Academic Psychiatry

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 39–43 | Cite as

A Comparison of Evaluations of Male and Female Psychiatry Supervisors

  • Janet de Groot
  • Aileen Brunet
  • Allan S. Kaplan
  • Michael Bagby
Original Article


Objective: To assess whether male and female psychiatry supervisors are evaluated differently by psychiatry residents. Methods: The University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry compiled anonymous supervisor evaluations completed semiannually by psychiatry residents over a period of 3 years. Male and female psychiatry supervisors’ ratings were compared by using t-tests, effect estimates, and chi-square analyses. Results from these ratings were discussed in a resident focus group. Results: Female psychiatry supervisors (n = 76) were rated significantly lower than male supervisors (n = 222), both overall (P<0.05) and in the areas of enthusiasm (P<0.05), clarity (P<0.05), and knowledge (P<0.001). Conclusions: Future studies comparing evaluations of supervision by male and female psychiatrists must control for academic rank, numbers of publications, and hours of teaching. Comparing evaluations of the various male-female supervisory pairs will be useful to assess for gender biases.


Academic Psychiatry Medium Effect Size Academic Medicine Psychiatry Resident Male Resident 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tesch BJ, Nattinger AB: Career advancement and gender in academic medicine. Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons 1997; 26: 172–176Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alonso A: The Quiet Profession: Supervisors of Psychotherapy New York, Macmillan, 1985Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    de Groot J, Tiberius R, Sinai J, et al: Psychiatric residency: an analysis of training activities with recommendations. Acad Psychiatry 2000; 24: 139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Irby D, Rakestraw P: Evaluating clinical teaching in medicine. J Med Educ 1981; 56: 181–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Herrmann N: Supervisor evaluation: from theory to implementation. Acad Psychiatry 1996; 20: 205–211Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reiser LW, Sledge WH, Fenton W, et al: Beginning careers in academic psychiatry for women: “Bermuda Triangle”? Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 1392–1397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaplan SH, Sullivan LM, Dukes KA, et al: Sex differences in academic advancement: results of a national study of pediatricians. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1282–1289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nonnemaker L: Women physicians in academic medicine: new insights from cohort studies. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 399–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tesch BJ, Wood HM, Helwig AL, et al: Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine: glass ceiling or sticky floor? JAMA 1995; 273: 1022–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buckley LM, Sanders K, Shih M, et al: Obstacles to promotion? Values of women faculty about career success and recognition. Acad Med 2000; 75: 283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rosenthal RD, Rosnaw, RL: Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1984Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen J: Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leichner P, Harper D: Profile of the ideal residency program in psychiatry: the Canadian resident’s viewpoint. Journal of Psychiatric Education 1981; 5: 269–277Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gilligan C: In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1982Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nadelson CC, Belitsky C, Seeman MV, et al: Gender issues in supervision, in Clinical Perspectives on Psychotherapy Supervision. Edited by Greben S, Ruskin R. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1994, pp 41–51Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scher M: Gender issues in psychiatric supervision. Compr Psychiatry 1981; 22: 179–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nelson ML, Holloway EL: Relation of gender to power and involvement in supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1990; 37: 473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leibenluft E, Dial TH, Haviland MG, et al: Sex differences in rank attainment and research activities among academic psychiatrists. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993; 50: 896–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barer ML, Kazanjian A, Pagliccia N, et al: A profile of academic physicians in British Columbia. Acad Med 1989; 64: 524–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kline F, Goin MK, Zimmeran W: You can be a better supervisor! Journal of Psychiatric Education 1977; 1: 174–179Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shanfield SB, Matthews KL, Hetherly V: What do excellent psychotherapy supervisors do? Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 1081–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bickel J: Women in academic medicine. J Am Med Womens Assoc 2000; 55: 10–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gilbert LA, Rossman KM: Gender and the mentoring process for women: implications for professional development. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 1992; 23: 233–238Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldstein E: Effects of same-sex and cross-sex role models on the subsequent academic productivity of scholars. Am Psychol 1979; 34: 407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sinai J, Tiberius RG, de Groot J, et al: Developing a training program to improve supervisor-resident relationships, step one: defining the types of issues. Teach Learn Med 2001; 13: 80–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet de Groot
    • 1
  • Aileen Brunet
    • 1
  • Allan S. Kaplan
    • 1
  • Michael Bagby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations