A capillary tube model reveals that the surface tension at the air-water interface cannot cause the instability of gravity-driven unsaturated slow flow in sandy soils.
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Wang, Z., Chen, Y. Note on the instability mechanism of gravity-driven unsaturated slow flow in porous media. Eur. Phys. J. E 43, 12 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2020-11937-0
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