Physical mechanisms encoded in photoionization yield from IR+XUV setups

  • Thomas Brabec
  • Phuong Mai Dinh
  • Congzhang Gao
  • Chris McDonald
  • Paul-Gerhard Reinhard
  • Éric SuraudEmail author
Open Access
Regular Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Issue: Dynamics of Systems on the Nanoscale (2018)


We theoretically examine how and to which extent physical processes can be retrieved from two-color pump-probe experiments of atomic and molecular gases driven by an attosecond XUV pulse train and an infrared (IR) pulse. The He atom, the N2 molecule and Na clusters are investigated with time-dependent density functional theory. Results are interpreted on the basis of a simple model system. We consider observables most commonly used in experiments: ionization yield, photo-electron spectra, and angular distributions. We find that the basic time-dependent signatures are dominated by the interplay of IR laser and continuum electrons. System information, contained in the signal, will in general require careful disentangling from the effects of photon-electron dynamics.

Graphical abstract


  1. 1.
    T. Brabec, F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Krausz, M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G.A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H.G. Muller, P. Agostini, Science 292, 1689 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.V. Solov’yov, Nanoscale Insights into Ion-beam Cancer Therapy (Springer, 2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Porta, P.M. Echenique, W. Wurth, Nature 436, 373 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, Nature 446, 627 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A.L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C.A. Nicolaides, Science 328, 1658 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Goulielmakis, Z.H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V.S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A.M. Azzeer, M.F. Kling, S.R. Leone, Nature 466, 739 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, P.B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, Science 305, 1267 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M.B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013001 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-Martens, K.J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 2, 323 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Bordas, F. Paulig, H. Heln, D.L. Huestis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2257 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Seideman, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53, 41 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.G. Reinhard, E. Suraud, Introduction to Cluster Dynamics (Wiley, 2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Fennel, K.H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.G. Reinhard, P.M. Dinh, E. Suraud, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1793 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, K.J. Schafer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233001 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Agostini, L.F. DiMauro, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Holler, F. Schapper, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123601 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J.F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M.F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, Nature 465, 763 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Kelkensberg, W. Siu, J.F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, G. Gademann, A. Rouzée, P. Johnsson, M. Lucchini, F. Calegari, J.L. Sanz-Vicario, F. Martn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043002 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. Siu, F. Kelkensberg, G. Gademann, A. Rouzée, P. Johnsson, D. Dowek, M. Lucchini, F. Calegari, U. De Giovannini, A. Rubio, R.R. Lucchese, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063412 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Neidel, J. Klei, C.H. Yang, A. Rouzée, M. Vrakking, K. Klünder, M. Miranda, C. Arnold, T. Fordell, A. L’Huillier, M. Gisselbrecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033001 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Lépine, M.Y. Ivanov, M.J.J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Kiesewetter, R.R. Jones, A. Camper, S.B. Schoun, P. Agostini, L.F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 14, 68 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    X. Tong, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, N. Toshima, Phys. Rev. A 81, 021404 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Murakami, S.I. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 88, 043428 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Patchkovskii, Z. Zhao, T. Brabec, D.M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 123003 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. Runge, E.K. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 997 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.A. Marques, C.A. Ullrich, F. Nogueira, A. Rubio, K. Burke, E.K. Gross, Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, Berlin, 2006)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Ullrich, Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory: Concepts and Applications (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Wopperer, P.M. Dinh, P.G. Reinhard, E. Suraud, Phys. Rep. 562, 1 (2015)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Wopperer, B. Faber, P.M. Dinh, P.G. Reinhard, E. Suraud, Phys. Lett. A 375, 39 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Wopperer, P.M. Dinh, E. Suraud, P.G. Reinhard, Phys. Rev. A 85, 015402 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Gao, P.M. Dinh, P.G. Reinhard, E. Suraud, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 19784 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.A.L. Marques, E.K.U. Gross, Time-dependent density functional theory, in A Primer in Density Functional Theory, Lecture Notes in Physics, edited by C. Fiolhais, F. Nogueira, M. Marques, (Springer, Berlin, 2003) Vol. 620, pp. 145–186Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Legrand, E. Suraud, P.G. Reinhard, J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 35, 1115 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Weinkauf, P. Schanen, D. Yang, S. Soukara, E.W. Schlag, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 11255 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. Remacle, R. Levine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 6793 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. Breidbach, L.S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3983 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Brabec
    • 1
  • Phuong Mai Dinh
    • 2
  • Congzhang Gao
    • 3
  • Chris McDonald
    • 1
  • Paul-Gerhard Reinhard
    • 4
  • Éric Suraud
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPSToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Institute of Applied Physics and Computational MathematicsBeijingP.R. China
  4. 4.Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität ErlangenErlangenGermany
  5. 5.School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s UniversityBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations