Flexoelectric effect in functionally graded materials: A numerical study
The flexoelectric effect has been observed in a wide range of dielectric materials. However, the flexoelectric effect can only be induced using the strain gradient. Researchers have examined the flexoelectricity using non-uniform loading (cantilever type) or non-uniform shape in dielectric materials, which may be undesirable in many applications. In the present article, we demonstrate induced flexoelectricity in dielectric functionally graded materials (FGMs) due to non-uniform Youngs’s modulus along the thickness. To examine flexoelectricity, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used to numerically simulate the performance of FGMs. 2D simulation suggests that output voltage can drastically enhance for optimum grading index of FGMs.