India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)
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The deep underground laboratory at Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) in India started in 1951. During the subsequent few decades a series of experiments were conducted at KGF to measure the flux of muons as a function of depth up to a depth of 2.7 km. The first atmospheric neutrino interaction ever was observed at KGF in 1965. This laboratory later also looked for nucleon decay and placed limits on the proton lifetime. The KGF underground laboratory ceased its operation in 1992 due to the closure of the mine. The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) project is a recent initiative to revive the underground laboratory activities in India. The plan is to construct a new underground laboratory complex under a mountain with at least 1000m rock coverage for conducting experiments in the emerging field of neutrino physics. It is expected that over the years, INO will become a full-fledged underground science laboratory hosting experiments that can exploit its special low-background environment and infrastructure.