Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 403–416 | Cite as

Synthesis of sol–gel Na2Zr x Ti6−x O13 (0≤x≤1) materials and their performance in photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

  • Leticia M. Torres-Martínez
  • Arquímedes Cruz-López
  • Lorena L. Garza-Tovar
  • Karina del Ángel
  • Isaías Juárez Ramírez


In this work we present the synthesis and characterization of four compositions of the solid solution with the general formula Na2Zr x Ti6−x O13 (0≤x≤1) which was prepared by a sol-gel method. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of different amounts of zirconium into the binary phase Na2Ti6O13 on two properties: the textural surface and E g values. This titanate phase crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell and is built into an octahedral TiO6 framework forming a rectangular tunnel structure. Additionally, we have compared their photocatalytic performances in degradation of organic dyes under visible light. The heat-treated sol-gel samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, N2 physisorption, thermal analysis, UV and FT-IR spectroscopy. According to the X-ray powder diffraction results, the new ternary tunnel compound Na2ZrTi5O13 was obtained as a single phase at 800°C. The cell parameters for the two end-member phases of that solid solution were refined to confirm that Zr ion was incorporated into the structural framework. This ternary compound had an E g value of about 2.9 eV. The activity of all heat-treated Na2ZrTi5O13 samples was tested in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and Rhodamine B under visible light. The Na2ZrTi5O13 calcined at 400°C showed the best performance with 95% of photodegradation of methylene blue and a half time t 1/2 of 15 min.


Photocatalysis tunnel structure materials methylene blue rhodamine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. Nowotny, C. C. Sorrell, T. Bak and L. R. Sheppard, Sol. Energ. 78, 593 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Bahnemann, Sol. Energ. 77, 445 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Inoue, T. Kubokawa and K. Sato, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 4059 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. M. Torres-Martínez, A. Hernández and J. C. Luna-Urzúa, Adv. Tech. Mater. Proc. J. (ATM) 6, 184 (2004).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. P. Feist, S. J. Mocarski, P. K. Davies, A. J. Jacobson and J. T. Lewandowski, Solid State Ionics 28–30, 1338 (1998).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. H. Li, G. H. Wang and J. M. Hong, Mater. Res. Bull. 34, 2341 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Serpone and R. F. Khairutdinov, Stud. Surface Sci. Catal. 103, 147 (1996).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Chiron, A. Fernández-Alba, A. Rodríguez and E. García-Calvo, Water Res. 34, 366 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Fujishima, T. N. Rao and D. A. Tryk, J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochem. Rev. 1, 1 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. P. Wilcoxon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7334 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Hernandez, L. M. Torres-Martinez, E. Sánchez-Mora, T. Lopez and F. Tzompantzi, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2820 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Dussarrat, R. A. Howie, G. C. Mather, L. M. Torres-Martinez and A. R. West, J. Mater. Chem. 7, 2103 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. L. Garza-Tovar, L. M. Torres-Martínez, J. S. Ramos-Garza and L. G. Castillo-Torres, Mater. Sci. Forum 486–487, 57 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. M. Hermann, Catal. Today 53, 115 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Lacheb, E. Puzenat, A. Houas, M. Ksibi, E. Elaloui, Ch. Guillard and J. M. Hermann, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 39, 75 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. L. Garza-Tovar, L. M. Torres-Martínez, D. Bernal Rodríguez, R. Gómez and G. del Angel, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 247, 283 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leticia M. Torres-Martínez
    • 1
  • Arquímedes Cruz-López
    • 1
  • Lorena L. Garza-Tovar
    • 1
  • Karina del Ángel
    • 1
  • Isaías Juárez Ramírez
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecomaterials and Energy Department, Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversidad Autónoma de Nuevo LeónNuevo LeónMéxico

Personalised recommendations