The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 163, Issue 1, pp 19–35 | Cite as

Recent atomic clock comparisons at NIST

  • L. Lorini
  • N. Ashby
  • A. Brusch
  • S. Diddams
  • R. Drullinger
  • E. Eason
  • T. Fortier
  • P. Hastings
  • T. Heavner
  • D. Hume
  • W. Itano
  • S. Jefferts
  • N. Newbury
  • T. Parker
  • T. Rosenband
  • J. Stalnaker
  • W. Swann
  • D. Wineland
  • J. Bergquist
Article

Abstract

The record of atomic clock frequency comparisons at NIST over the past half-decade provides one of the tightest constraints of any present-day temporal variations of the fundamental constants. Notably, the 6-year record of increasingly precise measurements of the absolute frequency of the Hg+ single-ion optical clock (using the cesium primary frequency standard NIST-F1) constrains the temporal variation of the fine structure constant α to less than 2 · 10−6yr−1 and offers a Local Position Invariance test in the framework of General Relativity. The most recent measurement of the frequency ratio of the Al+ and Hg+ optical clocks is reported with a fractional frequency uncertainty of ±5.2 · 10−17. The record of such measurements over the last year sensitively tests for a temporal variation of α and constrains \(\dot{\alpha}/\alpha = (-1.6 \pm 2.3)\ .\ 10^{-17} {\rm yr}^{-1}\), consistent with zero.

Keywords

European Physical Journal Special Topic Frequency Ratio Fundamental Constant Atomic Clock Fractional Frequency 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. V.V. Flambaum, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 22, 4937 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. S. Lea, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1773 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. T. Damour, F. Dyson, Nucl. Phys. B 480, 37 (1996)Google Scholar
  4. V.A. Dzuba, V.V. Flambaum, J.K. Webb, Phys. Rev. A 59, 230 (1999)Google Scholar
  5. M.T. Murphy, J. Webb, V. Flambaum, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. S.A. Levshakov, M. Centurion, P. Molaro, S. D’Odorico, Astron. Astrophys. 434, 827 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. W.H. Oskay, W.M. Itano, J.C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163001 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. T. Rosenband, P.O. Schmidt, D.B. Hume, W.M. Itano, T.M. Fortier, J.E. Stalnaker, K. Kim, S.A. Diddams, J.C.J. Koelemeij, J.C. Bergquist, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220801 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. G. Wilpers, C. Oates, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, W. Oskay, J. Bergquist, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, T. Parker, et al., Metrologia 44, 146 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. Z. Barber, C. Hoyt, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. A.D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G.K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M.M. Boyd, M.H.G. de Miranda, M.J. Martin, J.W. Thomsen, S.M. Foreman, J. Ye, et al., Science 319, 1805 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. S.R. Jefferts, J.H. Shirley, T.E. Parker, T.P. Heavner, D.M. Meekhof, C.W. Nelson, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, A. DeMarchi, R.E. Drullinger, et al., Metrologia 39, 321 (2002)Google Scholar
  13. P.L. Bender, J.L. Hall, R.H. Garstang, F.M.J. Pichanick, W.W. Smith, R.L. Barger, J.B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976)Google Scholar
  14. J.C. Bergquist, D.J. Wineland, W.M. Itano, H. Hemmati, H.U. Daniel, G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1567 (1985)Google Scholar
  15. H. Dehmelt, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-31, 83 (1982)Google Scholar
  16. J.C. Bergquist, R.G. Hulet, W.M. Itano, D.J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986)Google Scholar
  17. C. Salomon, D. Hils, J.L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988)Google Scholar
  18. B.C. Young, F.C. Cruz, J.C. Bergquist, W.M. Itano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999)Google Scholar
  19. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Haensch, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000)Google Scholar
  20. D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000)Google Scholar
  21. S.A. Diddams, T. Udem, J.C. Bergquist, E.A. Curtis, R.E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W.M. Itano, W.D. Lee, C.W. Oates, K.R. Vogel, et al., Science 293, 825 (2001)Google Scholar
  22. M.E. Poitzsch, J.C. Bergquist, W.M. Itano, D.J. Wineland, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 129 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. D.J. Berkeland, F.C. Cruz, J.C. Bergquist, Appl. Opt. 36, 4159 (1997)Google Scholar
  24. D.J. Berkeland, M.G. Boshier, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033413 (2002)Google Scholar
  25. D.J. Berkeland, M.G. Boshier (2006) (private communication)Google Scholar
  26. W.M. Itano, J.C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S.A. Diddams, T.M. Fortier, T.P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, D.B. Hume, S.R. Jefferts, L. Lorini, et al., Proc. 2007 SPIE Conf. (2007), Vol. 6673, p. 667303Google Scholar
  27. T.W. Haensch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980)Google Scholar
  28. R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, et al., Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983)Google Scholar
  29. D.H. Crandall, R.A. Phaneuf, G.H. Dunn, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1223 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. W.H. Oskay, S.A. Diddams, E.A. Donley, T. Fortier, T.P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W.M. Itano, S.R. Jefferts, M.J. Jensen, K. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. D.J. Berkeland, J.D. Miller, J.C. Bergquist, W.M. Itano, D.J. Wineland, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998)Google Scholar
  32. T. Rosenband, D.B. Hume, P.O. Schmidt, C.W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W.H. Oskay, R.E. Drullinger, T.M. Fortier, J.E. Stalnaker, et al., Science 319, 1808 (2008)Google Scholar
  33. W. Itano, J. Res. Natl. Instrum. Stan. 105, 829 (2001)Google Scholar
  34. M. Barrett, B.L. DeMarco, T. Schaetz, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. Chiaverini, W.M. Itano, B.M. Jelenkovic, J.D. Jost, C. Langer, et al., Phys. Rev. A. 68, 042302 (2003)Google Scholar
  35. D. Wineland, J. Bergquist, J. Bollinger, R. Drullinger, W. Itano, Proc. 2001 Freq. Stand. Metrology Symp. (2001), pp. 361–368Google Scholar
  36. P.O. Schmidt, T. Rosenband, C. Langer, W.M. Itano, J.C. Bergquist, D.J. Wineland, Science 309, 749 (2005)Google Scholar
  37. D. Hume, T. Rosenband, D.J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120502 (2007)Google Scholar
  38. T. Rosenband, W.M. Itano, P. Schmidt, D. Hume, J. Koelemeij, J.C. Bergquist, D.J. Wineland, Proc. 2006 EFTF Conf. (2006), pp. 289–292Google Scholar
  39. T.P. Heavner, S.R. Jefferts, E.A. Donley, J.H. Shirley, T. Parker, Metrologia 42, 411 (2005)Google Scholar
  40. T. Parker, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, E. Donley, Metrologia 42, 423 (2005)Google Scholar
  41. T. Fortier, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 31, 1011 (2006)Google Scholar
  42. B.R. Washburn, R.W. Fox, N.R. Newbury, J.W. Nicholson, K. Feder, P. Westbrook, Opt. Express 12, 4999 (2004)Google Scholar
  43. J. Bergquist, W. Itano, D. Wineland, Proc. 1992 Intl. School Phys. E. Fermi (1992), pp. 359–376Google Scholar
  44. T. Udem, S.A. Diddams, K.R. Vogel, C.W. Oates, E.A. Curtis, W.D. Lee, W.M. Itano, R.E. Drullinger, J.C. Bergquist, L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2000)Google Scholar
  45. T.M. Ramond, S.A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002)Google Scholar
  46. D. Yu, M. Weiss, T. Parker, Metrologia 44, 91 (2007)Google Scholar
  47. U. Tanaka, J. Bergquist, S. Bize, S. Diddams, R. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. Itano, C. Tanner, D. Wineland, IEEE T. Instrum. Meas. 52, 245 (2003)Google Scholar
  48. S. Bize, S.A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C.E. Tanner, W.H. Oskay, R.E. Drullinger, T.E. Parker, T.P. Heavner, S.R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003)Google Scholar
  49. J. Stalnaker, S.A. Diddams, T. Fortier, K. Kim, L. Hollberg, J.C. Bergquist, W.M. Itano, M.J. Delaney, L. Lorini, W.H. Oskay, et al., Appl. Phys. B. 89, 167 (2007)Google Scholar
  50. I. Coddington, W.C. Swann, L. Lorini, J.C. Bergquist, Y.L. Coq, C.W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K.S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P.S. Westbrook, et al., Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007)Google Scholar
  51. S.G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000)Google Scholar
  52. T. Fortier, N. Ashby, J.C. Bergquist, M.J. Delaney, S.A. Diddams, T.P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W.M. Itano, S.R. Jefferts, K. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070801 (2007)Google Scholar
  53. E. Peik, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, C. Tamm, S. Weyers, R. Wynands, Proceedings of the 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  54. E.J. Angstmann, V.A. Dzuba, V.V. Flambaum, Phys. Rev. A 70, 014102 (2004)Google Scholar
  55. E. Peik, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170801 (2004)Google Scholar
  56. M. Fischer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230802 (2004)Google Scholar
  57. H. Marion, F.P.D. Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Gruenert, C. Mandache, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003)Google Scholar
  58. V.V. Flambaum, A. Tedesco, Phys. Rev. C 73, 055501 (2006)Google Scholar
  59. A. Godone, C. Novero, P. Tavella, Phys. Rev. D 51, 319 (1995)Google Scholar
  60. A. Bauch, S. Weyers, Phys. Rev. D 65, 081101 (2001)Google Scholar
  61. N. Ashby, T.P. Heavner, S.R. Jefferts, T.E. Parker, A.G. Radnaev, Y.O. Dudin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070802 (2007)Google Scholar
  62. V.V. Flambaum, E.V. Shuryak (2007) [arXiv:physics/0701220]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Lorini
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. Ashby
    • 1
  • A. Brusch
    • 1
  • S. Diddams
    • 1
  • R. Drullinger
    • 1
  • E. Eason
    • 1
  • T. Fortier
    • 1
  • P. Hastings
    • 1
  • T. Heavner
    • 1
  • D. Hume
    • 1
  • W. Itano
    • 1
  • S. Jefferts
    • 1
  • N. Newbury
    • 1
  • T. Parker
    • 1
  • T. Rosenband
    • 1
  • J. Stalnaker
    • 1
    • 3
  • W. Swann
    • 1
  • D. Wineland
    • 1
  • J. Bergquist
    • 1
  1. 1.Time and Frequency DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica INRiM, Strada delle Cacce 91TorinoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Physics and AstronomyOberlinUSA

Personalised recommendations