Advertisement

Overview of Herbal Quality Control

  • Peter A. G. M. de Smet
Article

Abstract

This paper outlines the importance of quality control of herbal remedies by providing an overview of the types of toxic and pathogenic contaminants which may OCCUK These include toxic boranicals, micro-organisms, microbial toxins, pesticides, fumigation agents, radioactivity, toxic metals, synthetic pharmaceuticals, and animal substances. Academia, government, the herbal industry, and the pharmaceutical industry must work together to develop practical methods of improving the safety of herbal remedies.

Key Words

Herbal remedies Contaminants Quality control 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    De Smet PAGM. Toxicological outlook on the quality assurance of herbal remedies. In: De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Volume 1. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1992:1–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Smet PAGM. Health risks of herbal remedies. Drug Safety. 1995;13:81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schier W, Sachsa B, Schultze W. Actual adulteration of herbal drugs. 5. Communication–birch leaves, javatea, scotch broom flower, Mexican tea, and Iceland moss. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1994; 134:4569–4576.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greinwald R, Lurz G, Witte L, Czygan F-C. A survey of alkaloids in Spartium junceum L. (Genisteae-Fa-baceae). ZNaturforsch SectCBiosci. 1990;45:1085–1089.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barboni L, Manzi A, Bellomaria B, Quinto AM. Alkaloid content in four Spartium junceum populations as a defensive strategy against predators. Phy-tochemistry. 1994;37:1197–1200.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Smet PAGM. Aristolochia species. In: De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Volume 1. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1992:79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Smet PAGM. Notes added in proof. In: De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Volume 3. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 1997:229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anonymous. Drug development from natural products. Pharm J. 1995;255:430–431.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Smet PAGM, Elferink F. Verpoorte R. Links-draaiend tetrahydropalmatine in Chinese tablet. Ned Tijdschr Geneesk. 1989;133:308.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horowitz RS, Gomez H, Moore LL, Fulton B, Feld-haus K, Brent J, Stermitz FR, Beck JJ, Alessi JR, De Smet PAGM. Jin Bu Huan toxicity in children—Colorado 1993. MMWR. 1993;42:633–636.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Woolf GM, Petrovic LM, Rojter SE, Wainwright S, Villamil FG, Katkov WN, Michieletti P, Wanless IR, Stermitz FR, Beck JJ, Vierling JM. Acute hepatitis associated with the Chinese herbal product Jin Bu Huan. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:729–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hsu CK, Leo P, Shastry D, Meggs W, Weisman R, Hoffman RS. Anticholinergic poisoning associated with herbal tea. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2245–2248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Smet PAGM. Teucrium chamaedrys. In: De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Volume 3. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1997:137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Smet PAGM, Smeets OSNM. Potential risks of health food products containing yohimbe extracts. Br Med J. 1994;309:958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Smet PAGM. Tripterygium species In: De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Volume 3. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1997:145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anonymous. European Pharmacopoeia. Third Edition. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Farber JM, Carter AO, Varughese PV, Ashton FE, Ewan EP. Listeriosis traced to the consumption of alfalfa tablets and soft cheese. New Engl J Med. 1990:322:338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ishikawa K, Matsui K, Madarame T, Sato S, Oikawa K, Uchida T. Hepatitis E probably contracted via a Chinese herbal medicine, demonstrated by nucleotide sequencing. J Gastroenterol. 1995;30:534–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scheer R. Influencing of the limulus amebocyte ly-sate test by mistletoe lectins. Arzneim Forsch. 1993; 43:795–800.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hogan III RP. Hemorrhagic diathesis caused by drinking an herbal tea. JAMA. 1983;249:2679–2680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Anonymous. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 33rd Report of the Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Technical Report Series 776. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1989.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anonymous. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 41st Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Technical Report Series 837. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anonymous. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 22nd Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Technical Report Series 631. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1978.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abt AB, Oh JY, Huntington RA, Burkhart KK. Chinese herbal medicine induced acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:211–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nelson L, Shin R, Hoffman R. Aplastic anemia induced by an adulterated herbal medication. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1995;33:467–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gertner E, Marshall PS, Filandrinos D, Potek AS, Smith TM. Complications resulting from the use of Chinese herbal medications containing undeclared prescription drugs. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:614–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Van der Stricht BI, Parvais OE, Vanhaelen-Fastré RJ, Vanhaelen MH. Remedies may contain cocktail of active drugs. Br Med J. 1994;308:1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ros JJW, Pelders MG, DeSmet PAGM. A case of positive doping with a botanical food supplement. Pharm World Sci. 1999;21:44–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ko RJ, Greenwald MS, Loscutoff SM, Au AM, Ap-pel BR, Kreutzer RA, Haddon WF, Jackson TY, Boo FO, Presicek G. Lethal ingestion of Chinese herbal tea containing Ch’an Su. West J Med. 1996; 164: 71–75.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kommission E. Preparation monographs. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1993;133:2791–2794.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anonymous. Anthranoid-containing human medicines. Pharm Ztg. 1994;139:2432.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Smet PAGM. Spirulina species. In: De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Volume 3. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 1997:129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Drug Information Association, Inc 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. G. M. de Smet
    • 1
  1. 1.Scientific Institute of Dutch PharmacistsThe HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations