Several energy-momentum-stress balance equations deduced from Maxwell's equations in material media. Non-covariant and explicitly covariant formulation

  • J. L. Jiménez
  • I. Campos
  • M. A. López-Mariño
Regular Article


In the present article we propose an explicitly covariant formulation of several energy-momentum-stress balance equations, involving different force densities, deduced from the macroscopic Maxwell equations. These force densities depend on how Maxwell's equations are written in terms of the electromagnetic fields E, H, D, and B, and the polarizations P and M. We find that several energy-momentum-stress tensors are involved in these balance equations. The three tensors implied by these balance equations result symmetrical. In this way the old A-M controversy can be seen under a new light.


Balance Equation Maxwell Equation Energy Balance Equation Force Density Momentum Density 
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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Jiménez
    • 1
  • I. Campos
    • 2
  • M. A. López-Mariño
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias Básicas e IngenieríaUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana, IztapalapaMéxico D. F.Mexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Física, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxico D. F.Mexico
  3. 3.Departamento de IngenieríaTecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Central de VeracruzVeracruzMexico

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