Advertisement

The effects of air pollution on cultural heritage: The case study of Santa Maria delle Grazie al Naviglio Grande (Milan)

  • Valeria Comite
  • Paola Fermo
Regular Article
  • 19 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Focus Point on Past and Present: Recent Advances in the Investigation of Ancient Materials by Means of Scientific Instrumental Techniques

Abstract.

Atmospheric pollution causes monuments surface degradation in urban environments. Among the degradation processes the formation of black crusts (BCs) is one of the most dangerous phenomenon. During this process, aerosol particulate matter (PM) can be embedded into gypsum, one of the main crusts constituents, providing the characteristic black colour. EC (elemental carbon) and OC (organic carbon) are the responsible for the yellowing and blackening processes occurring on the surfaces and their quantification in the crusts can provide information on the contribution of atmospheric pollution sources to the degradation products formation. This research study is focused on the characterization of BCs collected from the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie al Naviglio Grande in Milan, from the point of view of the effects of atmospheric pollution on cultural heritage. The analysed samples consist of mortars and bricks partially degraded and covered with black crusts. Appling different analytical techniques, such as FT-IR/ATR, CHN, TGA and IC, the crusts composition has been investigated focusing on the quantification of the carbonaceous fraction. This integrated approach has allowed to identify the sources of pollution responsible for the decay of the different building materials of the church.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Brimblecombe, Urban Air Pollution---European Aspects, edited by J. Finger, O. Herter, F. Palmer (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sabbioni, The Effect of Air pollution on the Built Environment (Imperial College Press, Singapore, 2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.G. Amoroso, V. Fassina, Stone Decay and Conservation, Vol. 11 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1983) 453Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Camuffo, M. Del Monte, C. Sabbioni, Water Air Soil. Pollut. 19, 351 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Moropoulou, A. Cakmak G. Biscontin, MRS Proc. 462, 307 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Á Török et al., Environ. Earth Sci. 63, 675 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Comite, in Rendiconti Online della Società Geologica Italiana, Arcavacata di Rende 2012, edited by S. Critelli, F. Muto, F. Perri, F.M. Petti, M. Sonnino, A. Zuccari, Vol. 21 (Società Geologica Italiana, Roma, 2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.M. Belfiore et al., Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20, 8848 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.F. La Russa et al., Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 113, 1151 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Gulotta et al., Earth Sci. 69, 1085 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Barca et al., Appl. Geochem. 48, 122 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.A. Ruffolo et al., Sci. Total Environ. 502, 157 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. Comite et al., Constr. Build Mater. 152, 907 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.F. La Russa et al., Eur. Phys. J. Plus 133, 370 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Farkas et al., Environ. Earth Sci. 77, 211 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Fermo et al., Geosciences 349, 8 (2018)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Decreto Legislativo 13 agosto 2010, n. 155, Attuazione della direttiva 2008/50/CE relativa alla qualità dell’aria ambientale e per un’aria più pulita in Europa (pubblicato nella G.U. n. 216 del 15/09/2010 -- suppl. ord. N. 2017 -- in vigore dal 30/09/2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    EEA Report No 1/2017, Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 An indicator-based report (European Environment Agency, Luxembourg, 2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for EuropeGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Bigi et al., Atmos. Res. 186, 83 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Fermo et al., Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22, 6262 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.F. La Russa et al., Sci. Tot. Environ. 297, 593 (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Cappelletti, Prog. Org. Coat 78, 511 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Pino et al., Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24, 12608 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.L. Robinson et al., Science 315, 1259 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.L. Jimenez et al., Science 326, 1525 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.R. Gentner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 18318 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Massabò et al., Atmos. Environ. 108, 1 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Fuzzi et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2017 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.T. Fiorio, Le chiese di Milano (Mondadori Electa, 2006)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Piazzalunga et al., Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405, 1123 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Del Monte, C. Sabbioni, Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 518 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Rampazzi et al., Talanta 63, 966 (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Sabbioni, G. Zappia, Aerobiologia 7, 31 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Barone et al., Environ. Geol. 55, 449 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C.M. Belfiore et al., Appl. Phys. A 100, 835 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. Panteliadis et al., Atmos. Meas. Techniques 8, 779 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    E. Cuccia et al., Atmos. Environ. 67, 14 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J.P. Putau et al., Atmos. Environ. 38, 2579 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J.P. Putau et al., Atmos. Environ. 44, 1308 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    C.A. Belis et al., Atmos. Environ. 45, 7266 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    N. Ghedini et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 939 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Tidblad et al., Int. J. Corros. 12, 1 (2012)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Fermo et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 255 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. Vecchi et al., Environ. Monit. Assess. 154, 283 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. Bernardoni et al., Sci. Total Environ. 409, 4788 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saiz-Jimenez, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, Seville, Spain, edited by C. Saiz-Jimenez (Seville, Spain, 2003)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. Perrino, M. Catrambone, A. Pietrodangelo, Environ. Int. 34, 621 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    S. Sandrini et al., Atmos. Environ. 99, 587 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    V. Comite, Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca in Scienze della Terra XXVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche Geologiche e Ambientali (2013)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.S. Pozo-Antonio, M.F.C. Pereira, C.S.A. Rocha, Sci. Total. Environ. 584--585, 291 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    W.C. Keene et al., J. Geophys. Res. 91, 6647 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    A.M.E. Hawley, J.N. Galloway, W.C. Keene, Water Air Soil Pollut. 42, 87 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    C.M. Grossi et al., Sci. Total Environ. 409, 2577 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. Veneranda et al., J. Raman Spectrosc. 45, 1110 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. Caseiro et al., Atmos. Environ. 43, 2186 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Piazzalunga et al., Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 90, 934 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations