scientific analysis. There is dire need to create awareness among local, government and scientific communities for the preservation of medicinal species and ethnomedicinal knowledge in Northern Pakistan.

Keywords

Skin diseases Medicinal plant Northern Pakistan Traditional Ethnomedicines 

Abbreviations

FC

Frequency of citation

FL

Fidelity Level

IBC

Institutional Bio-ethics Committee

ISL

Islamabad

JI

Jaccard index

Pak

Pakistan

RFC

Relative Frequency of citation

THPs

Traditional Health Practitioners

Qau

Quaid-i-Azam uni 

Background

Skin diseases present a major health concern worldwide [1]. Skin problems significantly affect the quality of health and difficult to treat due to persistence [2]. The skin is an external organ covering the body and serves many important functions including percutaneous absorption, organ protection, fluid preservation, body shape maintenance, temperature regulation and eliminating toxins from the body by sweat excretion [1]. The etiology of skin diseases display a close connection between an individual’s health and socio-cultural environment [3]. Skin diseases affect people of all age groups and gender [4]. Skin ailments or infectious dermatological dermatological diseases are particularly present in tropical areas of Globe [5]. Skin diseases constitute about 34% of all the ailments and supposed to be the most common disease among rural people [6]. Skin diseases have gained attention in recent years due to the association with AIDS/HIV. Greater than 90% of infectious persons of HIV developed mucosal and skin problems at certain phase of disease [1]. Skin ailments such as boils, itching, ringworm, skin disorders, leprosy, wound, dermatitis, eczema, scabies, skin allergy swelling and psoriasis are caused by a variety of microorganisms [7]. In previous reports, it was found that wound healing, eczema, dermatitis, fungal diseases, pyoderma, scabies, and skin allergies are the largest group of skin diseases that occur in most of the countries. Most of the plants used for treating skin disorders possibly have other additional properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, cicatrizant, hemostatic, analgesic effects that require pharmacological confirmation [8]. In literature, various plants have been reported to be used against skin infections like wound healing, scabies, swellings, boils, etc. [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16].

In Pakistan, the number of patients suffering from skin diseases increases every year. The majority suffer from psoriasis, followed by pigment disorder, eczema, urticaria and fungal infection [17]. Climatic conditions like hot and humid weather intensify the prevalence of skin disorders. Although the mortality for skin infection is relatively low, the infection affects the quality of life. Modern skin therapies depend on the cause of the ailment. A skin disease caused by fungal and bacterial infection is medicated using antibiotics such as tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and gentamicin. It is believed that modern therapies have many disadvantages like antibiotic resistance, allergic and adverse reactions in some patients [18]. Modern medicines are very expensive with costly treatments so an alternative approach such as herbal medication in practiced.

Ethno-medicinal studies showed that herbal medicine is an alternative therapy for treatment and control of skin ailments [19]. Herbal anti-skin medicines have many useful properties including low side effects and cost treatment with high significant efficacy [20, 21]. Medicinal flora have shown a pivotal part in management of dermatological conditions [11, 22], particularly communities in developing countries local communities depend on traditional medicine for their health care [23]. The World Health Organization has a deep interest in the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge from from different areas of globe [24]. Currently, the Ministry of Public Health of Pakistan is promoting the usage of therapeutic herbs in health maintenance system [25].

In Pakistan, few previous reports exist the usage of therapeutic flora in skin care [1]. Therapeutic flora usage for treatment of skin ailments are documented in the literature [26], but, no specific study exists treatment of skin diseases. Various medicinal plants are also reported worldwide usage for the cure of skin disorders [7, 27, 28, 29, 30]. The ethnobotanical literature on medicinal usage of flora for various ailments in Pakistan were mentioned in literature [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37], but no systematic ethnomedicinal study has specifically focused on skin problems in the tribal areas of Northern Pakistan.

The objective of this research work is to document and examine the diversity of therapeutic flora used for treating the skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. This research will facilitate future scientific authentication through antimicrobial, pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Methods

Description of study area

Northern Pakistan is home to the world's largest peaks and high mountain ranges i.e., Karakorum, Alai Ranges, Kunlun, Hindukush and Tien Shan [38]. Its topography differs from rock parts in North to green plains and forest in South. These areas are rich in floral variation of therapeutic plant species [39]. This area includes Hazara division, Swat valley, Mansehra, Kaghan and some tribal areas of Northern parts (Fig.1). The area is located at 72°35’to - 73°31′E and 33°50′-to 34°23′ N. The province borders Afghanistan to North Western side, Kashmir to East Punjab Islamabad capital territory to East and FATA to South. The average temperature recorded in the past was minimum in January as 1.7 °C while the mean maximum was 32.41 °C in June [40]. The average annual rainfall is about 1125 mm. The major tribes residing in the area include Khattak, Yusufzai, Marwat, Shinwari, Afridi, Orakzai, Mahsud, Mohmand, Abbassies, Wazir, Tareen, Mashwani, Jadoon, Tanolis, Awans, Sardars, Sheikhs and Qureshi [1]. Northern Pakistan is a hilly area and the cultivated land is not enough for sustenance [41]. Medicinal plant collection and other non-timber forest products provide an additional source of income (12%), while daily salaries and wages constitute 20%, transmittals from other areas of Pakistan and overseas (17%), and other occupations (10%) [41]. About 80% population in Pakistan is rural households and has easy access to medicinal plants.
Fig. 1

Map of the study area -Northern Pakistan (www.globalsecurity.org)

Ethical compliance

The present study was carefully designed with strict compliance of bio-ethics and approved by the Institutional Bioethics Committee (IBC) of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan under the approval No PT-5695. The rules for plant collection and identification were followed according to National Biodiversity Action Plan as per the guidelines of Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL), Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Prior to data collection, a brief group discussion was held with the participants for agreement, to tell the objectives of research and to guarantee the safety of indigenous knowledge. These practices clear the aim of research and develop confidence in participants so they give reliable knowledge without any hesitation. Initially, 200 participants were selected of them were but among them, 20 were hesitant in providing knowledge leaving a total of 180 participants for data collection. While data documentation, all participants were contacted 3 times for the authentication of the knowledge given by informants. Any deviance of the informants idea from authentic knowledge given, the information was excluded and regarded inapplicable. The data quality was ensured through proper training of data collectors, pointing out missing information, duplication of the material, and careful analysis. The data quality was ensured through proper training of data collectors, pointing out missing information, duplication of the material, and careful analysis. The few plants in the MS are listed on the IUCN red list such as Taxus wallichiana (plant #104) is endangered, Colubrina oppositifolia (#84) is critical, Aconitum chasmanthum (#79) is critical and Plantago lanceolata (#69) is vulnerable. All plants listed in this study are authorized by the biodiversity action plan and duly authenticate by ethical committee of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and then included in the MS. The native communities of the area have knowledge about sustainable use of these plants and use of these plants with care (criteria of IUCN) so that they don’t get vanished and are save for next generation.

Field study and data collection

This research work focused on the use of traditional plant resources with specific reference to the treatment of skin ailments. Fieldwork was performed between April 2015 to August 2015. Collectively, 180 participants were interviewed after receiving their prior informed consent. Data was collected from native indigenous health practitioners (THPs) and local participants (female and males of altered groups of age, experiences and education levels). During field surveys, face to face interviews and semi-structured interviews were also conducted. Guided field walks were also conducted [42]. The questionnaire used for data collection includes two parts, (i) part dealing with the demographic data of participants, and (ii) part focusing on information about plants´ local name, mode of administration, preparation and part of the plant used against skin diseases. Documentation of data while field survey was evaluated and organized by usage of quantitative analysis. In addition, data was compared with previously published research articles on ethnomedicinal uses of plants to validate the plants with higher medicinal values for skin diseases.

Collection identification and preservation

In the current study, therapeutic flora documented by participants was identified by their common names [43]. The plant specimens were further authenticated by a Plant Taxonomist, Professor Mir Ajab Khan (Ph.D. in Plant Systematics) at the Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL), QAU Islamabad, Pakistan. All the plants species were further authenticated through available literature [42] and compared  with herbarium specimens. In addition, some plants used by the local healers were photographed. Voucher plant specimens were collected in duplicate. Herbarium specimens were deposited in Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL, Registered at Index Herbarium http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/) and voucher specimens are presented in.

Quantitative data analysis

Use value (UV)

Use value is calculated to assess all probable usage of plant species. UV of plants gives a quantitative analysis for plant citation. UV tells the relative importance of plant flora recognized locally. UV was analysed according to [44].
$$ \mathrm{UV}=\mathrm{u}/\mathrm{N} $$

Where u is the total participants stating various uses of a plant and N is whole number of participants. UV is usually (1) if the number of usages is greater, and (0) if the usage report for plants species is less. UV not deliver data on multiple or single usage of plant flora is considerably low. UV does not deliver any data on the single or multiple uses of plant species.

Frequency of citation (FC) and relative frequency of citation (RFC)

FC is used for evaluating the most prefered plants or more used plant species. RFC was analysed to intricate the knowledge of traditional flora about usage of therapeutic flora in the study site.
$$ \mathrm{RFC}=\mathrm{FC}/\mathrm{N}\ \left(0<\mathrm{RFC}<1\right) $$

Where RFC is denoted by relative frequency citation, FC (Frequency of Citation) is the number of participants who stated the plant flora and N is whole number of informants [34].

Fidelity level (FL)

To analyse most prefered plant usage for the cure of a specific disease, we used (FL) index adopted by [37]. FFL indicates the importance of one species over other, to cure specific diseases. Fidelity level shows the percentage of participants who reported the use of specific plant species for a particular disease (Skin disease).
$$ \mathrm{FL}\ \left(\%\right)={\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{P}}/\mathrm{N}\times 100 $$

Where, Np is the number of participants that declare the usage of species for definite disease, and N is total participants that use plants as a medicines for the treatment of any given ailment [45].

Jaccard index (JI)

Jaccard index (JI) is evaluated by comparison of formarly published studies from local, regional and global level by analysing the percentage of cited plant species and medicinal usage, by using the following formula:
$$ \mathrm{JI}=\mathrm{c}\ \mathrm{multiply}\ 100/\mathrm{a}+\mathrm{b}-\mathrm{c} $$
where “a” is the number of species of area A, “b” is number of species of area B, and “c” is number of species common in A and B [46].

Chi-square test

The knowledge of medicinal species distributed between male and female participants between two age categories (36–46 and > 60 years of age) was comparatively analyzed by using Chi-square.

Results

Socio-demographic characteristics of participants

Collectively 180 participants were selected from several regions of Northern Pakistan. The majority of professional healers were males (61%). Based on age, the participants were divided into five groups (36–46 (11%), 47–57 (19%), 58–68 (24%), 69–79 (34%) and above 80 years (12%). Participants constitute 24 students, 41 herbalists, 32 physicians, 12 retirees, 46 housewives, 12 professionals, and 13 others. A large number (44%) of local healers also used allopathic medicines. Regarding education, 30% of the participants were illiterate, 35% of the traditional healers had attended primary school, 18% secondary education level, 9% tertiary education and only 8% of participants had attended universities. The majority of professional healers (43%) in the study area were married, followed by single (37%), widowed (16%) and 4% divorced Most of the participants were living in rural areas (88%) and only 12% living in urban areas (Table 1).
Table 1

Demographic data of participants

Parameters

 

Participants (N)

N (%)

Gender

Female

70

39

Male

110

61

Age

36–46

20

11

47–57

35

19

57–67

43

24

68–78

62

34

80>

20

12

Education

No formal education

55

30

Primary

63

35

Secondary

32

18

Tertiary

16

9

Others

14

8

Collaboration with modern medicine

Collaborative

80

44

Non collaborative

100

56

Occupation

Student

24

13

Herbalists

41

23

Physician

32

18

Retired

12

7

Housewife

46

25

Professional

12

7

Others

13

7

Residence

Urban

22

12

Rural

158

88

Marital status

Single

66

37

Married

78

43

Widowed

29

16

Divorced

7

4

Diversity of medicinal plants used

Therapeutic flora, used to cure skin diseases in Northern Pakistan are documented in Table 2. The study reported 106 medicinal plant species. The main growth habit of the plant flora was herbs 62%, followed by shrubs (20%) and trees (18%). The plants belonged to 56 families. Asteraceae (10 species) and Lamiaceae (7 species) represent the most dominant family in this study site (Fig. 2). The other important families in the study included Polygonaceae (6 species), then Ranunculaceae and Rosaceae (5 species each). The least species (1%) were observed in 37 families (Fig. 2).
Table 2

Medicinal plants used for skin diseases in Northern Pakistan

Family / Scientific name / coll. #

Vernacular Name

Habit

Plant Part used

Mode of utilization

Disease treated

Preparation

FC

RFC

UV

FL

Comparison

Acanthaceae Justicia adhatoda L. LI 58

Behkar

Shrub

Leaf

Decoction, powder

Wound healing

Leaf are directly applied on wounds

23

0.13

0.043

73.91

1 □, 2 □, 3 ■, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa L. □□LI 6

Piaz

Herb

Bulb

Juice

Wound healing

Juice of plant is given 3 cups daily

29

0.16

0.034

79.31

1 ■, 2 □, 3 ■, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 ■, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ■, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 ■, 18 ●, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 ●, 25 □, 26 □, 27, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 ■, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 ■, 50 □

Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum L LI 7

Lehsan

Herb

Leaf

Paste

Pimples

Paste of plant is added in different a edibles for pimples

36

0.20

0.028

91.67

1 ●, 2 □, 3 ■, 4 □, 5 □, 6 ●, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 ●, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 ■, 50 □

Apiaceae Anethum graveolens L. LI 10

Soye

Herb

Whole plant

Decoction

pimples

3 cups of decoction at two time is given twice a week

20

0.11

0.050

75.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum L. LI 33

Dhania

Herb

Whole plant

Raw, cooked

Pimples

Whole plant as it is or add in different dishes while cooking to cure pimples

32

0.18

0.031

87.50

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ●, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Apiaceae Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel. LI 47

 

Herb

Latex

Poultice

Wound healing

Its poultice is used for wound cure

40

0.22

0.025

92.50

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Apiaceae Pleurospermum brunonis Benth. ex C.B.Clarke LI 80

Spairkai

 

Leaf

Powder

Skin problems

Crushed leaves are mixed in oil and applied on the skin to prevent infections.

28

0.16

0.036

85.71

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 ■, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Apocynaceae Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. LI 24

Desi aak

Herb

Flower and branches

Decoction

inflammation

The decoction of flowers with honey in two ounce is given once a day

18

0.10

0.056

61.11

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ●, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 ●, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 ■, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum L. Haines LI 22

Granda

Shrub

Root, bark, Leaf

Paste

Wound healing, boil

The paste prepared from bark and root is applied on wounds for healing

25

0.14

0.080

80.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Apocynaceae Rauvolfia serpentina L. LI 84

Tilian

Shrub

Leaf

Extract

Skin problem

Extract or paste prepared from flower and leaf is used to cure anemia, skin diseases and blood purification

22

0.12

0.045

86.36

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. LI8

 

Herb

Whole plant, flowers

Paste

Skin burn

Poultice made of whole plant is useful for skin burns

32

0.18

0.031

81.25

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Artemisia vulgaris L. LI 12

Jaokay

Herb

Leaf

Powders

boils

Dried leaves are grinded to fine powder and taken 3 spoons in the early morning.

45

0.25

0.022

80.00

1 ■, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 ■, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauverd LI 50

Kofe

Herb

Roots

Paste

Wound healing

Paste prepared from roots is applied to newly cut wounds to control the bleeding.

39

0.22

0.026

69.23

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Gnaphalium affine D.Don LI 51

Jangli dodal

Herb

Leaf

Decoction

Skin problems

A decoction made from leaves is used to cure sore throat, influenza and weeping pruritus of the skin.

12

0.07

0.083

50.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f. LI 60/

Herb

 

Leaf

Powder

Wound healing

Dried leaves are powdered and taken with water twice a day.

19

0.11

0.053

78.95

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch.Bip. LI 93

 

Herb

Roots

Extract

Skin problem

Tonic, carminative, used in cholera and in chronic skin problems

39

0.22

0.026

76.92

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Senecio chrysanthemoides DC LI 94

 

Herb

Leaf

Oil

Skin problem

Oil is used for treatment

36

0.20

0.056

80.56

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Sonchus asper (L.) Hill LI 96

 

Herb

Flower, Leaf

Powder

Skin problem

Dried flowers and leaves are powdered and taken for the treatment of rheumatism.

26

0.14

0.038

100.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae Taraxacum officinale aggr. F.H. Wigg. LI 99

Haand

Herb

Flowers, Leaf, roots

Tea

Pimples

The tea prepared from flowers is used internally to cure pimples and is used cosmetically to clear the skin

35

0.19

0.029

94.29

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Asteraceae

Tussilago farfara L. LI 103

Bann Hulla

 

Flowers

Poultice

Skin problems

A poultice made from flowers is used for the treatment of a range of skin disorders including ulcers, sores, and Inflammations.

27

0.15

0.037

77.78

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Balsaminaceae Impatien edgeworthii Hook. f LI 54

Buntil

Herb

Whole plant

Paste

Skin burn

The plant paste is used externally for burns

33

0.18

0.030

81.82

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Berberidaceae Berberis lycium Royle LI 15

Sumblu/ komal

Shrub

Leaf, root, flowers

Paste

Wound healing

The paste prepared from leaves and roots is externally applied on wounds.

21

0.12

0.048

80.95

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 ●, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 ■, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Boraginaceae Hackelia americana (A.Gray) Fernald LI 52

Neelaan

Herb

Flowers

 

Wounds

The flowers are good expectorant, used for wound healing and treating tumors. Flowers are used to cure coughs, sores, and swellings.

28

0.16

0.036

78.57

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Boraginaceae Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. LI 71

Lal jari

Tree

Leaf, Flower, Roots

Poultice

Skin burn

Leaf poultice are applied on the Burnt wounds with ghee/ oil.

33

0.18

0.030

72.73

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Brassicaceae Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. LI 20

Sharsham

Herb

Leaf

Cooked

Wound healing

Leaf are cooked and used for wound healing

21

0.12

0.048

66.67

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Buxaceae Buxus papillosa C.K. Schneid. LI 21

Angaroo

Shrub

Leaf

Oil

Skin problems

Oil of Leaf are applied on skin

29

0.16

0.034

79.31

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 ■, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 ■, 33 ■, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L LI 26

Bhang

Shrub

Flower, fruit, Leaf

Juice, powder

Dandruff, wounds healing

The fresh juice of Leaf and flowers are used for removing dandruff Fr.om the head.

Powder of the Leaf and fruits are beneficial for dressing fresh wounds

17

0.09

0.118

94.12

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ■, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 ●, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Capparaceae Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. LI 27

Keera

Tree

Seeds

Decoction

Wound healing

Decoction prepared from seeds  is taken 3 cups daily to cure wounds.

24

0.13

0.042

91.67

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Caprifoliaceae Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. LI 105

Murma

 

Roots

Juice

Pimples

The root juice is used to cure hysteria, pimples, rheumatism, nausea and cholera

22

0.12

0.045

86.36

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Caryophyllaceae Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet, LI 29

  

Bark

Powder

Skin problem

Powdered bark along with milk is taken orally at morning to treat skin problems.

38

0.21

0.026

89.47

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L LI 32

Chora

Herb

Leaf, Fruit

Raw

Wound infection

Whole fruit is used to treat wounds

33

0.18

0.030

84.85

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ■, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 ●, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Convolvulaceae Cuscta reflexa Roxb. LI 35

Neeltharee

Tree

Roots

Decoction

Skin problems

Crushed roots are boiled in water and some sugar is added.

28

0.16

0.036

92.86

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cucurbitaceae Cucumis melo L. LI 36

Tori

Herb

Fruit

Infusion

Skin burn

Infusion of fruits used to cure skin burns

26

0.14

0.038

92.31

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 ■, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. LI 59

Gya Kadoo

Herb

Leaf, fruit

Raw

Wound healing, skin burn

Eaten daily as tonic

28

0.16

0.071

57.14

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cucurbitaceae Momordica charantia L. LI 67

Kareela

Herb

Flowers, roots

Paste

Wound healing

Paste of herb is applied for wound healing

19

0.11

0.053

94.74

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 ■, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 ■, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cupressaceae Juniperus communis L. LI 56

Gojar

Tree

Berries

Decoction

Skin problem

An ointment of berries are used in skin problem

25

0.14

0.040

76.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cupressaceae Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. LI 57

Pencil Cedar

Tree

Bark

Powder

Skin Problem

Powder of the bark is used in certain skin infection areas

11

0.06

0.091

72.73

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Cyperaceae Cyperus difformis L LI 38

Motkopragha

Herb

Whole plant

Paste

Skin problems

Paste prepared from whole plants is applied externally to cure skin infections.

14

0.08

0.071

71.43

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Elaeagnaceae Hippophae rhamnoides L. LI 53

 

Tree

Fruit, seeds

Decoction

Skin problems

A decoction of the fruits are used for skin problems

37

0.21

0.027

83.78

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 ■, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 ●, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense L. LI 43

Chew Shina

Herb

Whole Plant

Powder

Skin problems, allergy

Plant material are mixed with different herbs and used on skin troubles and allergy

36

0.20

0.056

86.11

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 ●, 50 □

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia helioscopia L. LI 44

Cat milk

Herb

Leaf

powder

Wound healing

Dried leaves are mixed in water and taken orally for 4–5 days.

22

0.12

0.045

81.82

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Fabaceae Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze LI 14

Chichra

Tree

Root

Decoction

Skin problem

Root decoction is used in skin diseases

36

0.20

0.028

94.44

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 ●, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 ●, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Fabaceae Delbergia sissoo L. LI 41

Shesham

Tree

Leaf

Decoction, infusion

Skin problem, abscesses

Leaves are dried, mixed with water and taken orally for 4–5 days.

40

0.22

0.050

95.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Fabaceae Pisum sativum L. LI 77

Matar

Herb

Seed

Extract

Skin burn

Fresh seeds are milled then extract drops being used.

21

0.12

0.143

80.95

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Fabaceae Trigonella foenum-graecum L LI 102

Jangli

Herb

Leaf, flowers

Decoction

Wound healing

Leaf and flowers are boiled in water used for cure wounds

39

0.22

0.026

82.05

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 ■, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 ■, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 ●, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Gentianaceae Swertia abyssinica Hochst. LI 97

Chratia

Shrub

Flower, Leaf

Paste

Skin problems

Plant is crushed into paste and applied on skin.

17

0.09

0.059

94.12

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae Ajuga integrifolia Buch-Ham-ex D. Don LI 5

Bootei

Herb

Leaf

Powder

Boils

One table spoon of powdered leaves is taken for boils treatment on daily basis.

22

0.12

0.045

81.82

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) LI 55

Sperkay

Shrub

Leaf

Powder

Wound healing

Powdered leaves are taken 3 times a day after each meal.

20

0.11

0.050

90.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae

Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Benth LI 66

Narayshamakay

Herb

Flowers, Leaf, roots

Paste

Wound healing

Root Leaf and flower paste is used for poultice making to treat wounds.

15

0.08

0.067

60.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae Nepeta hindostana (B.Heyne ex Roth) Haines. LI 68

Indian catnip

Herb

Leaf

Extract

Skin problems

The leaf extract is prepared and one small teaspoon is taken twice a day.

21

0.12

0.048

80.95

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae Rydingia limbata (Benth.) Scheen & V.A. Albert LI 90

Ghawareja

Shrub

Leaf

Extract

Skin problem

Leaves extract is taken orally to cure mouth ulcers and skin disorders.

23

0.13

0.043

100.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae Salvia moorcroftiana wall. ex Benth LI 92

Khaar dug, Zarshal,

Herb

Leaf

Poultice

Wound healing, skin itching

Poultice of the Leaf are used for external skin itching

17

0.09

0.059

64.71

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lamiaceae Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. LI 101

Kwandi Bootay

Herb

Leaf

Decoction

Wound healing

Decoction of Leaf is employed in wound healing.

25

0.14

0.040

88.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Loranthaceae Loranthus pulverulentus Wall LI 62

Parwikh

Shrub

Leaf

Powder

Wound healing

Leaf powder is used for wound healing.

32

0.18

0.031

71.88

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Lythraceae Lawsonia inermis L. LI 61

Mhendi

Shrub

Leaves

Infusion

Skin burn, boils

Crushed leaves are dissolved in water and infusion made is taken for 4–5 days

39

0.22

0.051

61.54

1 ■, 2 ●, 3 ■, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ■, 10 ●, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 ■, 16 □, 17 □, 18 ■, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 ■, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 ●, 50 □

Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench LI 1

Bhindi

Herb

Seeds

Tea

pimples

Seeds are boil in water and make tea which is used in pimples cure

29

0.16

0.034

72.41

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Meliaceae Melia azadarach L. LI 65

Draik

Tree

Leaf

Powder

Pimples, Inflammation

Three teaspoons of grinded leaves are mixed in three cups of hot water and used twice a day.

27

0.15

0.074

74.07

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Myrsinaceae Myrsine africana L. LI 63/

Gugal

Shrub

Leaf

 

Skin problems

Leaves are used to cure cough, cold, flue and skin disorders.

35

0.19

0.029

91.43

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Nitrariaceae Peganum harmala L. LI 72

Isman

Herb

Leaf

Extract

Skin problem

The aqueous extract of leaves is used thrice a day to treat skin problems.

35

0.19

0.029

65.71

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 ■, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 ■, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Nyctaginaceae Boerrehavia diffusa L. LI 19/

Snnati

Herb

Leaf

Infusion

abscesses

Leaves are crushed and added in water, used to cure skin abscission.

27

0.15

0.037

81.48

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Oleaceae Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif LI 70

Ghawareja

Shrub

Leaf,seeds

Tea

Skin problems

Leaves are boiled and the tea is taken orally to cure mouth ulcers and skin disorders.

31

0.17

0.032

80.65

1 ■, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 ■, 8 ●, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 ●, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 ●, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 ■, 50 □

Papaveraceae Corydalis govaniana Wall. LI 34

Bhutyata

Herb

Roots

Powder

Skin burn

The powdered root is effective as antiperiodic,

appetizer, diuretic and skin, tonic.

34

0.19

0.029

91.18

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 ■, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Phytolaceae Phytolacea letsenia L. LI 73

Amlok

Shrub

Flower, roots

Powder

Wound healing

Shade dried flowers are powdered and mixed with sugar, is recommended for wound healing.

37

0.21

0.027

83.78

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Pinaceae Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don). LI 28

Deodar

Tree

Roots

Extracts

Skin problems

Oil extracted from roots is used for skin disorders.

36

0.20

0.028

86.11

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Pinaceae Pinus roxburgii Sarg LI 75/

Cheerh

Tree

Seed, stem

Juice

Skin problems

Juice of Seed is given 3 cups daily

16

0.09

0.063

56.25

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Pinaceae Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks. LI 76

 

Tree

Seed

Powder

Wound infection

The seeds are grinded to flour and few grains of sugar are mixed and taken with tea in the morning.

18

0.10

0.056

44.44

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Plantaginaceae Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle. ex Benth. LI 74

Kutakisafed

Herb

Roots

 

Burning sensations

It is useful in the treatment of burning sensation,

39

0.22

0.026

76.92

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Plantaginaceae Plantago major L. LI 78

Achar

Herb

Seed

Poultice

Skin problems, wound healing, boils

Polutice of fresh seeds is wrapped around

the boils, after three day the pus drains out and the heals

up within a week.

31

0.17

0.032

83.87

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 ■, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 ■, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □□□, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. LI 79

 

Herb

Seed, Leaf

Poultice

Wounds healing

Leaf are applied to

Wounds.

33

0.18

0.030

75.76

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Poaceae Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. LI 37

Kabalor

Herb

Whole plants

Powder

Wound healing, skin problems

Whole plant is grinded with water to cure skin problem

16

0.09

0.125

68.75

1 □, 2 □, 3 ■, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ●, 10 ■, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 ●, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Polygonaceae Fagopyrum acutatum (Lehm.) Mansf. ex K.Hammer LI 45

Buck wheat

Herb

Leaf

Powder

Wound healing

Powder Leaf mixed with oil is applied over area

26

0.14

0.038

80.77

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Polygonaceae Polygonum nepalense Meissn. LI 81

Hulla

Herb

Leaf, Seeds

Paste

Wounds

A poultice prepared from the roots is used on fresh wounds.

30

0.17

0.033

76.67

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Polygonaceae Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. LI 87

Sa-shing

 

Roots

Decoction

Skin problem

Decoction of roots is taken with Aloe vera to treat skin problems

34

0.19

0.029

76.47

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Polygonaceae Rumex dissectus H. Lév. LI 88

Khatimmer

Herb

Leaf, roots

Extract, powder

Wound infections

Fresh Leaf extracts are crushed and used to stop wounds bleeding

29

0.16

0.034

86.21

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Polygonaceae Rumex dentatus L. LI 89

Shalkhay

Herbs

Leaf

Powder

Boils

2–3 leaves are powdered. Tea made by adding 4-5 grams of powder in 2 cups of water. This can be taken for treating boils.

27

0.15

0.037

88.89

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Polygonaceae Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. LI 46

Bro Kho-Bro

Herb

Leaf. seeds

Paste

Skin problem

Paste is applied on skin effected areas

35

0.19

0.029

91.43

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Primulaceae Androsace rotundifolia Lehm. ex Roem. & Schult. LI 9

Marcholla

Herb

Leaf

Extracts

Skin problem

Aqueous leaf extract is prepared and used in treating skin infections.

22

0.12

0.045

72.73

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Pteridaceae Adiantum venustum D. Don LI 4

Pata, kakwa

Herb

Leaf

Paste

Wound healing

The rhizome paste is applied to heal cuts and wounds.

48

0.27

0.021

91.67

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20□, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Ranunculaceae Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes LI 2

Bishmoulo (Shina) Mori

Herb

Leaf

Decoction

Mumps, measles

Decoction of the Leaf are given for 2 weeks to cure diseases

44

0.24

0.023

88.64

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Ranunculaceae Aconitum delphinifolium DC. LI 3

Booma

Herb

Leaf

Decoction

Wound healing, boils

Dried leaves are boiled in water to make decoction and is taken on daily basis to cure boils.

31

0.17

0.065

90.32

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Ranunculaceae Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. ex Royle LI 13

Koo-kuk

Herb

Leaf, floral parts

Paste

Skin burns and wound healing

Fresh plant parts are crushed in water to prepare paste and applied on affected areas to avoid pain from burns and wounds.

39

0.22

0.051

79.49

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 ■, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 ■, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Ranunculaceae Caltha alba Cambess LI 25/

Neel kanth

 

Leaf

Extract

Skin problems

Leaf extract is used for cleaning skin lesions, sores and skin diseases.

21

0.12

0.048

80.95

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Ranunculaceae Nigella sativa L. LI 69

Kaloongee

Herb

Seed, Leaf

 

Wound healing

Latex is effective for rheumatic pain.

26

0.14

0.038

61.54

1 ■, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 ■, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rhamnaceae Colubrina oppositifolia Brongn. ex H. Mann LI 23

Lansa

Shrub

Leaf

Paste

Wound healing, Skin problem

Leaf Paste are applied on wound and bruises

32

0.18

0.063

81.25

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rosaceae Malus pumila Mill LI 64

Manra

Tree

Leaf

Raw, Juice

Boils

Juice extracted from the Leafare used in boils

28

0.16

0.071

75.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rosaceae Prunus armeniaca L. LI 82

Apricot

Tree

Fruit

 

Skin problem

 

32

0.18

0.031

96.88

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 ●, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rosaceae Prunus persica (L.) Batsch LI 83

Aru

Tree

Fruit and Leaf

 

Skin problems

 

18

0.10

0.056

55.56

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 ●, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rosaceae Rosa chinensis Jacq LI 85

Gulab

Shrub

Flower

Raw

Skin problem

Fruit is used to reduce pain

40

0.22

0.050

95.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rosaceae

Rubus abchaziensis Sudre LI 86

Akhray, Karwarra

Shrub

Flowers, roots

Decoction

Wound healing, boils

Fruit decoction is given for 2 week to cure wounds and boils.

36

0.20

0.028

75.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rubiaceae Galium abaujense Borbás LI 48

Khrrhatani

Herb

Leaf

Poultice

Wound healing

Poultice prepared from leaves is applied on wounds and used as an antiseptic.

19

0.11

0.053

36.84

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rubiaceae Gallium aparine L. LI 49

Loothar

Herb

Leaf

Poultice

Wound healing

Leaf are

externally used on wounds as antiseptic

21

0.12

0.048

80.95

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC LI 11

Dumbara

Shrubs

Leaf

Raw, paste

Skin burn

Fresh Leaf paste are used to cure skin burn

19

0.11

0.053

57.89

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ●, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rutaceae Citrus medica L. LI 30

Lemmon

Tree

Fruit

Juice

skin irritation

Juice of fruit is applied on skin to reduce skin irritation

14

0.08

0.071

78.57

1 □, 2 □, 3 ●, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Rutaceae Citrus sinensis L. LI 31

Orange

Tree

Fruit

Raw

Pimples

Fruit as a whole is used to reduce pimples

20

0.11

0.050

80.00

1 ■, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 ●, 50 □

Salicaceae Salix babylonica L. LI 91

Bainsa

Tree

Leaf, roots

Extract

Skin cleanser

The extract of Leaf and root are taken for skin cleanser

20

0.11

0.100

60.00

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Sapindaceae Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq LI 42

Ghwaraskay, Santha

Shrub

Leaf

Powders

Skin burn, wound healing

Grinded leaves are mixed in water to make juice and used for skin problems.

33

0.18

0.061

84.85

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb LI 16

Batweyaa

 

Bark

Paste

Wound healing

Paste of Bark is antibacterial and is used to heal up wounds and cuts.

18

0.10

0.056

61.11

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 ■, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Saxifragaceae Bergenia ligulata Engl. LI 17

ZakamJat

Herb

Whole plant

Extracts

Wound healing, boil

Extract of whole dried plant is mixed in hot water and applied externally on, boil, cuts and wounds.

17

0.09

0.118

76.47

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Saxifragaceae Bergenia stracheyi Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl LI 18

Zakham-i- hayat

Herb

Leaf, flower

Powder

Sun strokes, wound healing

Powder of Leaf and flowers are mixed with butter and sun blocking cream.

34

0.19

0.059

85.29

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 ●, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus L. LI 106

Gadikand

 

Aerial part

Infusion

Pimples, skin problem

Aerial plants are crushed, mixed in water and taken for 4–5 days to cure skin problems.

38

0.21

0.053

76.32

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Solanaceae Datura stramonium L. LI 40

Dhatura

Shrub

Seeds, Leaf

Paste

Boils

Leaf are applied on boils

21

0.12

0.048

71.43

1 □, 2 □, 3 ●, 4 ●, 5 ■, 6 □, 7 ●, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Solanaceae Solanum virginianum L. LI 95

Kandiari

 

Fruits, Leaf

Decoction, extract

Skin problem, swelling of skin

Fruits are boiled and prepared decoction mixed in water is used for taking bath to cure skin problems, The fruits and leaves extract are applied on body swellings to get relief.

28

0.16

0.036

96.43

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Tamaricaceae Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst. LI 98

Ghaz

Herb

Leaf

Decoction

Wounds

The decoction of the plant is given to the patient for 1 week

12

0.07

0.083

58.33

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Taxaceae Taxus wallichiana Zucc. LI 100

Bermi

 

Fruits

Extracts

Skin problems

Extract of the fruits obtained and is used daily

29

0.16

0.034

72.41

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 □, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Thymelaeaceae Daphne mucronata S Royle LI 39

 

Shrub

Seeds

Raw

Skin problem

Seeds can be used for skin diseases.

39

0.22

0.026

74.36

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 □, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 ■, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 □, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 ■, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

Urticaceae Urtica dioica L. LI 104

Bichu- buti

Herb

Leaf, Seeds

Paste

Wound healing

Its Leaf and seeds are mixed with oil and used on skin for wound.

18

0.10

0.056

83.33

1 □, 2 □, 3 □, 4 □, 5 □, 6 □, 7 □, 8 □, 9 □, 10 □, 11 □, 12 ■, 13 □, 14 □, 15 □, 16 □, 17 □, 18 □, 19□, 20 □, 21□, 22 ■, 23 □, 24 □, 25 □, 26 □, 27 □, 28 ■, 29 □, 30 □, 31 □, 32 □, 33 □, 34 □, 35 □, 36 □, 37 □, 38 □, 39 □, 40 □, 41 □, 42 □, 43 □, 44 □, 45 □, 46 □, 47 □, 48 □, 49 □, 50 □

FC Frequency of citation, RFC Relative frequency of citation, UV Used value, FL Fidelity level, □ = Dissimilar plants with previous literature, ■ = Similar plants with previous literature; ● Dissimilar plants with previous literature

1 = [47], 2 = [48], 3 = [22], 4 = [29], 5 = [1], 6 = [3], 7= [49], 8 = [50], 9 = [51], 10 = [26]. 11 = [7], 12 = [27], 13 = [5], 14 = [52], 15 = [53], 16 = [54]. 17 = [55], 18 = [28], 19 = [56], 20 = [57], 21 = [58], 22 = [59], 23 = [60], 24 = [61], 25 = [17], 26 = [62], 27 = [63], 28 = [64], 29 = [65], 30 = [66], 31 = [67], 32 = [28], 33 = [68], 34 = [69], 35 = [30], 36 = [70], 37 = [71], 38 = [72], 39 = [73], 40 = [11], 41 = [74], 42 = [75], 43 = [76], 44 = [77], 45 = [78], 46 = [79], 47 = [80], 48 = [81], 49 = [82] 50 = [83].

Fig. 2

Dominant families of medicinal plants utilized for skin disorders in Northern Pakistan

Plant parts used in herbal medicines

Leaves (62%) were reported to be the most frequently used plant part to prepare herbal medicine either by singly or mixes by other plant parts. Leaves were followed by roots (19 species), flowers (18 species), seeds (15 species), fruit (11 species), whole plant (8 species) and stem, bulb, latex, aerial parts contributed (1 species each) (Fig.3). A schematic representation of part used of medicinal plants is shown in (Additional file 1).
Fig. 3

Medicinal plant parts utilized for skin disorders in Northern Pakistan

Mode of preparation

Mode of administration for herbal remedies used for treating skin diseases include decoction, infusion, powder, poultice, raw, extract, juice, cooked, paste and oil. Among various preparation methods, the powder was the most frequently used (23 species), followed by paste (19 species), decoction (16 species), extract (14 species), raw and poultice (each has 8 species) (Fig. 4). A schematic representation of the mode of utilization of medicinal plants is shown in (Additional file 1).
Fig. 4

Mode of utilization of medicinal plants used for skin disorders in Northern Pakistan

Used categories in skin diseases

In this study, the skin diseases were assembled into 13 groups. The skin category includes pimples, mumps, measles, wound healing, boils, skin burns, abscesses, inflammation, skin irritation, allergy, burning sensation, skin cleanser and sensation (Table 2). In this study, the maximum figure of plant was used in handling for wound healing (34 species) followed by skin burn (11 species). Other important skin ailments treated by plant flora in the area were boils and pimples (9 species). The lowest citation reports (1%) were recorded for mumps, measles and skin irritations (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5

Categories diseases of medicinal plants used for skin disorders in Northern Pakistan

Quantitative ethnobotany

Value of medicinal plant

In addition to the use of questionnaires, various analytical tools were required so it could be possible to do quantification of data by cross verification of indigenous information to treat skin diseases in the study site. Species with the highest use value was Pisum sativum (Fabaceae) (UV 0.143) (Table 2). Other important plants were Cynodon dactylon (UV 0.125) reported by 16 participants and Bergenia ligulata reported by 17 participants (UV 0.118) (Table 2). Adiantum venustum had very low use value (UV 0.021).

Relative frequency of citation (RFC %)

The RFC represented the prominent species used for skin related diseases based on the ratio between the number of participants (FC) for a plants and the overall number of participants in the research study. RFC ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 and we classified all species into 3 groups: RFC 0.07 to 0.12 (39 species); RFC, 0.13 to 0.18 (37 species); RFC 0.19 to 0.27 (30 species) (Table 2). According to pharmacological and ethnobotanical records, the majority of plants in the first group were reported with high medicinal potential. The highest values were recorded for Adiantum venustum (0.27) used in the form of paste for wound healing properties, Artemisia fragrans (0.25) used in the treatment of boils, similarly Aconitum chasmanthum (0.24) used as a decoction for treatment of mumps and measles. Other high RFC species were Trigonella foenum-graecum, Verbascum thapsus, Saussurea heteromala, Rosa chinensis, Gerbera gossypina, Helianthus annuus and Aquilegia pubiflora.

Fidelity level (FL)

FL value is calculated for handling specific ailment in this study site. We examined the disease categories to focus the most significant medicinal plant species in each category of skin ailment in terms of FL. It is analyzed for the plant species which were used to cure the most commonly reported category for high FL values 100% and lower FL value 36.8%. FL values were classified into four FL classes (Table 2). FL value of class one was 100% (2 species), class two 97 to 89% (18 species), class three 88 to 79% (44 species), class four 78 to 69% (31 species), class five 68 to 33% (11 species). In the present study, Salix babylonica and Sonchus asper had an FL of 100%, Prunus armeniaca 96.8%, and Momordica charantia 94.74%. Lowest values were found for Pinus wallichiana (44.4) and Galium abaujense (36.8).

Family importance value (FIV)

The analysis of family importance value reported to Pteridaceae has the maximum FIV (26.6%), followed by Fabaceae (22.2%), Scrophulariaceae, Thymelaeaceae and Caryophyllaceae (21.6). Lowest values were observed for Cyperaceae 7.7 (Fig.6). These medicinal plants are explored equally by all the communities on a regular basis and the folk knowledge is constant.
Fig. 6

Family importance value of medicinal plants utilized for skin disorders in Northern Pakistan

Jaccard index (JI)

A comparison of medicinal uses of plants was made by analyzing 50 research papers from aligned countries (Table 2). The review of the literature showed that 106 reported medicinal plant species share similar uses fluctuated from 0% [29] to 13.2% while nonsimilar usage from 3.77 [64] to 0% [70]. The lowest degree of similarity was found in the studies reported in India and South Africa on skin diseases by [5, 49, 50, 51] (Table 3). The comparison was based on skin disease reports in several studies, presenting the usage of therapeutic plants for the cure of skin infections in local communities.
Table 3

Comparison of the present study with previous literature at local, regional and global level

S. No

Study Site

Year

Number of plant spp. recorded in aligned areas

Plants reported for similar uses

Plants reported for dissimilar uses

Total plant spp. common in both the area

%age of plant spp. common in both the areas

Plant species enlisted only in aligned areas

Species enlisted only in study area

%age of plant spp. enlisted only in the study area

%age of plant species with similar uses

%age of plant species with dissimilar uses

Jaccard index (JI)

Citation

1

Amman, Jordan

2003

58

6

1

7

12.07

51

99

93.40

5.6603774

0.94

4.90

[47]

2

Karnataka, India

2003

31

0

1

1

3.23

30

105

99.06

0

0.94

0.75

[48]

3

Assamese, India

2006

85

5

2

7

8.24

78

99

93.40

4.7169811

1.89

4.12

[22]

4

Central Kenya

2007

57

0

1

1

1.75

56

105

99.06

0

0.94

0.63

[29]

5

North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan

2010

66

14

1

15

22.73

51

91

85.85

13.207547

0.94

11.81

[1]

6

Central Chaco, Argentina

2010

72

1

1

2

2.78

70

104

98.11

0.9433962

0.94

1.16

[3]

7

South Africa

2014

117

1

1

2

1.71

115

104

98.11

0.9433962

0.94

0.92

[49]

8

Eastern Cape, South Africa

2014

106

2

1

3

2.83

103

103

97.17

1.8867925

0.94

1.48

[50]

9

Uttarakhand, India

2014

90

5

3

8

8.89

82

98

92.45

4.7169811

2.83

4.65

[51]

10

Pakistan

2013

50

3

1

4

8.00

46

102

96.23

2.8301887

0.94

2.78

[26]

11

France

2015

1

1

0

1

100.00

0

105

99.06

0.9433962

0.00

0.96

[7]

12

Kenya

2015

25

1

0

1

4.00

24

105

99.06

0.9433962

0.00

0.78

[27]

13

South Africa

2013

47

0

0

0

0.00

47

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[5]

14

India

1992

50

0

0

0

0.00

50

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[52]

15

North West Punjab, Pakistan

2012

12

3

0

3

25.00

9

103

97.17

2.8301887

0.00

2.75

[53]

16

Saudi Arabia

2015

4

0

0

0

0.00

4

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[54]

17

India

 

95

2

1

3

3.16

92

103

97.17

1.8867925

0.94

1.56

[55]

18

Nigeria

2008

41

1

1

2

4.88

39

104

98.11

0.9433962

0.94

1.42

[28]

19

India

2010

11

0

0

0

0.00

11

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[84]

20

South Africa

1999

9

3

1

4

44.44

5

102

96.23

2.8301887

0.94

3.88

[57]

21

Eastern Cape, South Africa

2016

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[58]

22

Iran

2014

18

3

1

4

22.22

14

102

96.23

2.8301887

0.94

3.57

[59]

23

Haryan, India

2012

100

0

0

0

0.00

100

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[60]

24

India

2012

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

 

25

Thailand

2015

55

0

0

0

0.00

55

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[17]

26

Mizoram, India

2014

4

0

0

0

0.00

4

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[62]

27

Peru, Amercia

1997

9

0

0

0

0.00

9

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[63]

28

Palestine, Israel

2000

165

4

2

6

3.64

159

100

94.34

3.7735849

1.89

2.37

[64]

29

Africa

2016

61

2

1

3

4.92

58

103

97.17

1.8867925

0.94

1.90

[65]

30

India

2004

23

0

0

0

0.00

23

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[66]

31

Chinese

2015

16

0

0

0

0.00

16

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[67],

32

Nigeria

2014

41

1

1

2

4.88

39

104

98.11

0.9433962

0.94

1.42

[28]

33

Pakistan

2011

47

4

3

7

14.89

40

99

93.40

3.7735849

2.83

5.30

[68]

34

Karnataka, India

2014

102

0

2

2

1.96

100

104

98.11

0

1.89

0.99

[69]

35

Turkey

2012

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[30]

36

India

2012

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[70]

37

Turkey

2012

1

1

0

1

100.00

0

105

99.06

0.9433962

0.00

0.96

[71]

38

India

2011

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[72],

39

Turkey

2010

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[73]

40

Ethiopia

2006

5

1

1

2

40.00

3

104

98.11

0.9433962

0.94

1.90

[11],

41

India

2010

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[74]

42

Nigeria

2010

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[75]

43

Brazil

2009

12

0

0

0

0.00

12

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[76],

44

India

2007

51

2

1

3

5.88

48

103

97.17

1.8867925

0.94

2.03

[77],

45

Jordan

2007

5

0

1

1

20.00

4

105

99.06

0

0.94

0.93

[78]

46

China

2006

25

0

1

1

4.00

24

105

99.06

0

0.94

0.78

[79]

47

South Africa

2013

45

0

0

0

0.00

45

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[80]

48

Ethiopia

2005

8

0

0

0

0.00

8

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[81],

49

Italy

2004

70

3

3

6

8.57

64

100

94.34

2.8301887

2.83

3.80

[82]

50

Jordan

2003

1

0

0

0

0.00

1

106

100.00

0

0.00

0.00

[83]

1.3018868

0.62

Chi-square test

The male participants reported more medicinal plants than women, and it could be stated that males possess more knowledge about the use of medicinal plants than women (Additional file 1). The chi-square on the number of species of plants reported by the two age categories showed important differences. Table 4 represents the median for a number of medicinal species reported by the participants 36–46 and > 46 years of age. Scattering of knowledge was observed in different age groups. The significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were mentioned by participants of 69 to 79 years (37.88) for men and (24.1) for women, respectively. There were no significant variations (χ2 = 13.45; P > 0.05) in the < 36 year age group. Analysis of variance (p = 0.05) was used to elucidate the effect of gender, age, and gender to gender interaction on the traditional knowledge of plants in society.
Table 4

Literature on preliminary in vitro screening of most cited plants

S/No

Plant Species

Activity

References

1.

Anethum graveolens

Antibacterial and antimicrobial activity

[85, 86]

2.

Cynodon dactylon

Antibacterial and wound healing activity

[87, 88]

3.

Bergenia ciliata

Antibacterial, antibacterial, anti –inflammatory and antiviral activity

[89, 90]

4.

Adiantum venustum

Antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity

[91]

5.

Gerbera gossypina

Antimicrobial activity

[92]

6.

Aconitum chasmanthum

Antimicrobial activities

[93]

7.

Trigonella foenum-graecum,

Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal activities

[94]

8.

Verbascum thapsus,

Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity

[95]

9.

Saussurea lappa

Anti-inflammatory activity

[96]

10.

Rosa chinensis,

Antimicrobial activities

[97]

11.

Gerbera gossypina

Antimicrobial activities

[98]

12.

Taxus wallichiana

Antibacterial and antifungal activites

[99]

13.

Aquilegia pubiflora

Antimicrobial activity

[100]

14.

Salix babylonica

Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities

[101]

15.

Sonchus asper

Antimicrobial activities

[102]

16.

Prunus armeniaca

Antimicrobial activity

[103]

17.

Momordica charantia

Antibacterial and antifungal activity

[104]

18.

Urtica dioica

Antibacterial and antifungal activity

[105, 106]

19.

Dodonaea viscosa

Antifungal activity

[107]

20.

Bergenia stracheyi

Antifungal activity

[108]

21.

Pisum sativum

Antifungal activity

[109]

22.

Butea monosperma

Antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities

[110]

23.

Commelina benghalensis

Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities

[111]

24.

Polygonum nepalense

Antimicrobial. And antifungal activity

[112]

25.

Valeriana jatamansi

Anti-inflammatory activity

[113]

26.

Cannabis sativa

Antimicrobial activity

[114]

27.

Plantago major

Antibacterial activity

[115]

28.

Berberis lycium

Antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties

[116]

29.

Taraxacum officinale

Antimicrobial activity

[117]

30.

Myrsine Africana

Antimicrobial activity

[1]

31.

Allium sativum

Antimicrobial and wound Healing

[118]

32.

Allium cepa

Antimicrobial activities

[119]

33.

Pinus roxburgii

Antibacterial activity

[120]

34.

Senecio chrysanthemoides

Antifungal and antibacterial activities

[121]

35.

Olea europaea

Antimicrobial activity

[122]

36.

Isodon rugosus

Antimicrobial activities

[123]

37.

Micromeria biflora

Antimicrobial activities

[124]

38.

Lawsonia inermis

Antimicrobial and antibacterial activities

[125, 126]

39.

Teucrium stocksianum

Anti-microbial activities

[127]

40.

Delbergia sissoo

Anti-microbial activities

[128]

Previous literature on phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, and toxicity

A large number of plants stated in this study possess skin cure possessions and might have compound that are indirectly or directly active against parasites. These compounds are known as secondary metabolic compounds. Medicinal plants used for skin diseases were investigated for preliminary in vitro studies, essential phytochemicals and toxicity from the previous studies. Some of the plant species used for skin ailments have been reported for numerous secondary metabolites which show the significance of the plants in traditional remedies (Table 4).

Preliminary in vitro screening of some of the most mentioned plants have been mentioned to validate the findings of the present study (Table 5). In spite of the wide application of active metabolic compounds for humans; they also have a health hazardous effect because of much toxins. These substances not only hamper with the growth of parasite also have lethal effects on mammalian cells (Additional file 1: Table S1). It is, therefore, important to validate the toxic effects of medicinal plant products in relation to their anti-nutritional and other side effects.
Table 5

Phytochemical activities and toxicity of medicinal plants used for skin diseases

S/No

Family / Scientific name / coll. #

Phytochemicals

Toxicity

1.

Acanthaceae Justicia adhatoda L. LI 58

Alkaloids, phenolic, flavonoids and sterols [129]

Less toxicity [130]

2.

Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa L. LI 6

Alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, terpene, steroids and resins [131]

None

3.

Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum L LI 7

Saponin, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides [132]

Excessive use cause toxicity like acute toxicity, burning sensation in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting [133]

4.

Apiaceae Anethum graveolens L. LI 10

Essential oils, fatty oil, proteins, carbohydrates, fiber and ash [134]

Nontoxic [135]

5.

Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum L. LI 33

Alkaloids, carbohydrates, volatile oil, tannins, and flavonoids [136]

Acute and sub chronic toxicity [137]

6.

Apiaceae Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel. LI 47

Terpenoids, Sulfide derivatives, volatile Oil and Phenols [138]

Little toxicity including (including lung metastasis) [139]

7.

Apiaceae Pleurospermum brunonis Benth. ex C.B.Clarke LI 80

None

None

8.

Apocynaceae Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. LI 24

Cardenolides, flavonoids, and saponins [132] .

Highly toxic [140]

9.

Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum L. Haines LI 22

Alkaloids, tannin, glycoside, steroids and carbohydrates [141]

Acute toxicity (Shamim, 2014)

10.

Apocynaceae Rauvolfia serpentina L. LI 84

Phenolic acids and flavonoids [142]

None

11.

Asteraceae Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. LI8

Flavonoids, polyacetylenes, and hydroxylactone [143]

 

12.

Asteraceae Artemisia vulgaris L. LI 12

Carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins, amino acid, tannin & phenolic compounds and flavonoids [144]

Genotoxicity [145]

13.

Asteraceae Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauverd LI 50

None

Less toxicity [139]

14.

Asteraceae Gnaphalium affine D.Don LI 51

Flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, Triterpenes and phytosterols [146]

Damage oxidative compounds and produce various toxic compound that are harmful for humans [139]

15.

Asteraceae Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f. LI 60/

Flavonoids, anthocynadins and flavanones [147]

Nontoxic [148]

16.

Asteraceae Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch.Bip. LI 93

Alkaloids, glycosides, phenolics, steroids and terpenoids [149]

Acute toxicity [150]

17.

Asteraceae Senecio chrysanthemoides DC LI 94

Triterpene, emodins,polyphenol, reducing sugar and anthocyanosides [151]

Hepatotoxicity [150]

18.

Asteraceae Sonchus asper (L.) Hill LI 96

Ascorbic acid, carotenoids

and fatty acids [152]

Acute toxicity [153]

19.

Asteraceae Taraxacum officinale aggr. F.H. Wigg. LI 99

phenolic compounds, flavonoid glycosides [154]

Acute toxicity [155]

20.

Asteraceae Tussilago farfara L. LI 103

Terpenes, flavonoids, and alkaloids [156]

Acute toxicity [157]

21.

Balsaminaceae Impatien edgeworthii Hook. f LI 54

Flavonoids, sugars, alkaloids and saponins

[158]

Cytotoxicity [159]

22.

Berberidaceae Berberis lycium Royle LI 15

ß-sitosterol, 4,4-dimethylhexadeca-3-ol, Butyl-3-hydroxypropyl phthalate, Butyl-3-hydroxypropyl phthalate and 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin [160]

Acute toxicity and oral toxicity [158]

23.

Boraginaceae Hackelia americana (A.Gray) Fernald LI 52

Phenols, saponins, and flavonoids [161]

Hepatotoxicity [162]

24.

Boraginaceae Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. LI 71

Flavonoid, amines, iridoids and sesquiterpene [163]

Acute toxicity [164]

25.

Brassicaceae Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. LI 20

2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol and HEPES 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1- piperazine-ethane-sulphonic acid [165]

Poisonous [166]

26.

Buxaceae Buxus papillosa C.K. Schneid. LI 21

Cyclobuxupaline-C (IV)(+)-cyclopapilosine-D (VII) and (+)-buxamine-C [167]

Nonpoisonous [168]

27.

Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L LI 26

Alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, resins, terpins and steroids [169].

High doses cause inhibition of hepatic drug and decreased fertilization capacity [170]

28.

Capparaceae Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. LI 27

alkaloids, phenols, sterols and glycosides [171]

Acute toxicity [172]

29.

Caprifoliaceae Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. LI 105

Phenols, flavonoids and tannins [173]

Fumigant toxicity [174]

30.

Caryophyllaceae Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet, LI 29

None

None

31.

Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L LI 32

Terpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides [175]

Acute and sub-acute toxicity, male reproductive toxicity [176]

32.

Convolvulaceae Cuscta reflexa Roxb. LI 35

Flavonoids and tannins [177]

Oral toxicity [178]

33.

Cucurbitaceae Cucumis melo L. LI 36

Alkaloids, terpenoids, carbohydrate, proteins, flavonoids, phytosterols [179]

Metal toxicity [180]

34.

Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. LI 59

Protein, carbohydrates, Flavonoid and saponin [181]

Gastrointestinal toxicity [182]

35.

Cucurbitaceae Momordica charantia L. LI 67

Alkaloid, glycoside, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol, protein and carbohydrate [183]

Hepatotoxicity [184]

36.

Cupressaceae Juniperus communis L. LI 56

Steroids, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids [185]

Nephrotoxicity [186]

37.

Cupressaceae Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. LI 57

Alkaloids,flavonoids, phenols, saponins and diterpenes [187]

Cytotoxicity [188]

38.

Cyperaceae Cyperus difformis L LI 38

Flavonoids, coumarins, tannins and sterols [189]

Fumigent toxicité [190](Chang et al., 2012)

39.

Elaeagnaceae Hippophae rhamnoides L. LI 53

Phenol, Quercetin and Catechin [191]

Non toxic [192]

40.

Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense L. LI 43

Flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals, phenolic petrosins, triterpenoids, saponins, phytosterols [193]

Acute and metal toxicity [194]

41.

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia helioscopia L. LI 44

Reducing sugars, terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, flavanoids and phenolic compounds [195]

Cytotoxicity [196]

42.

Fabaceae Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze LI 14

Sterols, triterpenes, glycosides flavonoids and proteins [197].

Acute and oral toxicity [198]

43.

Fabaceae Delbergia sissoo L. LI 41

Proteins, phyto sterols, tannins, starch, flavonoids and tannins [199].

Acute toxicity [200]

44.

Fabaceae Pisum sativum L. LI 77

Tannins, terpenoides, alkaloids

and flavonoids [201]

Cadmium toxicity in human [202]

45.

Fabaceae Trigonella foenum-graecum L LI 102

Alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and phenols [203]

Acute toxicity [204]

46.

Gentianaceae

Swertia abyssinica Hochst.

LI 97

None

Hepatic toxicity [205]

47.

Lamiaceae

Ajuga integrifolia Buch-Ham-ex D. Don

LI 5

Essential oil [206]

Body weakness [205]

48.

Lamiaceae

Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) LI 55

Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones [207]

Cytotoxicity [159]

49.

Lamiaceae

Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Benth

LI 66

None

Membrane toxicity of cell [184]

50.

Lamiaceae

Nepeta hindostana (B.Heyne ex Roth) Haines.

LI 68

None

Mycotoxin [208]

51.

Lamiaceae

Rydingia limbata (Benth.) Scheen & V.A. Albert

LI 90

None

Cytotoxicity [209]

52.

Lamiaceae

Salvia moorcroftiana wall. ex Benth

LI 92

Flavonoids, diterpenoids and sterols

[210]

Nontoxic inhibitor [211]

53.

Lamiaceae

Teucrium stocksianum Boiss.

LI 101

Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroid, reducing sugar, terpenoid, anthraquinone, phlobatannin and glycoside [212]

Acute toxicity [213]

54.

Loranthaceae

Loranthus pulverulentus Wall

LI 62

Triterpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, proteins, tannins and glycosides [214]

Low toxicity [148]

55.

Lythraceae

Lawsonia inermis

L.

LI 61

Glycosides, phytosterol, steroids, saponins, and tannins [215]

Highly toxic [148]

56.

Malvaceae

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

LI 1

Carbohydrate, gums and mucilages, proteins, phytosterols, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic

Compounds and volatile oil (Saha et al., 2011).

No toxic effect [216]

57.

Meliaceae

Melia azadarach L.

LI 65

Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Phenols [217]

Toxic [218]

58.

Myrsinaceae

Myrsine africana L.

LI 63/

Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, amino acids, steroids and reducing sugar [219]

Acute toxicity [148]

59.

Nitrariaceae

Peganum harmala L.

LI 72

Alkaloids, flavonoids and anthraquinones [220]

Cytotoxicity [221]

60.

Nyctaginaceae

Boerrehavia diffusa L.

LI 19/

1,1-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl, phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid [222]

Acute toxicity [223]

61.

Oleaceae

Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif

LI 70

Flavonoids, terpenes [224]

Low toxicity [164]

62.

Papaveraceae

Corydalis govaniana Wall. LI 34

Alkaloids [225]

Acute toxicity (Mukhopadhyay et al., 1987)

63.

Phytolaceae

Phytolacea letsenia L.

LI 73

 

None

64.

Pinaceae

Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don).

LI 28

Tannins, flavanoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids [226]

Cytotoxicity [172]

65.

Pinaceae

Pinus roxburgii Sarg

LI 75/

Flavonoids and terpenoids [227]

Acute toxicity [228]

66.

Pinaceae

Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks.

LI 76

Flavonoid and phenolic [229]

Toxic [228]

67.

Plantaginaceae

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle. ex Benth.

LI 74

Sterols, glycosides and phenolic compounds [230]

Cytotoxicity [231]

68.

Plantaginaceae

Plantago major L.

LI 78

Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, terpenes, lignans, tannins, polysaccharides, steroidal glycoside, thiosulfinates, proanthocyanidin and proteins [232]

Less toxicity [233]

69.

Plantaginaceae

Plantago lanceolata L.

LI 79

Anthraquinone,

Glycosides and alkaloids [234]

Not toxic [235]

70.

Poaceae

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

LI 37

Alkaloids, anthroquinone, flavonoids, saponins, steriods, tannins and triterpenoid [190]

Fungal growth, biomass toxicity [236]

71.

Polygonaceae

Fagopyrum acutatum (Lehm.) Mansf. ex K.Hammer

LI 45

Protein, carbohydrates, fat and rutin [237]

Hepatotoxicity [238]

72.

Polygonaceae

Polygonum nepalense Meissn.

LI 81

None

Toxic [239]

73.

Polygonaceae

Rumex abyssinicus Jacq.

LI 87

Tannins, anthraquinones, amino acids flavonoids and carbohydrates [240]

Non toxic in cell [241]

74.

Polygonaceae

Rumex dissectus H. Lév.

LI 88

B-carotene linoleic acid, has antioxidant activity [242]

Less toxic [243]

75.

Polygonaceae

Rumex dentatus L.

LI 89

Alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins [244]

Toxic [174]

76.

Polygonaceae Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

LI 46

Flavonoids [245]

Cytotoxicity [246]

77.

Primulaceae

Androsace rotundifolia Lehm. ex Roem. & Schult.

LI 9

None

Less toxic [247]

78.

Pteridaceae

Adiantum venustum D. Don

LI 4

Adininaneone, adininaonol and Norhopan [248]

Nontoxic (Huxley et al., 1992)

79.

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes

LI 2

Alkaloids, benzoylmecasonine and mesaconitine [249]

Some species are highly poisonous [250]

80.

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum delphinifolium DC.

LI 3

Alkaloids, benzoylmecasonine and mesaconitine [249]

Slightly poisonous when used in access [250]

81.

Ranunculaceae

Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. ex Royle

LI 13

None

Nontoxic [251]

82.

Ranunculaceae

Caltha alba Cambess

LI 25/

Alkaloides, flavonoids, glycosides and triterpenoides [252]

Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity [216]

83.

Ranunculaceae

Nigella sativa L.

LI 69

Flavonoid glycosides quercetin and kaempferol 3-glucosyl [253]

Hepatotoxicity [254]

84.

Rhamnaceae Colubrina oppositifolia Brongn. ex H. Mann

LI 23

 

None

85.

Rosaceae

Malus pumila Mill.

LI 64

Triterpenoids and flavonoids [255]

Hepatotoxic [148]

86.

Rosaceae

Prunus armeniaca L.

LI 82

Carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and organic acids [256]

Acute and renal toxicity [257]

87.

Rosaceae

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

LI 83

Phenolics, anthocyanins and flavonoids [258]

Toxic side effects [259]

88.

Rosaceae

Rosa chinensis Jacq

LI 85

None

None

89.

Rosaceae

Rubus abchaziensis Sudre

LI 86

Diterpene glycosides, phenolic glycoside and Lignan glycoside [260]

Cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity [261]

90.

Rubiaceae

Galium abaujense Borbás

LI 48

None

None

91.

Rubiaceae

Gallium aparine L.

LI 49

None

None

92.

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum armatum DC

LI 11

Limonene,linalool,neral [262]

Cytotoxic and Phytotoxic potential [263]

93.

Rutaceae

Citrus medica L.

LI 30

Carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and flavonoids [264]

Estrogenic effect [265]

94.

Rutaceae

Citrus sinensis L.

LI 31

tannin, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, steroid, tripertenes [266]

Fumigant toxicity [267]

95.

Salicaceae

Salix babylonica L.

LI 91

Phenolics and saponins [268]

Cytotoxicity [269]

96.

Sapindaceae

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq

LI 42

Carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, amino acids, saponins, steroids, sterols, tannins, and triterpenoids [270]

Acute toxicity [271]

97.

Saxifragaceae

Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb

LI 16

Alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phenols, flavonoids and diterpenes [272].

Acute toxicity [273]

98.

Saxifragaceae

Bergenia ligulata Engl.

LI 17

Bergenin, catechin, gallicin and gallic acid [274]

Radical toxicity in renal epithelial cell [275]

99.

Saxifragaceae

Bergenia stracheyi Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl

LI 18

Bergenin 2. Tannic acid 3. Gallic acid 4. Stigmesterol 5. β-Sitosterol 6. catechin 7 [276]

Acute toxicity [277]

100.

Scrophulariaceae

Verbascum thapsus L.

LI 106

Methanolic extract has antiviral activity against the pseudorabies virus [278]

Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids [279]

101.

Solanaceae

Datura stramonium L.

LI 40

Saponins, tannins, alkaloids and glycosides [280]

Poison and hallucinogen [281]

102.

Solanaceae

Solanum virginianum L.

LI 95

None

Cytotoxicity [282]

103.

Tamaricaceae

Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst.

LI 98

Flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins [283]

Less toxic [284]

104.

Taxaceae

Taxus wallichiana Zucc.

LI 100

Diterpenoids, lignans, flavonoids, steroids and sugar derivatives [285]

Hepatotoxicity [286]

105.

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne mucronata S Royle

LI 39

Coumarins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, lignin, glucosides, daphnine and umbelliferone [287]

Leaf extract is highly toxic [287]

106.

Urticaceae Urtica dioica L. LI 104

Phytosterols, saponins, flavanoids, tannins, hydrolysable tannins, phenolic compounds, proteins and amino acids [288]

Nontoxic [289]

Comparison with other studies in neighbouring regions

In the present study, some plants were used alone to treat the particular diseases, while in some cases plant parts were mixed to treat diseases. This present study reported 63 novel plants for skin diseases from Northern Pakistan, including Ajuga integrifolia, Anaphalis chitralensis, Capparis himalayensis, Gnaphalium affine, Isodon rugosus, Tamarix aphylla, Nepeta clarkei, Launaea nudicaulis, Valeriana jatamansi (Table 2).

Discussion

This study was carried out in the native groups of Northern Pakistan. People use medications for the cure of several diseases. Generally the medicinal plants are used in village parts of the area. The majority of professional healers in this study were males, this finding is similar to the literature [290]. According to an estimate, 84% of the rural population relies on herbal traditional medicinal plants [291]. Different origins of the medicinal plant knowledge were recorded. The inherited knowledge of medicinal plants is transferred through orally a cultural practice common in the rural areas in addition to the divine revelation. Most people inherit traditional knowledge from their elders that passed generation to generation [292].

The most dominant life form uses in the study was herbs. Herbs are easily available and collected from roadsides and farmlands [293, 294, 295]. Asteraceae was the most preferred family used. Previous work [3] also reported Asteraceae (6 species), Lamiaceae (6 species) and Fabaceae (5 species) with large figure of medicinal flora. There seems to be a tendency for a few families of plants to stand out in any pharmacopeia [296]. These plant families have been reported with high pharmacological, organoleptic and pharmaceutical properties [297]. The fewer species were observed in 37 families that are similar to previous studies [298, 299].

Among the reported plant part leaves were the most used plant part. In various studies, leaves were reported to be used as powder and paste on the affected skin areas [300]. The powder was found to be the most preferred method of utilization. The use of powder and decoction is the major mode of utilization in the herbal preparations in the ethnomedicinal studies by [35, 301]. The preparations were applied 2–3 times daily until healing occurred. A large number of herbal preparation involved soaking the plant material in water for a few days and taking the infusion, while few involved boiling the parts of plants and take the decoction. The drugs were usually prepared from the paste of the plant part either with water, lime water, rose water, coconut water, milk, ghee, and butter. Sometimes juice extract from fresh parts of plants was used. Treatments were done with single plant parts or a combination of different parts of the same plant. The amount of powder used to make a concoction was defined as a half, full or a quarter of a teaspoon. In the morning, the mixtures were regularly used before breakfast or afterward dinner, for 3-7 successive days, or till the patient was completely cured.

The medicinal plants described in this study for the cure of skin infections might also be utilized additionally for their phytochemical and pharmacological activities. Following reports carried out in various areas also described the common practices of medicinal species usage against the diseases of skin [22, 29, 48].

The overall effectiveness of the mentioned plant species in the context of curing skin ailments was calculated on the basis of the computed index called used value [40]. This species was mentioned by 21 participants. Wounds and skin burns treated by Pisum sativum showed an increase in oxygen supply as a result of increased blood pressure flow [302]. In other studies glycoprotein extracted from Pisum helped the formation of epidermis tissues [303]. The highest UV for important medicinal plants like Pisum sativum and Cynodon dactylon might be ascribed to the trends of using herbal drugs for skin diseases in the area. It is also observed that plant species that are using repeatedly are more possibly to be active biologically and have good healing properties [53]. Less available in the study site parallel to small UV e-g in case of Adiantum venustum [304].

Relative frequency of citation is applied to choose high potential medicinal plant species for future research anti-skin diseases drug development. The medicinal species that have high RFC should be further analyzed for phytochemical compounds, to recognize their active chemical components for drug discovery [305]. These findings might be considered as of greatest importance for relating and assessing study in associated hypothetical fields for upcoming drug inventory and sustainable utilization of plant species for medicinal purposes [306].

The plant species that were cited only once by a single participant were not considered for the fidelity level study. The high value of FL indicates the choice of participants to treat the specific disease [84]. These plants can be verified as significant medicinal flora on additional estimation by the help of pharmaceutical, phytochemical and biological actions. We have found the species as more significant having 80 FL% or greater.

In [292] the maximum value of FIV was documented for Juglandaceae (45%) followed by Punicaceae (44%) whereas the lowest value was noted for Vitaceae and Rubiaceae (3%) The results of present study vary from previous literature reports due to differences in climate and vegetation of area [307]. The highest percentage of FIV demonstrates that the plants of a particular family are commonly used in curing many diseases as reported by participants.

Jaccard index is used to find out the similarity of medicinal uses with previous studies carried out on skin ailments. The maximum level of resemblance was present in findings carried out in North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan and Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan on skin diseases [1, 73]) with Jaccard index value 11.81 and 5.30, respectively. About 12% average similarity is reported among different areas and the study regions. The recent study represents a high level of novelty index with respect to the use of medicinal species in skin diseases and its significance in old traditional recipes [308] specified in his study work that the medicinal plants repeatedly cited must be utilized as herbal drug development. The comparison of similarities shows the significant authenticity of documented data. Similarly, the medicinal plants which are not cited in previous work should be assessed for pharmacological and phytochemical analysis for drug discovery development.

In this research, the use of medicinal plants against skin diseases were studied for the occurrence of various toxicity and phtochemicals stated in former literature (see Table 5, Additional file 1). Mostly all the species had been described previously for their one or more phytochemical important compound representing their importance in medicinal cures. In the study, phytochemical analysis on genus, Aconitum has directed to the identification of alkaloids, benzoyl mecasonine and mesaconitine [249]. Some species of Aconitum are slightly poisonous when used in the excess amount [250]. In other studies, Bergenia ciliate was reported to contain active compounds such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phenols, flavonoids and diterpenes [272]. Allium sativum is rich with saponins, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates, allicin and cardiac glycosides which possess essential skin diseases curing activity [132]. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and diterpenes compounds of Juniperus excels also have reported skin properties [185]. High consumption of flavonoids and phenolics may inhibit enzyme activity and cause oxidative damage [309]. Some alkaloids can inhibit enzyme activity, block ion channels loss of coordination, convulsions, hallucination and even death [310]. Myrsine Africana reported to have an acute toxic effect and Malus pumila cause hepatotoxicity [148], Rubus fruticosus damage cell activity that was stated by [261]. Discovery of drugs from medicinal plants links a multidisciplinary approach to joining pharmacological, botanical, ethnomedicinal and natural methods. Some natural products of plant derivatives are in the phase of the trial and are in experimental use [311]. Therefore further pharmacological, ethnomedicinal and phytochemical studies should be carried out to authenticate the use of plant species in skin diseases and to discover new drugs.

The root of Butea monosperma was reported for skin diseases in the present study while it is reported as a blood purifier and skin diseases in the work of [312]. Coriandrum sativum was used to control hypertension, joint pain, stomach complaints, and Gastrointestinal tracts problems [313], but in the present study, it is reported to treat pimples and skin problems. Fruits of Lagenaria siceraria were reported to treat severe body pain [314], while our study revealed that fruits and seeds can be used for skin problems. The leaves of Justicia adhatoda have been used for muscular pains in a study of [315], but this study documented that the leaves can be used for wound healing. Leaves of Myrsine africana were reported for stomach problems in the previous studies of [313], these results are in accord with the present study. The flowers and leaves of Verbascum thapsus were used for wounds [314], while the current study found that aerial parts of plant’s may be utilized for the cure of blemishes and several skin related problems.

Launaea nudicaulis and Gnaphalium affine were used often for skin ailments. Asteraceae are generally rich in flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols [146]. Nepeta clarkei, Ajuga integrifolia, and Isodon rugosus were used for curing of boils, wound healing and skin problems, respectively. Capparis himalayensis was used for wound healing in areas of Northern Pakistan. The medicinal use of species related to wound healing was not reported earlier. Euphorbia helioscopia was reported for the treatment of cholera, jaundice, respiratory diseases, cancer [46], but the present study reported it for wound healing. Brassica juncea was found to treat some skin problems while the literature suggested it for the treatment of ulcers [316]. In this study, Cucumis melo was used to treat skin burn while in a previous study it was used to treat liver diseases [314]. This study showed that Rheum emodii can be used for skin ailments, while in literature it is mostly reported for the treatment of cancer [317]. Our research also found that Swertia alata, as used for skin diseases, while the previous study reported it only as used for rheumatic disorders [314]. Onosma hispida was documented to treat skin burns, compared to use as skin tonic [318]. Verbascum thapsus also served for curing skin ailments, while traditionally it was reported for stomach diseases [319]. Melia azedarach was found as a treatment for pimples and wound healing, but literature reported this species for sexual problems and as skin tonics [320]. The present work therefore suggest that public sector administrator in study area should make policies in order to protect people from health problems and use of medicinal plants by local people for treatment of diseases.

Conclusions

This is the first quantitative ethnomedicinal study that provides information about the use of 106 species that belonging to 90 genera and 56 families for the treatment of skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. Key findings of the study revealed leaves to be the most used plant parts (58%), herb to be dominant life form (63%) and powder to be the most frequent method of administration (22%). The highest skin disease category was recorded for wound healing (40%). RFC ranged from 0.07 to 0.25%, highest use-value reported for Pisum sativum (0.143 UV), highest FIV was observed for Pteridaceae (26.6 FIV) while FL values ranged from 100% to 36.8. The medicinal information documented in this study could be explored in the future for phytochemical and pharmacological investigations which may lead to plant-based nano-medicine drug discovery and development.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to all key medicinal plant practitioners and participants for sharing their valuable knowledge on medicinal flora.

Authors’ contributions

KM carried out field surveys and data collection. MZ, SS NR, SNS, helped in analysis of data while MA critically revised the manuscript to its present form.RU, HMM, L and BP helped in revision of the manuscript and helps in checking the consistency of data. All authors read the final manuscript and agreed to its submission.

Funding

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of the scientific Research at King Saud University for funding through research group no (RG-1440-100).

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Verbal consent was taken from participants before carrying out the study as most if the participants were illiterate. Present study was carefully designed with strict compliance of bio-ethics and approved by the Institutional Bio-ethics Committee (IBC) of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan under the approval No PT-5695.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

12906_2019_2605_MOESM1_ESM.docx (615 kb)
Additional file 1: Table S1. Chi-square test χ2 test for gender wise distribution. Figure S1. Schematic representation of medicinal plant parts used prepared by NVivo software for skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. Figure S2. Systematic representation of mode of utilization for skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. (DOCX 615 kb)

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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khafsa Malik
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mushtaq Ahmad
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Muhammad Zafar
    • 3
  • Riaz Ullah
    • 5
  • Hafiz Majid Mahmood
    • 6
  • Bushra Parveen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Neelam Rashid
    • 3
  • Shazia Sultana
    • 3
    • 4
  • Syed Nasar Shah
    • 3
  • Lubna
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BotanyRawalpindi Women UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Government Postgraduate College Women, UOG (University of Gujrat) Sub- Campus RawalpindiRawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Plant SciencesQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Center for Natural Products LabChengdu Institute of BiologySichuanChina
  5. 5.Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous plant Research Centre (MAPRC), College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Pharmacognosy, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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