Advertisement

Measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron in BaF

  • The NL-eEDM collaboration
  • Parul Aggarwal
  • Hendrick L. Bethlem
  • Anastasia Borschevsky
  • Malika Denis
  • Kevin Esajas
  • Pi A. B. Haase
  • Yongliang Hao
  • Steven HoekstraEmail author
  • Klaus Jungmann
  • Thomas B. Meijknecht
  • Maarten C. Mooij
  • Rob G. E. Timmermans
  • Wim Ubachs
  • Lorenz Willmann
  • Artem Zapara
Open Access
Regular Article

Abstract

We investigate the merits of a measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) with barium monofluoride molecules, thereby searching for phenomena of CP violation beyond those incorporated in the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Although the BaF molecule has a smaller enhancement factor in terms of the effective electric field than other molecules used in current studies (YbF, ThO and ThF+), we show that a competitive measurement is possible by combining Stark-deceleration, laser-cooling and an intense primary cold source of BaF molecules. With the long coherent interaction times obtainable in a cold beam of BaF, a sensitivity of 5 × 10−30 e⋅cm for an eEDM is feasible. We describe the rationale, the challenges and the experimental methods envisioned to achieve this target.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Molecular Physics and Chemical Physics 

References

  1. 1.
    G. Aad et al., Phys. Lett. B 716, 1 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Chatrchyan et al., Phys. Lett. B 716, 30 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Bertone, D. Hooper, J. Silk, Phys. Rep. 405, 279 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Aaij et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 30, 1530022 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Pospelov, A. Ritz, Ann. Phys. 318, 119 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Cirigliano, W. Dekens, J. de Vries, E. Mereghetti, Phys. Rev. D 94, 016002 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Czarnecki, W.J. Marciano, Adv. Ser. Direct. High Energy Phys. 20, 11 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.J. Hudson, D.M. Kara, I.J. Smallman, B.E. Sauer, M.R. Tarbutt, E.A. Hinds, Nature 473, 493 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Baron, W.C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J.M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y.V. Gurevich, P.W. Hess, N.R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B.R. O’Leary, C.D. Panda, M.F. Parsons, E.S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A.C. Vutha, A.D. West, Science 343, 269 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. DeMille, Phys. Today 68, 34 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. DeMille, J.M. Doyle, A.O. Sushkov, Science 357, 990 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.M. Purcell, N.F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 78, 807 (1950) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.G.H. Sandars, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1396 (1967) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.C. Griffith, M.D. Swallows, T.H. Loftus, M.V. Romalis, B.R. Heckel, E.N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B.C. Regan, E.D. Commins, C.J. Schmidt, D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.A. Rosenberry, T.E. Chupp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 22 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.A. Baker, D.D. Doyle, P. Geltenbort, K. Green, M.G.D. van der Grinten, P.G. Harris, P. Iaydjiev, S.N. Ivanov, D.J.R. May, J.M. Pendlebury, J.D. Richardson, D. Shiers, K.F. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 131801 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Jungmann, Ann. Phys. 525, 550 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V.A. Dzuba, V.V. Flambaum, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 21, 1230010 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.S.M. Ginges, V.V. Flambaum, Phys. Rep. 397, 63 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Engel, M.J. Ramsey-Musolf, U. van Kolck, Prog. Part. Nuc. Phys. 71, 74 (2013) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Abe, G. Gopakumar, M. Hada, B.P. Das, H. Tatewaki, D. Mukherjee, Phys. Rev. A 90, 022501 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E.R. Meyer, J.L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A 78, 010502 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L.V. Skripnikov, A.N. Petrov, A.V. Titov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 221103 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Fleig, M.K. Nayak, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 16 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L.V. Skripnikov, A.V. Titov, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 024301 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    L.V. Skripnikov, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 214301 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Denis, T. Fleig, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 214307 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Lee, J. Chen, L.V. Skripnikov, A.N. Petrov, A.V. Titov, N.S. Mosyagin, A.E. Leanhardt, Phys. Rev. A 87, 022516 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Eckel, P. Hamilton, E. Kirilov, H.W. Smith, D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052130 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Loh, K.C. Cossel, M.C. Grau, K.-K. Ni, E.R. Meyer, J.L. Bohn, J. Ye, E.A. Cornell, Science 342, 1220 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.B. Cairncross, D.N. Gresh, M. Grau, K.C. Cossel, T.S. Roussy, Y. Ni, Y. Zhou, J. Ye, E.A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 153001 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    E.A. Hinds, Phys. Scr. 1997, 34 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M.G. Kozlov, L.N. Labzowsky, J. Phys. B 28, 1993, (1995) Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.K. Nayak, R.K. Chaudhuri, J. Phys. B 39, 1231 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Fukuda, K. Soga, M. Senami, A. Tachibana, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012518 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Gaul, R. Berger, J. Chem. Phys. 147, 014109 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. Abe, V.S. Prasannaa, B.P. Das, Phys. Rev. A 97, 032515 (2018) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    P.A.B. Haase, M. Iliaš, E. Eliav, P. Aggarwal, H.L. Bethlem, A. Borschevsky, M. Denis, K. Esajas, Y. Hao, S. Hoekstra, K. Jungmann, T.B. Meijknecht, M.C. Mooij, R.G.E. Timmermans, W. Ubachs, L. Willmann, A. Zapara, in prep. Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Osterwalder, S.A. Meek, G. Hammer, H. Haak, G. Meijer, Phys. Rev. A 81, 051401 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    N.E. Bulleid, R.J. Hendricks, E.A. Hinds, S.A. Meek, G. Meijer, A. Osterwalder, M.R. Tarbutt, Phys. Rev. A 86, 021404 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Quintero-Pérez, T.E. Wall, S. Hoekstra, H.L. Bethlem, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 112 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J.E. van den Berg, S.C. Mathavan, C. Meinema, J. Nauta, T.H. Nijbroek, K. Jungmann, H.L. Bethlem, S. Hoekstra, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 22 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    E.S. Shuman, J.F. Barry, D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    D. Patterson, J.M. Doyle, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 154307 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. Lim, J.R. Almond, M.A. Trigatzis, J.A. Devlin, N.J. Fitch, B.E. Sauer, M.R. Tarbutt, E.A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 123201 (2018) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Baron, W.C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J.M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y.V. Gurevich, P.W. Hess, N.R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B.R. O’Leary, C.D. Panda, M.F. Parsons, B. Spaun, A.C. Vutha, A.D. West, E.P. West, New J. Phys. 19, 073029 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D.M. Kara, I.J. Smallman, J.J. Hudson, B.E. Sauer, M.R. Tarbutt, E.A. Hinds, New J. Phys. 14, 103051 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.J. Hudson, M.R. Tarbutt, B.E. Sauer, E.A. Hinds, New J. Phys. 16, 013005 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    S.C. Mathavan, A. Zapara, Q. Esajas, S. Hoekstra, ChemPhysChem 17, 3709 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    N.R. Hutzler, M.F. Parsons, Y.V. Gurevich, P.W. Hess, E. Petrik, B. Spaun, A.C. Vutha, D. DeMille, G. Gabrielse, J.M. Doyle, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18976 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    N.E. Bulleid, S.M. Skoff, R.J. Hendricks, B.E. Sauer, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 12299 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    S.E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. DeCarvalho, D.R. Glenn, J.S. Helton, S.V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, J.M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    L.D. van Buuren, C. Sommer, M. Motsch, S. Pohle, M. Schenk, J. Bayerl, P.W.H. Pinkse, G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033001 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    S.M. Skoff, R.J. Hendricks, C.D.J. Sinclair, J.J. Hudson, D.M. Segal, B.E. Sauer, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, Phys. Rev. A 83, 023418 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    N.R. Hutzler, H.-I. Lu, J.M. Doyle, Chem. Rev. 112, 4803 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Y. Zhou, D.D. Grimes, T.J. Barnum, D. Patterson, S.L. Coy, E. Klein, J.S. Muenter, R.W. Field, Chem. Phys. Lett. 640, 124 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. Cheng, A.P.P. van der Poel, P. Jansen, M. Quintero-Pérez, T.E. Wall, W. Ubachs, H.L. Bethlem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 253201 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    P.C. Zieger, S.Y.T. van de Meerakker, C.E. Heiner, H.L. Bethlem, A.J.A. van Roij, G. Meijer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173001 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M.I. Fabrikant, T. Li, N.J. Fitch, N. Farrow, J.D. Weinstein, H.J. Lewandowski, Phys. Rev. A 90, 033418 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    S.Y.T.van de Meerakker, H.L. Bethlem, N. Vanhaecke, G. Meijer, Chem. Rev. 112, 4828 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J.E. van den Berg, S.H. Turkesteen, E.B. Prinsen, S. Hoekstra, Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 235 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. Quintero-Pérez, P. Jansen, T.E. Wall, J.E. van den Berg, S. Hoekstra, H.L. Bethlem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133003 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    P. Jansen, M. Quintero-Pérez, T.E. Wall, J.E. van den Berg, S. Hoekstra, H.L. Bethlem, Phys. Rev. A 88, 043424 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M.T. Hummon, M. Yeo, B.K. Stuhl, A.L. Collopy, Y. Xia, J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143001 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    V. Zhelyazkova, A. Cournol, T.E. Wall, A. Matsushima, J.J. Hudson, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, B.E. Sauer, Phys. Rev. A 89, 053416 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J.F. Barry, D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker, D. DeMille, Nature 512, 286 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    I. Kozyryev, L. Baum, K. Matsuda, B.L. Augenbraun, L. Anderegg, A.P. Sedlack, J.M Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 173201 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. De, U. Dammalapati, K. Jungmann, L. Willmann, Phys. Rev. A 79, 041402 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    L.-E. Berg, T. Olsson, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Hishikawa, P. Royen, Mol. Phys. 79, 721 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    L.-E. Berg, N. Gador, D. Husain, H. Ludwigs, P. Royen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 287, 89 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    C. Effantin, J. D’Incan, A. Bernard, G. Fabre, R. Stringat, J. Vergès, R. Barrow, J. Phys. Colloq. 48, 673 (1987) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    C. Effantin, A. Bernard, J. d’Incan, G. Wannous, J. Vergès, R.F. Barrow, Mol. Phys. 70, 735 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    A. Bernard, C. Effantin, J. d’Incan, J. Vergès, R.F. Barrow, Mol. Phys. 70, 747 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    A. Bernard, C. Effantin, E. Andrianavalona, J. Vergès, R.F. Barrow, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 174 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    T. Chen, W. Bu, B. Yan, Phys. Rev. A 94, 063415 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    T. Chen, W. Bu, B. Yan, Phys. Rev. A 96, 053401 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Y. Hao, L.F. Pašteka, L.Visscher; and the NL-eEDM Collaboration: P. Aggarwal, H.L. Bethlem, A. Borschevsky, M. Denis, K. Esajas, P.A.B. Haase, S. Hoekstra, K. Jungmann, T. B. Meijknecht, M. C. Mooij, R. G. E. Timmermans, W. Ubachs, L. Willmann, A. Zapara, in prep. Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    R.F. Barrow, A. Bernard, C. Effantin, J. D’Incan, G. Fabre, A. El Hachimi, R. Stringat, J. Vergès, Chem. Phys. Lett. 147, 535 (1988) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    S. Kang, F. Kuang, G. Jiang, J. Du, Mol. Phys. 114, 810 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    W.E. Ernst, J. Kändler, T. Törring, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4769 (1986) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    E. Paperno, H. Koide, I. Sasada, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 5959 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    D. Budker, M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    F. Allmendinger, P. Blümler, M. Doll, O. Grasdijk, W. Heil, K. Jungmann, S. Karpuk, H.-J. Krause, A. Offenhäusser, M. Repetto, U. Schmidt, Y. Sobolev, K. Tullney, L. Willmann, S. Zimmer, Eur. Phys. J. D 71, 98 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    O. Grasdijk, Search for the permanent electric dipole moment of 129Xe (University of Groningen, The Netherlands, 2018) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com 2018

Open AccessThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • The NL-eEDM collaboration
  • Parul Aggarwal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hendrick L. Bethlem
    • 3
  • Anastasia Borschevsky
    • 1
    • 2
  • Malika Denis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kevin Esajas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pi A. B. Haase
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yongliang Hao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Steven Hoekstra
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Klaus Jungmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas B. Meijknecht
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maarten C. Mooij
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rob G. E. Timmermans
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wim Ubachs
    • 3
  • Lorenz Willmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Artem Zapara
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity (VSI), University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic PhysicsAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.LaserLaB, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations