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Efficient Realization of Sigma-Delta ( Open image in new window - Open image in new window ) Kalman Lowpass Filter in Hardware Using FPGA

  • Saman S. AbeysekeraEmail author
  • Charayaphan Charoensak
Open Access
Research Article

Abstract

Sigma-delta ( Open image in new window - Open image in new window ) modulation techniques have moved into mainstream applications in signal processing and have found many practical uses in areas such as high-resolution A/D, D/A conversions, voice communication, and software radio. Open image in new window - Open image in new window modulators produce a single, or few bits output resulting in hardware saving and thus making them suitable for implementation in very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits. To reduce quantization noise produced, higher-order modulators such as multiloop and multistage architectures are commonly used. The quantization noise behavior of higher-order Open image in new window - Open image in new window modulators is well understood. Based on these quantization noise characteristics, various demodulator architectures, such as filter, optimal FIR filter, and Laguerre filter are reported in literature. In this paper, theory and design of an efficient Kalman recursive demodulator filter is shown. Hardware implementation of Kalman lowpass filter, using field programmable gate array (FPGA), is explained. The FPGA synthesis results from Kalman filter design are compared with previous designs for sinc filter, optimum FIR filter, and Laguerre filter.

Keywords

Field Programmable Gate Array Quantization Noise Very Large Scale Integration Large Scale Integration Voice Communication 

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Copyright information

© Abeysekera and Charoensak 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical & Electronic EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingapore

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