Linguistic Validation of the French Canadian Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire–General Health Version
The objective of this study was to evaluate the linguistic validity of the French Canadian Work Productivity and Activity Impairment–General Health questionnaire (WPAI-GH). When ill, employees may take a sick day (absenteeism) or work despite the illness and experience a loss of efficiency (presenteeism), which may then result in organizational productivity loss. The WPAI-GH, a leading measure of work productivity indicators, was not previously tested among French Canadians for clarity of translation and item comprehension. Before using a French translation of an available US-English questionnaire, the linguistic validity must be established to ensure its conceptual equivalence to the original as well as establishing cultural appropriateness.
A French Canadian translation of the US-English WPAI-GH was produced through a reiterative process in which harmonized forward and back translations were created by independent translators. French-speaking subjects residing in Canada self-administered the WPAI-GH and were subsequently debriefed by a bilingual (French-English) interviewer.
Thirty French Canadian subjects were interviewed, all of whom were employed at the time. The group was stratified by educational level, including an equal number of participants with and without a high school degree. Responses to hypothetical scenarios indicated that the French Canadian version adequately differentiates between sick time taken for health and non-health reasons as well as differentiations between absenteeism and presenteeism.
The linguistic validity of the French Canadian translation of the WPAI-GH was established among a diverse French Canadian population, including those with minimal education.
KeywordsWork Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire–General Health Version (WPAI-GH) absenteeism presenteeism occupational health translation cognitive debriefing linguistic validation patient-reported outcomes
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.The CIA world factbook. North America: Canada. https://doi.org/www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html. Accessed February 16, 2010.
- 6.Statistics Canada. https://doi.org/www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html. Accessed February 16, 2010.
- 7.Reilly Margaret C. Development of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) Questionnaire. New York, NY: Reilly Associates; 2008.Google Scholar
- 8.United North America. Similarities & differences between Canada & the United States. https://doi.org/www.unitednorthamerica.org/simdiff.htm. Accessed February 16, 2010.
- 9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey. https://doi.org/www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/jcush.htm. Accessed February 16, 2010.
- 10.Cull A, Sprangers M, Bjordal K, Aaronson N, West K, Bottomley A. EORTC Quality of Life Group Translation Procedure. 2nd ed. Brussels: EORTC; 2002.Google Scholar
- 30.Jacobs RJ, Davidson JR, Gupta S, Meyerhoff AS. The effects of clonazepam on quality of life and work productivity in panic disorder. Am J Man Care. 1997;3:1187–1196.Google Scholar
- 32.Tanner LA, Reilly M, Meltzer EO, Bradford JE, Mason J. Effect of fexofenadine HCI on quality of life and work, classroom and daily activity impairment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Am J Man Care. 1999;5(suppl): S235–S247.Google Scholar
- 33.Perrillo RP, Rothstein KD, Imperial JC, et al. Comparison of quality of life, work productivity and medical resource utilization of peginterferon alpha 2a vs the combination of interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin as initial treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepatitis. 2004;11:157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Reilly Associates. WPAI: GH V2. https://doi.org/www.reillyassociates.net/WPAI_GH.html. Accessed February 16, 2010.
- 37.Gawlicki M. Procedures for Linguistic Validation of Health Status Questionnaires. Mansfield Center, CT: Corporate Translations Inc; 2004.Google Scholar
- 38.Public Health Agency of Canada. Work-Life Canada in the new millennium: a status report. https://doi.org/220.127.116.11/publicat/work-travail/report2/index-eng.php. Accessed August 5, 2010.Google Scholar
- 39.Davy D. Absenteeism costing companies $10b a year in lost productivity. The Hamilton Spectator. October 10, 2007.Google Scholar
- 42.Milton N. Stress and absenteeism from work. https://doi.org/www.epistemics.co.uk/staff/nmilton/papers/stress.htm. Accessed August 5, 2010.