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Ranking and validation of the spallation models for description of intermediate mass fragment emission from p + Ag collisions at 480 MeV incident proton beam energy

  • Sushil K. Sharma
  • Bogusław Kamys
  • Frank Goldenbaum
  • Detlef Filges
Open Access
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics

Abstract.

Double-differential cross-sections \(d^{2}\sigma/d\Omega dE\) for isotopically identified intermediate mass fragments ( 6Li up to 27Mg from nuclear reactions induced by 480 MeV protons impinging on a silver target were analyzed in the frame of a two-step model. The first step of the reaction was described by the intranuclear cascade model INCL4.6 and the second one by four different models (ABLA07,GEM2, GEMINI++, and SMM). The experimental spectra reveal the presence of low-energy, isotropic as well as high-energy, forward-peaked contributions. The INCL4.6 model offers a possibility to describe the latter contribution for light intermediate mass fragments by coalescence of the emitted nucleons. The qualitative agreement of the model predictions with the data was observed but the high-energy tails of the spectra were significantly overestimated. The shape of the isotropic part of the spectra was reproduced by all four models. The GEM2 model strongly underestimated the value of the cross-sections for heavier IMF whereas the SMM and ABLA07 models generally overestimated the data. The best quantitative description of the data was offered by GEMINI++, however, a discrepancy between the data and the model cross-sections still remained for almost all reaction products, especially at forward angles. It indicates that non-equilibrium processes are present which cannot be reproduced by the applied models. The goodness of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors, the H-factor and the M-factor, as a tool for ranking and validation of the theoretical models.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sushil K. Sharma
    • 1
  • Bogusław Kamys
    • 1
  • Frank Goldenbaum
    • 2
  • Detlef Filges
    • 2
  1. 1.The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of PhysicsJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  2. 2.Institut fuer KernphysikForschungszentrum JuelichJuelichGermany

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