Training Clinicians in Cultural Psychiatry: A Canadian Perspective
- 218 Downloads
The authors summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of clinicians in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University.
We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of training in cultural psychiatry at McGill to identify the main orientations, teaching methods, curriculum, and course content. Student evaluations of teaching were reviewed. The training strategies and curriculum are related to the larger social context of Canadian society including the history of migration, current demography, and policies of multiculturalism.
The McGill program includes core teaching, clinical rotations, an intensive summer program, and annual Advanced Study Institutes. The interdisciplinary training setting emphasizes general knowledge rather than specific ethnocultural groups, including: understanding the cultural assumptions implicit in psychiatric theory and practice; exploring the clinician’s personal and professional identity and social position; evidence-based conceptual frameworks for understanding the interaction of culture and psychopathology; learning to use an expanded version of the cultural formulation in DSM-IV for diagnostic assessment and treatment planning; and developing skills for working with interpreters and culture-brokers, who mediate and interpret the cultural meaning and assumptions of patient and clinician.
An approach to cultural psychiatry grounded in basic social science perspectives and in trainees’ appreciation of their own background can prepare clinicians to respond effectively to the changing configurations of culture, ethnicity, and identity in contemporary health care settings.
KeywordsAcademic Psychiatry Clinical Rotation Dissociative Disorder Cultural Psychiatry Ethnocultural Group
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Bibeau G, Pedersen D: A return to scientific racism in the social sciences: the case of sexuality and the AIDS epidemic in Africa, in New Horizons in Medical Anthropology: A Festschrift in Honor of Charles Leslie. Edited by Nichter M, Lock M. New York, Routledge, 2002Google Scholar
- 5.Lock M, Gordon D (eds): Biomedicine Examined. Dordrecht, Kluwer, 1988Google Scholar
- 6.Young A: The harmony of illusions: inventing posttraumatic stress disorder. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1995Google Scholar
- 7.Young A: An alternative history of traumatic stress, in International Handbook of Human Responses to Trauma. Edited by Shalev A, Yehuda R, McFarlane A. New York, Plenum, 1999, pp 51–66Google Scholar
- 11.Kirmayer LJ, Corin E, Jarvis GE: Inside knowledge: cultural constructions of insight in psychosis, in Insight in Psychosis. Edited by Amador XF, David AS. New York, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp 197–229Google Scholar
- 12.Baxter CL: Transcultural psychiatry in Canadian psychiatry residency programs. Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 2002; 35: 492–494Google Scholar
- 13.Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Office of Education: Specific Standards of Accreditation for Residency Programs in Psychiatry. Ottawa, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 2005, p 2Google Scholar
- 14.Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Office of Education: Teaching and Assessment of Communication Skills in Residency Programs. Ottawa, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 2001Google Scholar
- 16.El-Guebaly N, Garneau Y: Curriculum Guidelines for Residency Training of Psychiatrists in Substance-Related Disorders. Toronto, Canadian Psychiatric Association, 1996Google Scholar
- 18.Anderson AB, Frideres JS: Ethnicity in Canada: Theoretical Perspectives. Toronto, Butterworth and Company, 1981Google Scholar
- 19.Hollinger DA: Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism. New York, Basic Books, 1995Google Scholar
- 20.Susser I, Patterson TC: Cultural Diversity in the United States: A Critical Reader. Malden, Mass, Blackwell Scientific, 2001Google Scholar
- 21.Troper H, Weinfeld M (eds): Ethnicity, Politics, and Public Policy: Case Studies in Canadian Diversity. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1999Google Scholar
- 22.Elliott JL (ed): Two Nations, Many Cultures: Ethnic Groups in Canada. Scarborough, Prentice Hall of Canada, 1979Google Scholar
- 24.Kamboureli S: The technology of ethnicity: Canadian multiculturalism and the language of law, in Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity. Edited by Bennett D. London, Routledge, 1998, pp 208–222Google Scholar
- 25.Mackey E: The House of Difference: Cultural Politics and National Identity in Canada. London, Routledge, 1999Google Scholar
- 26.Gunew SM: Haunted Nations: The Colonial Dimensions of Multiculturalisms. New York, Routledge, 2003Google Scholar
- 27.Wexler BE: Brain and Culture: Neurobiology, Ideology, and Social Change. Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press, 2006Google Scholar
- 28.Pinderhughes E: Understanding Race, Ethnicity, and Power: The Key to Efficacy in Clinical Practice. New York, Free Press, 1989Google Scholar
- 32.Kirmayer LJ, Rousseau C, Jarvis GE, et al: The cultural context of clinical assessment, in Psychiatry. Edited by Tasman A, Lieberman J, Kay J. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp 19–29Google Scholar
- 33.Young A: A description of how ideology shapes knowledge of mental disorders, in Knowledge, Power and Practice: The Anthropology of Medicine and Everyday Life. Edited by Lindenbaum S, Lock M. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993Google Scholar
- 34.Lock M, Young A, Cambrosio A (eds): Living and Working with New Medical Technologies: Intersections of Inquiry. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2000Google Scholar
- 39.Measham T, Rousseau C, Nadeau L: The development and therapeutic modalities of a transcultural child psychiatry service. Can Child Adoles Psychiatry Rev 2005; 14: 68–72Google Scholar
- 40.Measham T, Rousseau C, Nadeau L: Immigrants and mental health services: increasing collaboration with other service providers. Can Child Adoles Psychiatry Rev 2005; 14: 73–76Google Scholar
- 43.Kleinman A: Rethinking psychiatry. New York, Free Press, 1988Google Scholar
- 44.Leff J: The Unbalanced Mind. New York, Columbia University Press, 2001Google Scholar
- 45.Alarcón RD, Bell CC, Kirmayer LJ, et al: Beyond the fun-house mirrors: research agenda on culture and psychiatric diagnosis, in A Research Agenda for DSM-V. Edited by Kupfer DJ, First MB, Regier DA. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2002, pp 219–289Google Scholar