A protocol for custom CRISPR Cas9 donor vector construction to truncate genes in mammalian cells using pcDNA3 backbone
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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) RNA-guided adaptive immune systems are found in prokaryotes to defend cells from foreign DNA. CRISPR Cas9 systems have been modified and employed as genome editing tools in wide ranging organisms. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to truncate genes in mammalian cells using CRISPR Cas9 editing. We describe custom donor vector construction using Gibson assembly with the commonly utilized pcDNA3 vector as the backbone.
We describe a step-by-step method to truncate genes of interest in mammalian cell lines using custom-made donor vectors. Our method employs 2 guide RNAs, mutant Cas9D10A nickase (Cas9 = CRISPR associated sequence 9), and a custom-made donor vector for homologous recombination to precisely truncate a gene of interest with a selectable neomycin resistance cassette (NPTII: Neomycin Phosphotransferase II). We provide a detailed protocol on how to design and construct a custom donor vector using Gibson assembly (and the commonly utilized pcDNA3 vector as the backbone) allowing researchers to obtain specific gene modifications of interest (gene truncation, gene deletion, epitope tagging or knock-in mutation). Selection of mutants in mammalian cell lines with G418 (Geneticin) combined with several screening methods: western blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction, and Sanger sequencing resulted in streamlined mutant isolation. Proof of principle experiments were done in several mammalian cell lines.
Here we describe a detailed protocol to employ CRISPR Cas9 genome editing to truncate genes of interest using the commonly employed expression vector pcDNA3 as the backbone for the donor vector. Providing a detailed protocol for custom donor vector design and construction will enable researchers to develop unique genome editing tools. To date, detailed protocols for CRISPR Cas9 custom donor vector construction are limited (Lee et al. in Sci Rep 5:8572, 2015; Ma et al. in Sci Rep 4:4489, 2014). Custom donor vectors are commercially available, but can be expensive. Our goal is to share this protocol to aid researchers in performing genetic investigations that require custom donor vectors for specialized applications (specific gene truncations, knock-in mutations, and epitope tagging applications).
KeywordsCRISPR Cas9 Mammalian cell lines Custom donor vector design and construction
clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats
CRISPR associated sequence 9
non homologous end joining
homologous recombination DNA repair
Neomycin Phosphotransferase II
forkhead box O3
polymerase chain reaction
Uppsala 87 Malignant Glioma
trans activating CRISPR RNA
guide RNA (for heterologous systems)
an endonuclease domain named for an E. coli protein involved in DNA repair
an endonuclease domain named for characteristic histidine and asparagine residues
green fluorescent protein
near-haploid human cell line
human bone osteosarcoma epithelial cells
calf intestine phosphatase
- E. coli
American Type Culture Collection
minimal essential media
fetal bovine serum
Institutional Biosafety Committee
A significant proportion of bacteria and archaea (roughly 40 and 90% respectively) employ [1, 2] CRISPR Cas9 mechanisms as an adaptive immunological response against virus and plasmid foreign DNA [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Researchers have exploited the CRISPR Cas9 molecular machinery to target genes in numerous organisms such as yeast, flies, worms, and mammals leading to groundbreaking discoveries [11, 12, 13, 14]. Although other approaches have been utilized for genome editing for decades, CRISPR Cas9 technology has reshaped genetic engineering by providing a quick and facile tool, greatly accelerating research [13, 14].
Endogenous CRISPR Cas9 (and related) systems serve as an acquired immunological response [3, 4, 5, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Invading DNA (from plasmids and viruses) becomes incorporated into the CRISPR locus of the prokaryotic genome. CRISPR loci typically have noncontiguous direct repeats and spacers that contain the invading DNA sequences . Transcription of the CRISPR locus produces a pre-crRNA (crRNA = CRISPR RNA) that base pairs with a trans-activating-crRNA (tracrRNA, also encoded by CRISPR system), leading to processing and incorporation into a Cas9-containing complex [20, 21, 22]. Many prokaryotes harbor specific endonucleases such as Cas9 that contain two domains: RuvC-like [an endonuclease domain named for an Escherichia coli (E. Coli) protein involved in DNA repair] and HNH (an endonuclease domain named for characteristic histidine and asparagine residues) to cleave foreign DNA . Hybridized crRNA/tracrRNA serves as a guide for Cas9 to cleave foreign DNA in a sequence-specific manner. With heterologous CRISPR Cas9 systems such as those utilized in human cells, a chimeric guide RNA (gRNA) is employed to target specific sequences . The gRNA contains a fusion between tracrRNA and crRNA that enables specific targeting of Cas9 to a gene of interest .
Employing CRISPR Cas9 technology as a gene editing tool is a recent development in the field of molecular biology [14, 24]. This tool has already had a transformative impact on research, allowing for the quick identification of mutations in wide-ranging experimental settings . However, it has become increasingly evident that utilization of CRISPR Cas9 can lead to off-target effects [19, 25, 26]. CRISPR Cas9 can tolerate base pair mismatches between the gRNA and target sequences [25, 27, 28]. CRISPR technology utilizes the host DNA repair machinery to resolve DNA lesions, leading to the isolation of mutations . One issue that we encountered when trying to mutate genes in cancer cell lines, widely reported by others, was that mutation frequencies vary widely depending on the methodology employed, the locus being mutated and screening methods [17, 29]. Chiang et al. observed mutation efficiencies without selection by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based cell sorting of 1–4% in HAP1 (near diploid chronic myelogenous leukemia) and 2–22% in U2OS (human bone osteosarcoma epithelial) cell lines [28, 30, 31, 32]. In these settings with low mutation frequencies, methods that employ selection (such as neomycin resistance) may be necessary to obtain enough mutants for study in a cost effective manner. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to construct a custom donor vector (using the pcDNA3 vector as the backbone) in order to truncate the gene of interest. We describe a streamlined screening process to isolate and validate mutants in settings with low mutation frequencies.
Construction of FOXO3 donor vector using Gibson assembly
Gibson assembly is an extremely efficient method to obtain insertions into a plasmid vector of interest . The FOXO3 donor vector was prepared using a two-step Gibson assembly-based cloning procedure. The complete sequence of the FOXO3 donor vector can be found in Additional file 1: Figure S1. Figures 2, 3 depict the steps employed to prepare a custom FOXO3 donor vector. First, a 418 base pair fragment from the FOXO3 gene (named FOXO3 Arm 1) was inserted into the pcDNA3 vector just upstream of the neomycin resistance cassette (NPTII), producing an intermediate vector. In the second sub-cloning step, (shown in Figs. 2, 3) a 750 base pair FOXO3 fragment (Arm 2) was inserted into the donor vector.
For optimal results, FOXO3 donor vector sequences were selected for (1) proximity to genomic nick sites and (2) sufficient sequence length to permit efficient recombination. It is important to note that there are two nick sites for FOXO3 in the genome when using 2 gRNAs and the Cas9D10A nickase. Therefore, the upstream FOXO3 fragment (Arm 1) in the donor vector and downstream FOXO3 fragment (Arm 2) need to be in regions that are in positions amenable to recombination with the two genomic CRISPR nick sites. The FOXO3 donor vector fragments should be within 20 bases of the nick sites and should have at least a few hundred base pairs to promote recombination between the donor vector and the chromosome . In our design, the upstream sequence used in the donor vector for FOXO3 Arm 1 contained 418 chromosomal FOXO3 base pairs; these sequences ended seven bases upstream of the gRNA targeting site in the genome, allowing for 418 base pairs of homology between the donor vector and genome for recombination-mediated repair just before the nick site in the genome. The distance between the bottom strand and the top strand nick sites made by CRISPR Cas9 D10A was 51 bases. The donor vector sequences in FOXO3 Arm 1 and FOXO3 Arm 2 were non-overlapping. The downstream fragment in the donor vector contained 750 bases that were homologous to FOXO3 chromosomal DNA (that extended beyond the second nick site further downstream into the gene) in order to promote recombination; the second nick site was 12 bases from the start of the FOXO3 Arm 2.
Step-by-step Gibson assembly reactions for the FOXO3 donor vector
Gibson assembly reactions were performed to insert two FOXO3 fragments into the pcDNA3 vector at positions that were on either side of neomycin resistance cassette (NPTII gene). For the Gibson assembly reaction, there needed to be identical sequences on the ends of each piece of DNA that would be physically joined. Therefore, the ends of each PCR product needed to be identical to the piece of pcDNA3 vector to which it would be fused. We added pcDNA3 vector sequences to the 5′ ends of PCR primers utilized to amplify FOXO3 fragments. Therefore, FOXO3 gene fragments (PCR products) had pcDNA3 sequences on the ends that corresponded to upstream and downstream sequences of the utilized restriction sites (DraIII for Arm1 and BstZ17I for Arm2) in pcDNA3.
Addition of FOXO3 Arm 1 to donor vector
The pcDNA3 vector was cleaved with DraIII (restriction enzyme from NEB, Ipswich, MA) for 2 h at 37 °C. The restriction digest included 1 µg of the pcDNA3 vector, 4 μL of 10× NEB Cut Smart buffer, 3 μL of DraIII restriction enzyme and 27 μL of water. After this, 1 μL of calf intestine phosphatase (CIP) was added to the reaction (from NEB, Ipswich, MA) and incubated for 1 more hour at 37 °C. The digested and phosphatased vector was column purified using Qiagen PCR purification system (Hilden, Germany). DNA was eluted with sterile water and quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer.
PCR Primers utilized to amplify FOXO3 gene fragments for Donor Vector Gibson Assembly Reactions
FOXO3 ARM 1 F
FOXO3 ARM 1 R
FOXO3 ARM 2 F
FOXO3 ARM 2 R
Gibson assembly reactions were performed using 10 ng of vector (cut, phosphatased and column purified pcDNA3) with 80 ng of insert (FOXO3 fragment); the DNA reactants comprised a volume of 10 μL initially. To the DNA reactants, 10 μL of NEB Gibson assembly mix was added for a final volume of 20 μL (NEB, Ipswich, MA). These reactions were incubated at 50 °C for 1 h and were then transformed into chemically competent bacterial cells (5-alpha competent E. coli, NEB, Ipswich, MA) as directed by the NEB Gibson assembly kit. Transformed bacterial cells were plated in dilutions (1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000) to obtain single colonies given the high efficiency of the Gibson assembly reactions. Single colonies were screened by restriction digest and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The vector obtained from this was called FOXO3 Arm 1 vector.
Addition of FOXO3 Arm 2 to donor vector
The second arm for the FOXO3 donor vector was prepared in a similar manner to Arm 1. The intermediate vector (with FOXO3 Arm 1) was cut with BstZ17I, which is on the other side of the neomycin resistance gene in the pcDNA3 plasmid compared to FOXO3 Arm 1. The cleaved vector was treated with CIP (1 μL CIP, NEB, Ipswich, MA) for 1 h and subsequently column purified. FOXO3 Arm 2 was amplified with the primer pair specified in Table 1, producing a product that had sequences on each end that were identical to the sequences proximal to the BstZ17I site in the intermediate FOXO3 Arm 1 vector. Gibson assembly reactions were performed (as previously described to sub-clone Arm 1 of FOXO3) to obtain the final FOXO3 donor vector Figs. 2, 3. Transformed bacterial cells were plated in dilutions (1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000) to obtain single colonies given the extremely high efficiency of the Gibson assembly reactions. The complete FOXO3 donor vector was confirmed by restriction fragment analysis and Sanger sequencing. The complete sequence of the FOXO3 donor vector can be found in Additional file 1: Figure S1.
CRISPR Cas9 mutagenesis to truncate the FOXO3 gene in mammalian cells
Transient transfections to obtain FOXO3 truncation mutants
Guide RNA sequences
I.D. for construct
It is important to note that the nicks directed by the gRNAs are staggered on the chromosome (about 40 base pairs apart). These gRNAs are used in concert with the Cas9D10A nickase (CRISPR Cas9D10A-GFP Nickase, catalog: CAS9D10AGFPP, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) to make nicks in a gene of interest [26, 28, 30, 31, 32]. It has been shown that Cas9D10A allows for > 100-fold increased specificity for genomic editing (between 200-fold and 1500-fold based on deep sequencing experiments) .
For each mutagenesis, cells that survived the transfection (after 2 days of recovery) were incubated in 0.25% trypsin for 3 min and were placed into 10 mL of MEM (contained 10% FBS and 5% Pen/Strep). Ten plates of diluted cells (approximately 100,000 cells per 10 cm dish) were prepared from this mixture. G418 (0.5 mg/mL final concentration for U87MG and BT549 and 1.5 mg/mL G418 for HEK 293 cells) was added to each 10 cm plate 1 day after plating. Single clones were isolated from these selected dishes 4 weeks later using cloning cylinders. 2–10 single colonies were obtained from each 10 cm plate. To clone a colony, the plate was washed with 2 mL 0.25% trypsin and aspirated. Cloning cylinders (Fisher: 0955221) were placed onto the 10 cm plate using sterile forceps and vaseline (to make the cylinder stick to the plate). 200 μL of 0.25% trypsin was added to each cylinder and incubated for 5 min. The 200 μL of trypsin was pipetted up and down ten times and then plated into 2 mL of fresh media in a well of a six well plate.
Western blot analysis with putative FOXO3 mutants
CRISPR Cas9 mutation frequencies in mammalian cell lines
G418-resistant isolates screened by western blot analysis
Number of homozygous truncation mutants
Homozygous mutation frequency (%)
U87MG Trial 1
U87MG Trial 2
In our experiments, we were able to screen for a change in protein size. Other applications of this protocol could use similar screening techniques when the mutation frequency is low. Attachment of a GFP fusion to a gene of interest could be screened by western blot analysis, microscopy or flow cytometric analysis. Alternatively, genes could be deleted, leading to a loss of a protein of interest in western blot analysis. The ability to select mutants with neomycin and then screen using western blot analysis (or other technique) greatly facilitates the isolation of mutants.
Genotyping CRISPR Cas9 mutants
Primers utilized to detect and sequence FOXO3 gene disruption
FOXO3 F (for detection of disruption)
Neo cassette R (for detection of disruption)
FOXO3 seq. (for sequencing disruption mutants)
CRISPR Cas9 technology is an emergent genome editing tool. Here, we describe a protocol to disrupt the FOXO3 gene in mammalian cells using a neomycin cassette. To decrease off-target effects, we employed 2 guide RNAs, a mutant Cas9D10A nickase and a FOXO3 donor vector that was constructed by Gibson assembly (to enable the selection of mutants with G418). Selected mutants were validated by PCR, Sanger sequencing and western blot analysis. This protocol could be adapted to readily disrupt or modify genes of interest in order to alter the genetic background of mammalian cell lines in a directed manner. The ability to select for the disruption of genes using neomycin resistance accelerates mutant isolation, especially when mutation frequencies are low or when mutations are deleterious to cells.
Many cancer cell lines including U87MGs have deficient DNA repair [33, 34]. Homozygous mutation frequencies varied depending on the cell line as seen in Table 3. We found that even with selection, 5–6% of screened putative mutants were homozygous for FOXO3 disruption in U87MG cells (Figs. 4, 5, Table 3). BT549 breast cancer cells had the highest efficiency of 9%. HEK 293 cells had the lowest homozygous mutation frequency of only 1.3% (Table 3), whereas many heterozygous mutants were obtained for this cell line (8 out of 77 screened by western blot, data not shown). Similar homology directed repair (HDR) frequencies were observed in HEK 293 backgrounds (0.2–1.5%) with the Cas9 D10A nickase in previous studies [24, 40, 41]. HDR frequencies using CRISPR Cas9 vary depending on the cell line, enzymes utilized (Cas9 D10A versus wild-type Cas9), transfection protocols employed, specific guide RNAs employed (including PAM sequence variances) and the specific locus being mutated [23, 27, 29, 40]. It was surprising that U87MG and BT549 cell lines had higher gene disruption frequencies than HEK 293 cells. Perhaps NHEJ more efficiently resolved the Cas9-derived nicks in HEK 293 cells, leading to lower homology directed repair in this setting. NHEJ frequencies were found to be higher than HDR frequencies in 293 backgrounds (50–60% compared to 1%, respectively) . In addition, BT549 and U87MG cells harbor null mutations in the tumor suppressor PTEN, which impacts DNA repair via numerous mechanisms in a context-dependent manner [33, 43, 44, 45, 46]. Loss of PTEN hinders DNA repair, which may shift double strand break resolution to favor HDR over NHEJ in U87MG and BT549 cell lines .
We describe a CRISPR Cas9 genome editing protocol for mammalian cell lines by constructing and employing a custom donor vector that contains a neomycin resistance cassette. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol for donor vector design and construction using the pcDNA3 vector . Custom donor vectors can be difficult to clone and expensive to purchase. We provide a simple, efficient protocol to obtain custom donor vectors from the common pcDNA3 mammalian expression vector. We also provide step-by-step instructions on how to select mutants and isolate clones. This protocol will allow researchers to overcome the barrier of low mutation efficiency commonly found in mammalian cell lines. Importantly, researchers can employ this protocol to build custom donor vectors in order to study novel gene functions and/or examine the localization of tagged proteins using endogenous expression levels.
MK, RG, WI, ES, and RD formulated the hypothesis, organized the study, designed the protocol, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. NV, RM, EM, VF, LS, AL, AS, IF, and JH performed the experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors would like to thank the UTRGV Department of Biology and COS for their support, reagents and expertise.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
All cell lines and additional data prepared from this work are available upon request.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Work was performed with Institutional Biosafety Committee approval from the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley: Registration Number: 2016-003-IBC.
This work was supported by HHMI 52007568 (N.V. and R.M.), USDA Step 2 2015-38422-24061 (A.L., R.G,), USDA H.S.I. 2016-38422-25760 (M.K. and E.M), NIH 5R25GM10086606 (A.S., I.F and R.D.), NIH 5SC3GM11666901 (R.G.), UTRGV College of Sciences (COS) Seed Grant (M.K.), NSF Advance 1209210 (M.K.), and NSF 1463991 (E.S and M.K.).
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