Flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a flat plate with uniform heat flux

Regular Article

Abstract

The present work is dedicated to analyze the flow and heat transport of ferrofluids along a flat plate subjected to uniform heat flux and slip velocity. A magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the plate. Moreover, three different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, Mn-ZnFe2O4 are incorporated within the base fluid. We have considered two different kinds of base fluids (kerosene and water) having poor thermal conductivity as compared to solid magnetic nanoparticles. Self-similar solutions are obtained and are compared with the available data for special cases. A simulation is performed for each ferrofluid mixture by considering the dominant effects of slip and uniform heat flux. It is found that the present results are in an excellent agreement with the existing literature. The variation of skin friction and heat transfer is also performed at the surface of the plate and then the better heat transfer and of each mixture is analyzed. Kerosene-based magnetite Fe3O4 provides the higher heat transfer rate at the wall as compared to the kerosene-based cobalt ferrite and Mn-Zn ferrite. It is also concluded that the primary effect of the magnetic field is to accelerate the dimensionless velocity and to reduce the dimensionless surface temperature as compared to the hydrodynamic case, thereby increasing the skin friction and the heat transfer rate of ferrofluids.

Keywords

Heat Transfer Ferrite Nusselt Number Skin Friction Heat Transfer Rate 

Nomenclature

B0

Magnetic field intensity

σ

Electric conductivity

cp

Specific heat [J/kg·K]

cf

Friction coefficient

f

Dimensionless stream function

k

Thermal conductivity

M

Magnetic parameter

Nux

Local Nusselt number

Pr

Prandtl number of base fluid

qw

Wall heat flux [W/m2]

T

Local fluid temperature [K]

T

Free stream temperature [K]

u

x-component of velocity [m/s]

U

Free stream velocity [m/s]

v

y-component of velocity [m/s]

x

Distance along the plate [m]

y

Distance normal to the plate [m]

Greek symbols

α

Thermal diffusivity [m2/s]

β

Slip parameter

φ

Volume fraction of ferrofluid

η

Similarity variable

μ

Absolute viscosity [N·s/m2]

ν

Kinematic viscosity [m2/s]

σ

Electric conductivity

ρ

Density [kg/m3]

ρcp

Heat capacity [kg/m3·K]

θ

Dimensionless temperature

Ψ

Stream function

Subscripts

nf

Nanofluid

f

Base fluid

s

Solid ferroparticles

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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of Waterloo 200, University of West WaterlooOntarioCanada
  2. 2.School of Mathematical SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingP.R. China
  3. 3.Department of MathematicsUniversity of MalakandKhyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan
  4. 4.Department of MathematicsQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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