Advertisement

Review of nuclear data for naturally occurring radionuclides applied to environmental applications

  • Alan J. CresswellEmail author
  • David C. W. Sanderson
  • John Carter
Open Access
Review

Abstract.

Accurate nuclear data, commonly using evaluated libraries, is essential in many applications, allowing confidence in derived parameters. An approach to assess the confidence with which these data can be used is proposed, not previously reported, comparing nuclear data presented by different evaluations. Variations between evaluations are used as an indication of potential inaccuracies in the nuclear data or evaluation procedure, and the relevant primary literature reviewed more fully. Applying this approach to naturally occurring radionuclides has identified eight radionuclides where the evaluations differ significantly. Where recommended data are supported by a single set of high precision measurements, independent verification of those measurements will increase confidence in the accuracy of the data (214Bi and 214Pb). Further measurements should be conducted where the decay schemes are incomplete ( 228Ac and 228Ra). For 40K, the mean beta energy in all the evaluations has been calculated using an incorrect shape factor, and log ft and branching ratios have been calculated using an inappropriate program. Precise measurements of beta spectra will allow the use of experimentally derived shape factors for the calculation of mean beta energies (40K and 210Bi). Parameters used for infinite matrix dose rate and geothermal heat production calculations have been derived for the data discussed here.

References

  1. 1.
    A.D. Carlson, V.G. Pronyaev, R. Capote, G.M. Hale, Z.-P. Chen, I. Duran, F.-J. Hambsch, S. Kunieda, W. Mannhart, B. Marcinkevicius, R.O. Nelson, D. Neudecker, G. Noguere, M. Paris, S.P. Simakov, P. Schillebeeckx, D.L. Smith, X. Tao, A. Trkov, A. Wallner, W. Wang, Nucl. Data Sheets 148, 143 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Atomic Energy Agency, X-ray and gamma-ray standards for detector calibration, IAEA-TECDOC-619 (IAEA, Vienna, 1991)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.L. Nichols, M. Herman, Report on consultants’ meeting on preparation of the proposal for a co-ordinated research project to update X- and $\gamma$-ray decay data standards for detector calibration, IAEA Report INDC(NDS)-378 (IAEA, Vienna, 1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Herman, A.L. Nichols, Update of X- and $\gamma$-ray decay data standards for detector calibration and other applications, IAEA Report INDC(NDS)-403 (IAEA, Vienna, 1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.L. Nichols, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55, 23 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Capote, A.L. Nichols, Summary report of consultants’ meeting on high-precision beta${}^{-}$ decay intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes, IAEA Report INDC(NDS)-0535 (IAEA, Vienna, 2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Capote, F.M. Nortier, Summary report of consultants’ meeting on improvements in charged-particle monitor reactions and nuclear data for medical isotope production, IAEA Report INDC(NDS)-0591 (IAEA, Vienna, 2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.L. Nichols, S.M. Qaim, R. Capote, Summary report of technical meeting on intermediate-term nuclear data needs for medical applications: cross sections and decay data, IAEA Report INDC(NDS)-0596 (IAEA, Vienna, 2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.L. Nichols, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 52, 17 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.M. Lederer, V.S. Shirley, Table of Isotopes, 7th Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Data Services, International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators (NSDD), https://doi.org/www-nds.iaea.org/nsdd/
  12. 12.
    National Nuclear Data Centre, ENSDF: Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File Search and Retrieval, https://doi.org/www.nndc.bnl.gov/ensdf/ensdf/ensdf.jsp
  13. 13.
    R.B. Firestone, V.S. Shirley, Table of Isotopes, 8th Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nuclear Energy Agency, The JEF-2.2 Nuclear Data Library, JEFF Report, v. 17 (Nuclear Energy Agency, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.A. Kellett, O. Bersillon, R.W. Mills, The JEFF-3.1/-3.1.1 radioactive decay data and fission yields sub-libraries, JEFF Report 20, NEA No. 6287 (Nuclear Energy Agency, 2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.G. Helmer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 422, 518 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.G. Helmer, E. Browne, M.M. Bé, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 39 (sup2), 455 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.A. Kellett, A.L. Nichols (Editors), Library of Recommended Actinide Decay Data, 2011, STI/PUB/1618 (International Atomic Energy Agency, 2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Data Services, Decay Data Library for Actinides Including other Heavy Elements, https://doi.org/www-nds.iaea.org/act_ddl/
  20. 20.
    A. Pearce, Recommended Nuclear Decay Data, NPL REPORT IR 6 (National Physical Laboratory, 2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Bjornholm, O.B. Nielsen, Nucl. Phys. 42, 642 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Xiaolong, W. Baosong, 234Pa m -- Comments on Evaluation of the Decay Data, https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Pa-234m_com.pdf (2011)
  23. 23.
    H. Xiaolong, W. Baosong, 234Pa -- Comments on Evaluation of Decay Data, https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Pa-234_com.pdf (2011)
  24. 24.
    C. Ardisson, J. Dalmasso, G. Ardisson, Phys. Rev. C 33, 2132 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Chisté, M.M. Bé, 218At -- Comments on evaluation of decay data, LNHB/V (2007) https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/At-218_com.pdf
  26. 26.
    V. Chisté, M.M. Bé, 214Pb -- Comments on evaluation of decay data, LNHB/V (2010) https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Pb-214_com.pdf
  27. 27.
    V. Chisté, M.M. Bé, 214Bi -- Comments on evaluation of decay data, LNHB/V (2007) https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Bi-214_com.pdf
  28. 28.
    E.W.A. Lingeman, J. Konijn, P. Polak, A.H. Wapstra, Nucl. Phys. A 133, 630 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.A. Hachem, C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. B 281, 45 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.E. Cline, R.J. Gehrke, L.D. McIsaac, Gamma rays emitted by the fissionable nuclides and associated isotopes, Report ANCR-1069 (Aerojet Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, 1972)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W.J. Lin, G. Harbottle, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 153, 137 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K.S. Toth, Nucl. Data Sheets 21, 437 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Daniel, Z. Naturforsch. 11a, 759 (1956)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.K. Dickens, Energies and Intensities of Gamma Rays Emitted by a 226Ra Source, ORNL-TM-3509 (1971)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y.A. Akovali, Nucl. Data Sheets 75, 127 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.G. Olson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 313 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    U. Schötzig, K. Debertin, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 34, 533 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Morel, S. Sepman, M. Rasko, E. Terechtchenko, J.U. Delgado, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 341 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    V. Chisté, M.M. Bé, M.A. Kellet, 210Bi -- Comments on evaluation of decay data, LNHB/V (2014) https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Bi-210_com.pdf
  40. 40.
    A.G. Carles, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Physics Res. Sect. A 551, 312 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    X. Mougeot, M.M. Bé, V. Chisté, C. Dulieu, V. Gorozhankin, M. Loidl, LSC 2010, Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry: Proceedings of the 2010 International Liquid Scintillation Conference, Paris, France, 6–10 September 2010 (2011) pp. 249--257Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Shamsuzzoha Basunia, Nucl. Data Sheets 121, 561 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. Behrens, L. Szybisz, Nucl. Phys. A 223, 268 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    X. Mougeot, Phys. Rev. C 91, 05504 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Luca, 228Ra -- Comments on evaluation of decay data, https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Ra-228_com.pdf (2009)
  46. 46.
    P.C. Sood, A. Gizon, D.G. Burke, B. Singh, C.F. Liang, R.K. Sheline, M.J. Martin, R.W. Hoff, Phys. Rev. C 52, 88 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. Pearce, 228Ac -- Comments on Evaluation Decay Data, https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Ac-228_com.pdf (2010)
  48. 48.
    A.L. Nichols, 220Rn -- comments on evaluation of decay data, https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Rn-220_com.pdf (2011)
  49. 49.
    A.L. Nichols, 216Po -- comments on evaluation of decay data, https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/Po-216_com.pdf (2011)
  50. 50.
    X. Mougeot, R.G. Helmer, 40K -- Comments on evaluation of decay data, LNHB/INEEL (2009) https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nuclides/K-40_com.pdf
  51. 51.
    K. Kossert, E. Günther, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 459 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    E.L. Garner, T.J. Murphy, J.W. Gramlich, P.J. Paulsen, I.L. Barnes, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 79A, 713 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M.O. Naumenko, K. Mezger, T.F. Nägler, I.M. Villa, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 122, 353 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    K.J.R. Rosman, P.D.P. Taylor, Pure Appl. Chem. 70, 217 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. Min, R. Mundil, P.R. Renne, K.R. Ludwig, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 73 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    P.R. Renee, R. Mundil, G. Balco, K. Min, K.R. Ludwig, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 5349 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    H. Leutz, G. Schulz, H. Wenninger, Z. Phys. 187, 151 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    X. Mougeot, BetaShape -- Calculs de spectres bêta/Beta spectra calculations, Version 1.0 (2016) available from https://doi.org/www.nucleide.org/logiciels.htm
  59. 59.
    A.G. Carles, K. Kossert, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572, 760 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.A. Cameron, B. Singh, Nucl. Data Sheets 102, 293 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. Chen, Nucl. Data Sheets 140, 1 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    G. Adamiec, M. Aitken, Ancient TL 16, 37 (1998)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. Guérin, N. Mercier, G. Adamiec, Ancient TL 29, 5 (2011)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    I. Liritzis, K. Stamoulis, C. Papachristosoulou, K. Ioannides, Mediterr. Archaeol. Archaeom. 13, 1 (2013)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    F. Birch, Heat from radioactivity, in Nuclear Geology, edited by H. Faul (Wiley & Son, New York, 1954) pp. 148--174Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    L. Rybach, Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 309 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scottish Universities Environmental Research CentreEast KilbrideUK

Personalised recommendations