Delays and the dynamics of service evaluations

  • Shirley Taylor
  • John D. Claxton


In this study, we examine the stability of evaluations and relative importance weights in linear compensatory service performance evaluations when customers are delayed. We postulate that even within one specific service, a consumer’s evaluation model may differ depending on the service experience. In an empirical study comparing delayed and nondelayed airline passengers, we found that evaluations of punctuality and overall service quality differed between those experiencing a delay and those who did not. More significantly, the delay also affected other service attribute evaluations and the relative importance of the various service attributes in the prediction of overall service evaluation. Preliminary explanations for these results, based on attribute salience and mood research, are discussed.


Service Quality Service Evaluation Negative Mood Consumer Research Importance Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alba, Joseph W., J. Wesley Hutchinson, and John G. Lynch, Jr. 1991. “Memory and Decision Making.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1–49.Google Scholar
  2. Babakus, Emin and Gregory W. Boller. 1992. “An Empirical Assessment of the SERVQUAL Scale.”Journal of Business Research 24 (May): 253–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babakus, Emin and Molly Inhofe. 1992. “The Role of Expectations and Attribute Importance in the Measurement of Service Quality.” Working paper. University of Memphis.Google Scholar
  4. Babakus, Emin and Glynn Mangold. 1989. “Adapting the ‘SERVQUAL’ Scale to Health Care Environment: An Empirical Assessment.” InEnhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing. Eds. Paul Bloom et al. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, 195.Google Scholar
  5. Batra, Rajeev and Michael L. Ray. 1986. “Affective Responses Mediating Acceptance of Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Research 13 (September): 234–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernardo, John J. and J. M. Blin. 1977. “A Programming Model of Consumer Choice Among Multi-attributed Brands.”Journal of Consumer Research 4 (September): 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolton, Ruth N. and James H. Drew. 1991a. “A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Service Changes on Customer Attitudes.”Journal of Marketing 55 (January): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolton, Ruth N. and James H. Drew. 1991b. “A Multi-stage Model of Customers’ Assessments of Service Quality and Value.”Journal of Consumer Research 17 (March): 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolton, Ruth N. and James H. Drew. Forthcoming. “Linking Customer Satisfaction to Service Operations and Outcomes.” InFrontiers in Service Quality. Eds. Roland T. Rust and Richard L. Oliver. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Brewer, William F. and Glenn V. Nakamura. 1984. “The Nature and Functions of Schemas.” InHandbook of Social Cognition. Eds. Robert S. Wyer, Jr. and Thomas K. Srull. London: Lawrence Erlbaum, 119–160.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, Stephen W. and Teresa A. Swartz. 1989. “A Gap Analysis of Professional Service Quality.”Journal of Marketing 53 (April): 92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carman, James M. 1990. “Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality: An Assessment of the SERVQUAL Dimensions.”Journal of Retailing 66 (Spring): 33–55.Google Scholar
  13. Clemmer, Elizabeth C. and Benjamin Schneider. 1993. “Managing Customer Dissatisfaction with Waiting: Applying Social-Psychological Theory in a Service Setting.”Advances in Services Marketing and Management 2: 213–229.Google Scholar
  14. Cronin, J. Joseph, Jr. and Steven A. Taylor. 1992. “Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension.”Journal of Marketing 56 (July): 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cronin, J. Joseph, Jr. and Steven A. Taylor. 1994. “SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling Performance-based and Perceptions-Minus-Expectations Measurement of Service Quality.”Journal of Marketing 58 (January): 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curry, David J. and D. J. Faulds. 1986. “Indexing Product Quality: Issues, Theory and Results.”Journal of Consumer Research 13 (June): 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curry, David J. and Michael B. Menasco. 1983. “On the Separability of Weights and Brand Values: Issues and Empirical Results.”Journal of Consumer Research 10 (June): 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawes, Robyn M. and Bernard Corrigan. 1974. “Linear Models in Decision Making.”Psychological Bulletin 81 (2): 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dube-Rioux, Laurette, Bernd H. Schmitt, and France Leclerc. 1989. “Consumers’ Reactions to Waiting: When Delays Affect the Perception of Service Quality.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Vol. 16. Ed. Thomas K. Srull. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 59–63.Google Scholar
  20. Edell, Julie and Marian Burke. 1987. “The Power of Feelings in Understanding Advertising Effects.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen. 1975.Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  22. Fiske, Susan T. 1980. “Attention and Weight in Person Perception: The Impact of Negative and Extreme Behavior.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38 (June): 889–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Folkes, Valerie S., Susan Koletsky, and John Graham. 1987. “A Field Study of Causal Inferences and Consumer Reaction: The View from the Airport.”Journal of Consumer Research 13 (March): 534–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gardner, Meryl P. 1985. “Mood States and Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review.”Journal of Consumer Research 12 (December): 281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gorn, Gerald J., Marvin E. Goldberg, and Kunal Basu. 1993. “Mood, Awareness, and Product Evaluation.”Journal of Consumer Psychology 2 (3): 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hammond, Kenneth R., Thomas R. Stewart, Berndt Brehmer, and Derick O. Steinmann. 1975. “Social Judgment Theory.” InHuman Judgment and Decision Processes. Eds. Martin F. Kaplan and Steven Schwartz. New York: Academic Press, 271–312.Google Scholar
  27. Hastie, Reid. 1980. “Memory for Behavioral Information that Confirms or Contradicts a Personality Impression.” InPerson Memory: The Cognitive Basis of Social Perception. Eds. Reid Hastie et al. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 155–178.Google Scholar
  28. Herzberg, Frederick. 1966.Work and the Nature of Man. New York: World Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  29. Holbrook, Morris B. and Rajeev Batra. 1987. “Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 404–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Isen, Alice M., Margaret Clark, and Mark F. Schwartz. 1976. “Duration of the Effect of the Good Mood on Helping: Footprints on the Sands of Time.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34 (September): 385–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Isen, Alice M., Margaret Clark, Mark F. Schwartz, and Thomas Shalker. 1982. “The Effect of Feeling State on Evaluation of Positive, Neutral and Negative Stimuli: When You ‘Accentuate the Positive’ Do You ‘Eliminate the Negative’?”Social Psychology Quarterly 45 (September): 58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, Eric J. and Robert J. Meyer. 1984. “Compensatory Choice Models of Noncompensatory Processes: The Effect of Varying Context.”Journal of Consumer Research 11 (June): 528–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson, Eric J. and J. W. Payne. 1985. “Effort and Accuracy in Choice.”Management Science 31 (April): 395–414.Google Scholar
  34. Katz, Karen L., Blaire M. Larson, and Richard C. Larson. 1991. “Prescription for the Waiting-in-Line Blues: Entertain, Enlighten, and Engage.”Sloan Management Review 32 (Winter): 44–53.Google Scholar
  35. Lynch, John G. 1979. “Why Additive Utility Models Fail as Descriptions of Choice Behavior.”Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 15 (July): 397–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lynch, John G. and Thomas K. Srull. 1982. “Memory and Attentional Factors in Consumer Choice: Concepts and Research Methods.”Journal of Consumer Research 9 (June): 18–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maister, David. 1985. “The Psychology of Waiting Lines.” InThe Service Encounter. Eds. John Czepiel, Michael Solomon, and Carol Suprenant. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 113–123.Google Scholar
  38. Mehrabian, Albert and James Russell. 1974.An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Miniard, Paul W., Sunil Bhatla, and Deepak Sirdeshmukh. 1992. “Mood as a Determinant of Postconsumption Product Evaluations: Mood Effects and Their Depending on the Affective Intensity of the Consumption Experience.”Journal of Consumer Psychology 1 (2): 173–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Newman, J. Robert. 1977. “Differential Weighting in Multiattribute Utility Measurement: Where It Should and Where It Does Make a Difference.”Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 20 (December): 312–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parasuraman, A., Leonard L. Berry, and Valarie Zeithaml. 1991. “Refinement and Reassessment of the SERVQUAL Scale.”Journal of Retailing 67 (Winter): 420–450.Google Scholar
  42. Parasuraman, A., Valarie Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1985. “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research.”Journal of Marketing 49 (Fall): 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parasuraman, A., Valarie Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1988. “SERVQUAL: A Multiple-item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality.”Journal of Retailing 64 (Spring): 12–40.Google Scholar
  44. Parasuraman, A., Valarie Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1994. “Reassessment of Expectations as a Comparison Standard in Measuring Service Quality: Implications for Further Research.”Journal of Marketing 58 (January): 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peterson, Robert A. and Matthew Sauber. 1983. “A Mood Scale for Survey Research.” InAmerican Marketing Association Educators’ Proceedings. Eds. Patrick Murphy et al. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 409–414.Google Scholar
  46. Pitz, Gordon F. and Natalie J. Sachs. 1984. “Judgment and Decision: Theory and Application.”Annual Review of Psychology 35: 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Skowronski, John J. and Donald E. Carlston. 1989. “Negativity and Extremity Biases in Impression Formation: A Review of Explanations.”Psychological Bulletin 105 (January): 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Srull, Thomas. 1983. “Affect and Memory: The Impact of Affective Reactions in Advertising on the Representation of Product Information in Memory.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Vol. 10. Eds. Richard Bagozzi and Alice Tybout. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 520–525.Google Scholar
  49. Srull, Thomas. 1984. “The Effects of Subjective Affective States on Memory and Judgment.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Vol. 11. Ed. Thomas Kinnear. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 530–533.Google Scholar
  50. Swartz, Teresa A. and Stephen W. Brown. 1989. “Consumer and Provider Expectation and Experiences in Evaluating Professional Service Quality.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 17 (Spring): 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tversky, Amos. 1972. “Elimination by Aspects: A Theory of Choice.”Psychological Review 79 (July): 281–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tversky, Amos, Shumel Sattath, and Paul Slovic. 1987. “Contingent Weighting in Judgement and Choice.”Psychological Review 95: 371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Varadarajan, P. Rajan. 1985. “A Two-factor Classification of Competitive Strategy Variables.”Strategic Management Journal 6 (October–December): 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilkie, William L. and Edgar A. Pessemier. 1973. “Issues in Marketing’s Use of Multi-attribute Attitude Models.”Journal of Marketing Research 10 (November): 428–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zeithaml, Valarie, A. Parasuraman, and Leonard L. Berry. 1990.Delivery Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley Taylor
    • 1
  • John D. Claxton
    • 2
  1. 1.the School of BusinessQueen’s UniversityKingston
  2. 2.the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration at the University of British ColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations