Academic Psychiatry

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 480–490 | Cite as

Visualizing the Future: Technology Competency Development in Clinical Medicine, and Implications for Medical Education

  • Malathi Srinivasan
  • Craig R. Keenan
  • Joel Yager
Educational Assessment, Interventions, and Outcomes



In this article, the authors ask three questions. First, what will physicians need to know in order to be effective in the future? Second, what role will technology play in achieving that high level of effectiveness? Third, what specific skill sets will physicians need to master in order to become effective?


Through three case vignettes describing past, present, and potential future medical practices, the authors identify trends in major medical technological and cultural shifts that will shape medical education and practice.


From these cases, the authors generate a series of technology-related competencies and skill sets that physicians will need to remain leaders in the delivery of medical care. Physicians will choose how they will be end-users of technology, technology developers and/or the interface between users and developers. These choices will guide the types of skills each physician will need to acquire. Finally, the authors explore the implications of these trends for medical educators including the competencies that will be required of educators as they develop the medical curriculum.


Examining historical and social trends, including how users adopt current and emerging technologies, allows us to anticipate changes in the practice of medicine. By considering market pressures, global trends and emerging technologies, medical educators and practicing physicians may prepare themselves for the changes likely to occur in the medical curriculum and in the marketplace.


Academic Psychiatry Home Monitoring Privacy Standard Medical Future Voice Recognition Software 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Scanlon WJ: The future of Medicare hospital payment. Health Affairs 2006; 25: 70–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cromwell J, Drozd EM, Gage B, et al: Variation in patient routine costliness in U.S. psychiatric facilities. J Ment Health Policy Econ 2005; 8: 15–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Capko J: Outsourcing: friend or foe? J Med Pract Manage 2005; 21: 67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ghods AJ, Nasrollahzadeh D: Transplant tourism and the Iranian model of renal transplantation program: ethical considerations. Exp Clin Transplant 2005; 3: 351–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Available at Accessed Jan 20, 2006
  6. 6.
    Available at Accessed Jan 20, 2006
  7. 7.
    Kleinke JD: Release 0.0: clinical information technology in the real world. Health Aff 1998; 17: 23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaushal R, Bates DW, Poon EG, et al: Functional gaps in attaining a national health information network: what will it take to get there in five years? Health Aff 2005; 24: 1281–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coile RC Jr: The digital transformation of health care. Physician Exec 2000; 26: 8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Forkner-Dunn J: Internet-based patient self-care: the next generation of health care delivery. J Med Internet Res 2003; 5: e8PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, et al: The impact of health information on the Internet on health care and the physician-patient relationship: national U.S. survey among 1,050 U.S. physicians. J Med Internet Res 2003; 5: e17.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maisels MJ, Kring EA: A simple approach to improving patient satisfaction. Clin Pediatr 2005; 44: 797–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bezold C: The future of patient-centered care: scenarios, visions, and audacious goals. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11: S77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alexander GC, Kurlander J, Wynia MK: Physicians in retainer (“concierge”) practice: a national survey of physician, patient, and practice characteristics. J Gen Intern Med 2005; 20: 1079–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marsh AG: A curious 21st century phenomenon: physicians reviving the house call. Caring 2005; 24: 12–16, 18-22, 24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meyer GS, Gibbons RV: House calls to the elderly—a vanishing practice among physicians. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1815–1820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Will consumerism lead to better health? Lancet 2005; 366: 343Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robinson JC: Managed consumerism in health care. Health Aff 2005; 24: 1478–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kubiak T, Hermanns N, Schreckling HJ, et al: Evaluation of a self-management-based patient education program for the treatment and prevention of hypoglycemia-related problems in type 1 diabetes. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 60: 228–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, et al: The impact of health information on the internet on the physician-patient relationship: patient perceptions. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 1727–1734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baker L, Wagner TH, Singer S, et al: Use of the Internet and e-mail for health care information: results from a national survey. JAMA 2003; 289: 2400–2406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shortliffe EH: The evolution of electronic medical records. Acad Med 1999; 74: 414–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katehakis DG, Sfakianakis S, Tsiknakis M, et al: An infrastructure for Integrated Electronic Health Record services: the role of XML (Extensible Markup Language). J Med Internet Res 2001; 3: e7PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hashiyada M: Development of biometric DNA ink for authentication security. Tohoku J Exp Med 2004; 204: 109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pothen DJ, Parmanto B: Biometric authentication: privacy protection or invasion? J AHIMA 2001; 72: 24, 26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Woodward JD: Biometric scanning, law & policy: identifying the concerns-drafting the biometric blueprint. Univ Pittsbg Law Rev 1997; 59: 97–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garner JC: Final HIPAA security regulations: a review. Manag Care Q 2003; 11: 15–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Allison JJ, Kiefe CI, Wall T, et al: Multicomponent Internet continuing medical education to promote chlamydia screening. Am J Prev Med 2005; 28: 285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mandel LS, Goff BA, Lentz GM: Self-assessment of resident surgical skills: is it feasible? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193: 1817–1822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hiramanek N: Self-directed learning and continuing medical education. Aust Fam Physician 2005; 34: 879–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mamary E, Charles P: Promoting self-directed learning for continuing medical education. Med Teach 2003; 25: 188–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ginsburg GS, Donahue MP, Newby LK: Prospects for personalized cardiovascular medicine: the impact of genomics. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 1615–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cacabelos R, Fernandez-Novoa L, Corzo L, et al: Genomics and phenotypic profiles in dementia: implications for pharmacological treatment. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2004; 26: 421–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ross JS, Schenkein DP, Kashala O, et al: Pharmacogenomics. Adv Anat Pathol 2004;11: 211–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mancama D, Arranz MJ, Kerwin RW: Pharmacogenomics of psychiatric drug treatment. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2003; 5: 642–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kobal SL, Atar S, Siegel RJ: Hand-carried ultrasound improves the bedside cardiovascular examination. Chest 2004; 126: 693–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schlaeper C, Diaz-Buxo JA: Home hemodialysis and remote monitoring: current technology, requirements and capabilities. Blood Purif 2005; 23: 18–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Celis H, Den Hond E, Staessen JA: Self-measurement of blood pressure at home in the management of hypertension. Clin Med Res 2005; 3: 19–26PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Duque G, Finkelstein A, Roberts A, et al: Learning while evaluating: the use of an electronic evaluation portfolio in a geriatric medicine clerkship. BMC Med Educ 2006; 6: 4PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Joosse P, Goslings JC, Luitse JS, et al: M-study: arguments for regional trauma databases. J Trauma 2005; 58: 1272–1276; discussion 1277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kennedy J: Herb and supplement use in the US adult population. Clin Ther 2005; 27: 1847–1858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harle L, Brown T, Laheru D, et al: Omega-3: fatty acids for the treatment of cancer cachexia: issues in designing clinical trials of dietary supplements. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11: 1039–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ruggie M: Mainstreaming complementary therapies: new directions in health care. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005; 24: 980–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sierpina VS, Frenkel MA: Acupuncture: a clinical review. South Med J 2005; 98: 330–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Harnett B: Telemedicine systems and telecommunications. J Telemed Telecare 2006; 12: 4–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Senapati S, Advincula AP: Telemedicine and robotics: paving the way to the globalization of surgery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005; 91: 210–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fernandez RD, Hebert GJ: Global licensure: new modalities of treatment and care require the development of new structures and systems to access care. Nurs Adm Q 2004; 28: 129–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Paine L, Deshpande R, Margolis JD, et al: Up to code: does your company’s conduct meet world-class standards? Harv Bus Rev 2005; 83: 122–133, 154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Segouin C, Hodges B, Brechat PH: Globalization in health care: is international standardization of quality a step toward outsourcing? Int J Qual Health Care 2005; 17: 277–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Spiegel JM, Labonte R, Ostry AS: Understanding “globalization” as a determinant of health determinants: a critical perspective. J Occup Environ Health 2004; 10: 360–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yager J: The future of psychiatry, in Encyclopedia of the Future. Edited by Kurian GT, Molitor GTT. Mcmillan, 1995Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robinowitz CB, Yager J: The future of psychiatric education, in Annual Review of Psychiatry, volume 15. Edited by Dickstein LJ, Riba MB, Oldham JM. Arlington, Va, American Psychiatric Publishing, 1996, pp 581–604Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hilty DM, Marks SL, Urness D, et al: Clinical and educational applications of telepsychiatry: a review. Can J Psychiatry 2004; 49: 12–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Available at Accessed January 15, 2006.

Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malathi Srinivasan
    • 1
  • Craig R. Keenan
    • 1
  • Joel Yager
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of California, DavisSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations