Four-terminal impedance of a graphene nanoribbon based structure
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The four-terminal impedance is studied in a typical graphene nanoribbon based structure. When two additional voltage probes are attached, the results show that at the Dirac point, both the real and imaginary parts of the impedance are negative. As the Fermi energy deviates from the Dirac point, the real part of impedance oscillates with its sign changing frequently, while the imaginary part becomes vanishingly small. The phase incoherent processes introduced by the voltage probes contribute to inelastic scattering and charge redistribution in the central device region. As a result, the measured conductance is substantially different from the two-terminal measurement of a perfect graphene nanoribbon, indicating the important role of voltage probes in realistic four-terminal measurement.