Gravity and muscle force operated surface ropeway: an efficient, cheap, and eco-friendly transport mode for mountainous countries

  • Lok B. BaralEmail author
  • Jeevan J. Nakarmi
  • Khem N. Poudyal
  • Nava R. Karki
  • Dimitrios Nalmpantis
Regular Article


In this paper, a newly proposed surface ropeway named “Circulating Cable Supported up down Walking Technology by Using Gravity” (CASWAT-G) is presented. CASWAT-G is facilitated by the gravitational force of the descending person, functioning as a gravitational energy harvester. At gravity balance, the ascending and descending persons apply very mild leg muscle forces for easy upwards and downwards walking while using it. Its working principle is close to the one of funicular and ski lift systems. Its working principles with the respective theory are presented to explain the way CASWAT-G functions. Experimental model data showed that a significant amount of harvested gravitational force from the descending person was utilized by the ascending person. The efficiency of the system was found to be above 80%, meaning that its performance is good enough to be used as a transportation facility in mountainous areas of developing countries, like Nepal. It could help not only to protect the environment and save energy but also to promote the livelihood and sustainable development of developing countries, especially in mountainous areas. In addition, it can be used to supply daily required goods to these areas and to promote local products and tourism.


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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Department of PhysicsTribhuvan UniversityKathmanduNepal
  2. 2.School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Institute of EngineeringTribhuvan UniversityLalitpurNepal

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