Advertisement

GW170817 --the first observed neutron star merger and its kilonova: Implications for the astrophysical site of the r-process

  • Daniel M. SiegelEmail author
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
  • 21 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. First joint gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations: Implications for nuclear and particle physics

Abstract.

The first neutron star (NS) merger observed by advanced LIGO and Virgo, GW170817, and its fireworks of electromagnetic counterparts across the entire electromagnetic spectrum marked the beginning of multi-messenger astronomy and astrophysics with gravitational waves. The ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared emission was consistent with being powered by the radioactive decay of nuclei synthesized in the merger ejecta by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). Starting from an outline of the inferred properties of this “kilonova” emission, I discuss possible astrophysical sites for r-process nucleosynthesis in NS mergers, arguing that the heaviest r-process elements synthesized in this event most likely originated in outflows from a post-merger accretion disk. I compare the inferred properties of r-process element production in GW170817 to current observational constraints on galactic heavy r-process nucleosynthesis and discuss challenges merger-only models face in explaining the r-process content of our galaxy. Based on the observational properties of GW170817 and recent theoretical progress on r-process nucleosynthesis in collapsars, I then show how GW170817 points to collapsars as the dominant source of r-process enrichment in the Milky Way. These rare core-collapse events arguably better satisfy existing constraints and overcome problems related to r-process enrichment in various environments that NS mergers face. Finally, I comment on the universality of the r-process and on how variations in light r-process elements can be obtained both in NS mergers and collapsars.

References

  1. 1.
    H.E. Suess, H.C. Urey, Rev. Mod. Phys. 28, 53 (1956)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.M. Burbidge, G.R. Burbidge, W.A. Fowler, F. Hoyle, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.G.W. Cameron, Astron. J. 62, 9 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.G.W. Cameron, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 69, 201 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.K. Thielemann, A. Arcones, R. Käppeli, M. Liebendörfer, T. Rauscher, C. Winteler, C. Fröhlich, I. Dillmann, T. Fischer, G. Martinez-Pinedo et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 66, 346 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Qian, S.E. Woosley, Astrophys. J. 471, 331 (1996) arXiv:astro-ph/9611094ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T.A. Thompson, A. Burrows, B.S. Meyer, Astrophys. J. 562, 887 (2001) arXiv:astro-ph/0105004ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Arcones, H.T. Janka, L. Scheck, Astron. Astrophys. 467, 1227 (2007) arXiv:astro-ph/0612582ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.F. Roberts, S. Reddy, G. Shen, Phys. Rev. C 86, 065803 (2012) arXiv:1205.4066ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Martínez-Pinedo, T. Fischer, A. Lohs, L. Huther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 251104 (2012) arXiv:1205.2793ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Wallner, T. Faestermann, J. Feige, C. Feldstein, K. Knie, G. Korschinek, W. Kutschera, A. Ofan, M. Paul, F. Quinto et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 5956 (2015) arXiv:1509.08054ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Hotokezaka, T. Piran, M. Paul, Nat. Phys. 11, 1042 (2015) arXiv:1510.00711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.P. Ji, A. Frebel, A. Chiti, J.D. Simon, Nature 531, 610 (2016) arXiv:1512.01558ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.M. Lattimer, D.N. Schramm, Astrophys. J. Lett. 192, L145 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.M. Lattimer, D.N. Schramm, Astrophys. J. 210, 549 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.A. Hulse, J.H. Taylor, Astrophys. J. Lett. 195, L51 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Symbalisty, D.N. Schramm, Astrophys. J. Lett. 22, 143 (1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Eichler, M. Livio, T. Piran, D.N. Schramm, Nature 340, 126 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B.S. Meyer, Astrophys. J. 343, 254 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.B. Davies, W. Benz, T. Piran, F.K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. 431, 742 (1994) arXiv:astro-ph/9401032ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Ruffert, H.T. Janka, G. Schaefer, Astron. Astrophys. 311, 532 (1996) arXiv:astro-ph/9509006ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Ruffert, H.T. Janka, K. Takahashi, G. Schaefer, Astron. Astrophys. 319, 122 (1997) arXiv:astro-ph/9606181ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Rosswog, M. Liebendörfer, F.K. Thielemann, M.B. Davies, W. Benz, T. Piran, Astron. Astrophys. 341, 499 (1999) arXiv:astro-ph/9811367ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, F.K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. Lett. 525, L121 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B.P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T.D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, T. Adams, P. Addesso, R.X. Adhikari, V.B. Adya et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 161101 (2017) arXiv:1710.05832ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.A. Coulter, R.J. Foley, C.D. Kilpatrick, M.R. Drout, A.L. Piro, B.J. Shappee, M.R. Siebert, J.D. Simon, N. Ulloa, D. Kasen et al., Science 358, 1556 (2017) arXiv:1710.05452ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Soares-Santos et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L16 (2017) arXiv:1710.05459ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B.P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T.D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, T. Adams, P. Addesso, R.X. Adhikari, V.B. Adya et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L12 (2017) arXiv:1710.05833ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L.X. Li, B. Paczyński, Astrophys. J. Lett. 507, L59 (1998) arXiv:astro-ph/9807272ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.R. Kulkarni, arXiv:astro-ph/0510256 (2005)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    B.D. Metzger, G. Martínez-Pinedo, S. Darbha, E. Quataert, A. Arcones, D. Kasen, R. Thomas, P. Nugent, I.V. Panov, N.T. Zinner, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 406, 2650 (2010) arXiv:1001.5029ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    B.D. Metzger, Liv. Rev. Relativ. 20, 3 (2017) arXiv:1610.09381ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Nicholl, E. Berger, D. Kasen, B.D. Metzger, J. Elias, C. Briceño, K.D. Alexander, P.K. Blanchard, R. Chornock, P.S. Cowperthwaite et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L18 (2017) arXiv:1710.05456ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P.S. Cowperthwaite, E. Berger, V.A. Villar, B.D. Metzger, M. Nicholl, R. Chornock, P.K. Blanchard, W. Fong, R. Margutti, M. Soares-Santos et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L17 (2017) arXiv:1710.05840ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Kasen, B. Metzger, J. Barnes, E. Quataert, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, Nature 551, 80 (2017) arXiv:1710.05463ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.M. Kasliwal, E. Nakar, L.P. Singer, D.L. Kaplan, D.O. Cook, A. Van Sistine, R.M. Lau, C. Fremling, O. Gottlieb, J.E. Jencson et al., Science 358, 1559 (2017) arXiv:1710.05436ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.R. Drout, A.L. Piro, B.J. Shappee, C.D. Kilpatrick, J.D. Simon, C. Contreras, D.A. Coulter, R.J. Foley, M.R. Siebert, N. Morrell et al., Science 358, 1570 (2017) arXiv:1710.05443ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S.J. Smartt, T.W. Chen, A. Jerkstrand, M. Coughlin, E. Kankare, S.A. Sim, M. Fraser, C. Inserra, K. Maguire, K.C. Chambers et al., Nature 551, 75 (2017) arXiv:1710.05841ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. Troja, L. Piro, H. van Eerten, R.T. Wollaeger, M. Im, O.D. Fox, N.R. Butler, S.B. Cenko, T. Sakamoto, C.L. Fryer et al., Nature 551, 71 (2017) arXiv:1710.05433ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C.D. Kilpatrick, R.J. Foley, D. Kasen, A. Murguia-Berthier, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, D.A. Coulter, M.R. Drout, A.L. Piro, B.J. Shappee, K. Boutsia et al., Science 358, 1583 (2017) arXiv:1710.05434ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    P.A. Evans, S.B. Cenko, J.A. Kennea, S.W.K. Emery, N.P.M. Kuin, O. Korobkin, R.T. Wollaeger, C.L. Fryer, K.K. Madsen, F.A. Harrison et al., Science 358, 1565 (2017) arXiv:1710.05437ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    E. Pian, P. D’Avanzo, S. Benetti, M. Branchesi, E. Brocato, S. Campana, E. Cappellaro, S. Covino, V. D’Elia, J.P.U. Fynbo et al., Nature 551, 67 (2017) arXiv:1710.05858ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. McCully, D. Hiramatsu, D.A. Howell, G. Hosseinzadeh, I. Arcavi, D. Kasen, J. Barnes, M.M. Shara, T.B. Williams, P. Väisänen et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L32 (2017) arXiv:1710.05853ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    I. Arcavi, G. Hosseinzadeh, D.A. Howell, C. McCully, D. Poznanski, D. Kasen, J. Barnes, M. Zaltzman, S. Vasylyev, D. Maoz et al., Nature 551, 64 (2017) arXiv:1710.05843ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    I. Andreoni, K. Ackley, J. Cooke, A. Acharyya, J.R. Allison, G.E. Anderson, M.C.B. Ashley, D. Baade, M. Bailes, K. Bannister et al., Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 34, e069 (2017) arXiv:1710.05846ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.C. Díaz, L.M. Macri, D. Garcia Lambas, C. Mendes de Oliveira, J.L. Nilo Castellón, T. Ribeiro, B. Sánchez, W. Schoenell, L.R. Abramo, S. Akras et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L29 (2017) arXiv:1710.05844ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    V.M. Lipunov, E. Gorbovskoy, V.G. Kornilov, N. Tyurina, P. Balanutsa, A. Kuznetsov, D. Vlasenko, D. Kuvshinov, I. Gorbunov, D.A.H. Buckley et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 850, L1 (2017) arXiv:1710.05461ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. Valenti, David, J. Sand, S. Yang, E. Cappellaro, L. Tartaglia, A. Corsi, S.W. Jha, D.E. Reichart, J. Haislip et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L24 (2017) arXiv:1710.05854ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    N.R. Tanvir, A.J. Levan, C. González-Fernández, O. Korobkin, I. Mandel, S. Rosswog, J. Hjorth, P. D’Avanzo, A.S. Fruchter, C.L. Fryer et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L27 (2017) arXiv:1710.05455ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Y. Utsumi, M. Tanaka, N. Tominaga, M. Yoshida, S. Barway, T. Nagayama, T. Zenko, K. Aoki, T. Fujiyoshi, H. Furusawa et al., Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 69, 101 (2017) arXiv:1710.05848ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    V.A. Villar, J. Guillochon, E. Berger, B.D. Metzger, P.S. Cowperthwaite, M. Nicholl, K.D. Alexander, P.K. Blanchard, R. Chornock, T. Eftekhari et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 851, L21 (2017) arXiv:1710.11576ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.R. Siebert, R.J. Foley, M.R. Drout, C.D. Kilpatrick, B.J. Shappee, D.A. Coulter, D. Kasen, B.F. Madore, A. Murguia-Berthier, Y.C. Pan et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L26 (2017) arXiv:1710.05440ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. Kasen, N.R. Badnell, J. Barnes, Astrophys. J. 774, 25 (2013) arXiv:1303.5788ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. Barnes, D. Kasen, Astrophys. J. 775, 18 (2013) arXiv:1303.5787ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. Tanaka, K. Hotokezaka, Astrophys. J. 775, 113 (2013) arXiv:1306.3742ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    R. Chornock, E. Berger, D. Kasen, P.S. Cowperthwaite, M. Nicholl, V.A. Villar, K.D. Alexander, P.K. Blanchard, T. Eftekhari, W. Fong et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L19 (2017) arXiv:1710.05454ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    B.D. Metzger, arXiv:1710.05931 (2017)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    W.D. Arnett, Astrophys. J. Lett. 230, L37 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    W.D. Arnett, Astrophys. J. 253, 785 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Perego, D. Radice, S. Bernuzzi, Astrophys. J. Lett. 850, L37 (2017) arXiv:1711.03982ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M.W. Coughlin, T. Dietrich, Z. Doctor, D. Kasen, S. Coughlin, A. Jerkstrand, G. Leloudas, O. McBrien, B.D. Metzger, R. O’Shaughnessy et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 480, 3871 (2018) arXiv:1805.09371ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. Tanaka, Y. Utsumi, P.A. Mazzali, N. Tominaga, M. Yoshida, Y. Sekiguchi, T. Morokuma, K. Motohara, K. Ohta, K.S. Kawabata et al., Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 69, 102 (2017) arXiv:1710.05850ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. Waxman, E.O. Ofek, D. Kushnir, A. Gal-Yam, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 481, 3423 (2018) arXiv:1711.09638ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    K. Kawaguchi, M. Shibata, M. Tanaka, Astrophys. J. Lett. 865, L21 (2018) arXiv:1806.04088ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. Lippuner, L.F. Roberts, Astrophys. J. 815, 82 (2015) arXiv:1508.03133ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. Tanaka, D. Kato, G. Gaigalas, P. Rynkun, L. Radžiute, S. Wanajo, Y. Sekiguchi, N. Nakamura, H. Tanuma, I. Murakami et al., Astrophys. J. 852, 109 (2018) arXiv:1708.09101ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Y. Sekiguchi, K. Kiuchi, K. Kyutoku, M. Shibata, K. Taniguchi, Phys. Rev. D 93, 124046 (2016) arXiv:1603.01918ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. Radice, A. Perego, K. Hotokezaka, S.A. Fromm, S. Bernuzzi, L.F. Roberts, arXiv:1809.11161 (2018)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    D.M. Siegel, B.D. Metzger, Astrophys. J. 858, 52 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. Fernández, A. Tchekhovskoy, E. Quataert, F. Foucart, D. Kasen, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 482, 3373 (2019) arXiv:1808.00461ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J.M. Miller, B.R. Ryan, J.C. Dolence, A. Burrows, C.J. Fontes, C.L. Fryer, O. Korobkin, J. Lippuner, M.R. Mumpower, R.T. Wollaeger, arXiv:1905.07477 (2019)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    B.D. Metzger, T.A. Thompson, E. Quataert, Astrophys. J. 856, 101 (2018) arXiv:1801.04286ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    D. Kasen, R. Fernández, B.D. Metzger, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 1777 (2015) arXiv:1411.3726ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R.T. Wollaeger, O. Korobkin, C.J. Fontes, S.K. Rosswog, W.P. Even, C.L. Fryer, J. Sollerman, A.L. Hungerford, D.R. van Rossum, A.B. Wollaber, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 478, 3298 (2018) arXiv:1705.07084ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    J. Barnes, D. Kasen, M.R. Wu, G. Martínez-Pinedo, Astrophys. J. 829, 110 (2016) arXiv:1605.07218ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    O. Korobkin, S. Rosswog, A. Arcones, C. Winteler, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 426, 1940 (2012) arXiv:1206.2379ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    S. Rosswog, U. Feindt, O. Korobkin, M.R. Wu, J. Sollerman, A. Goobar, G. Martinez-Pinedo, Class. Quantum Grav. 34, 104001 (2017) arXiv:1611.09822ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    M.R. Wu, J. Barnes, G. Martínez-Pinedo, B.D. Metzger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 062701 (2019) arXiv:1808.10459ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    R. Oechslin, H.T. Janka, A. Marek, Astron. Astrophys. 467, 395 (2007) arXiv:astro-ph/0611047ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    K. Hotokezaka, K. Kyutoku, M. Tanaka, K. Kiuchi, Y. Sekiguchi, M. Shibata, S. Wanajo, Astrophys. J. Lett. 778, L16 (2013) arXiv:1310.1623ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    L. Dessart, C.D. Ott, A. Burrows, S. Rosswog, E. Livne, Astrophys. J. 690, 1681 (2009) arXiv:0806.4380ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    D.M. Siegel, R. Ciolfi, L. Rezzolla, Astrophys. J. Lett. 785, L6 (2014) arXiv:1401.4544ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    R. Ciolfi, W. Kastaun, B. Giacomazzo, A. Endrizzi, D.M. Siegel, R. Perna, Phys. Rev. D 95, 063016 (2017) arXiv:1701.08738ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. Ciolfi, W. Kastaun, J.V. Kalinani, B. Giacomazzo, Phys. Rev. D 100, 023005 (2019)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Fernández, B.D. Metzger, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 435, 502 (2013) arXiv:1304.6720ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    O. Just, A. Bauswein, R.A. Pulpillo, S. Goriely, H.T. Janka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 448, 541 (2015) arXiv:1406.2687ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    D.M. Siegel, B.D. Metzger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 231102 (2017) arXiv:1705.05473ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Bauswein, S. Goriely, H.T. Janka, Astrophys. J. 773, 78 (2013) arXiv:1302.6530ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    K. Hotokezaka, K. Kiuchi, K. Kyutoku, H. Okawa, Y.i. Sekiguchi, M. Shibata, K. Taniguchi, Phys. Rev. D 87, 024001 (2013) arXiv:1212.0905ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Y. Sekiguchi, K. Kiuchi, K. Kyutoku, M. Shibata, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064059 (2015) arXiv:1502.06660ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    K. Kyutoku, K. Ioka, M. Shibata, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, L6 (2014) arXiv:1209.5747ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    T. Dietrich, S. Bernuzzi, M. Ujevic, B. Brügmann, Phys. Rev. D 91, 124041 (2015) arXiv:1504.01266ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    W. Kastaun, R. Ciolfi, B. Giacomazzo, Phys. Rev. D 94, 044060 (2016) arXiv:1607.02186ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    K. Hotokezaka, K. Kiuchi, M. Shibata, E. Nakar, T. Piran, Astrophys. J. 867, 95 (2018) arXiv:1803.00599ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    B.D. Metzger, A. Bauswein, S. Goriely, D. Kasen, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 446, 1115 (2015) arXiv:1409.0544ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    D. Radice, F. Galeazzi, J. Lippuner, L.F. Roberts, C.D. Ott, L. Rezzolla, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 460, 3255 (2016) arXiv:1601.02426ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    L. Lehner, S.L. Liebling, C. Palenzuela, O.L. Caballero, E. O’Connor, M. Anderson, D. Neilsen, Class. Quantum Grav. 33, 184002 (2016) arXiv:1603.00501ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    C. Palenzuela, S.L. Liebling, D. Neilsen, L. Lehner, O.L. Caballero, E. O’Connor, M. Anderson, Phys. Rev. D 92, 044045 (2015) arXiv:1505.01607ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    D. Radice, A. Perego, F. Zappa, S. Bernuzzi, Astrophys. J. Lett. 852, L29 (2018) arXiv:1711.03647ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    M. Burgay, N. D’Amico, A. Possenti, R. Manchester, A. Lyne, B. Joshi, M. McLaughlin, M. Kramer, J. Sarkissian, F. Camilo et al., Nature 426, 531 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    W. Kastaun, F. Galeazzi, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064027 (2015) arXiv:1411.7975ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    T. Dietrich, M. Ujevic, W. Tichy, S. Bernuzzi, B. Brügmann, Phys. Rev. D 95, 024029 (2017) arXiv:1607.06636ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    W.E. East, V. Paschalidis, F. Pretorius, A. Tsokaros, arXiv:1906.05288 (2019)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    E.R. Most, L.J. Papenfort, A. Tsokaros, L. Rezzolla, arXiv:1904.04220 (2019)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    T. Dietrich, S. Bernuzzi, B. Brügmann, M. Ujevic, W. Tichy, Phys. Rev. D 97, 064002 (2018) arXiv:1712.02992ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    R. Gold, S. Bernuzzi, M. Thierfelder, B. Brügmann, F. Pretorius, Phys. Rev. D 86, 121501 (2012) arXiv:1109.5128ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    W.E. East, V. Paschalidis, F. Pretorius, S.L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. D 93, 024011 (2016) arXiv:1511.01093ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    S.V. Chaurasia, T. Dietrich, N.K. Johnson-McDaniel, M. Ujevic, W. Tichy, B. Brügmann, Phys. Rev. D 98, 104005 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    F. Özel, D. Psaltis, T. Güver, G. Baym, C. Heinke, S. Guillot, Astrophys. J. 820, 28 (2016) arXiv:1505.05155ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    K. Hotokezaka, K. Kyutoku, H. Okawa, M. Shibata, K. Kiuchi, Phys. Rev. D 83, 124008 (2011) arXiv:1105.4370ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    A. Bauswein, T.W. Baumgarte, H.T. Janka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 131101 (2013) arXiv:1307.5191ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    S.L. Shapiro, Astrophys. J. 544, 397 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    M.D. Duez, Y.T. Liu, S.L. Shapiro, M. Shibata, B.C. Stephens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 031101 (2006) arXiv:astro-ph/0510653ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    D.M. Siegel, R. Ciolfi, A.I. Harte, L. Rezzolla, Phys. Rev. D 87, 121302 (2013) arXiv:1302.4368ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    J.D. Kaplan, C.D. Ott, E.P. O’Connor, K. Kiuchi, L. Roberts, M. Duez, Astrophys. J. 790, 19 (2014) arXiv:1306.4034ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    S. Fujibayashi, K. Kiuchi, N. Nishimura, Y. Sekiguchi, M. Shibata, Astrophys. J. 860, 64 (2018) arXiv:1711.02093ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    D. Radice, A. Perego, K. Hotokezaka, S. Bernuzzi, S.A. Fromm, L.F. Roberts, Astrophys. J. Lett. 869, L35 (2018) arXiv:1809.11163ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    M. Shibata, K. Taniguchi, Phys. Rev. D 73, 064027 (2006) arXiv:astro-ph/0603145ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    M.R. Wu, R. Fernández, G. Martínez-Pinedo, B.D. Metzger, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 463, 2323 (2016) arXiv:1607.05290ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    B.D. Metzger, R. Fernández, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 441, 3444 (2014) arXiv:1402.4803ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    J. Lippuner, R. Fernández, L.F. Roberts, F. Foucart, D. Kasen, B.D. Metzger, C.D. Ott, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 472, 904 (2017) arXiv:1703.06216ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    S. Fahlman, R. Fernández, Astrophys. J. Lett. 869, L3 (2018) arXiv:1811.08906ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    V. Nedora, S. Bernuzzi, D. Radice, A. Perego, A. Endrizzi, N. Ortiz, arXiv:1907.04872 (2019)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    T.M. Tauris, M. Kramer, P.C.C. Freire, N. Wex, H.T. Janka, N. Langer, P. Podsiadlowski, E. Bozzo, S. Chaty, M.U. Kruckow et al., Astrophys. J. 846, 170 (2017) arXiv:1706.09438ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    F. Özel, D. Psaltis, R. Narayan, J.E. McClintock, Astrophys. J. 725, 1918 (2010) arXiv:1006.2834ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    L. Kreidberg, C.D. Bailyn, W.M. Farr, V. Kalogera, Astrophys. J. 757, 36 (2012) arXiv:1205.1805ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    H. Yang, W.E. East, L. Lehner, Astrophys. J. 856, 110 (2018) arXiv:1710.05891ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    F. Foucart, M.D. Duez, L.E. Kidder, S.M. Nissanke, H.P. Pfeiffer, M.A. Scheel, Phys. Rev. D 99, 103025 (2019) arXiv:1903.09166ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    W. Li, R. Chornock, J. Leaman, A.V. Filippenko, D. Poznanski, X. Wang, M. Ganeshalingam, F. Mannucci, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 412, 1473 (2011) arXiv:1006.4613ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    P. Beniamini, K. Hotokezaka, T. Piran, Astrophys. J. 832, 149 (2016) arXiv:1608.08650ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    P. Macias, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, Astrophys. J. 860, 89 (2018) arXiv:1609.04826ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    M. Arnould, S. Goriely, K. Takahashi, Phys. Rep. 450, 97 (2007) arXiv:0705.4512ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    R.K. Kopparapu, C. Hanna, V. Kalogera, R. O’Shaughnessy, G. González, P.R. Brady, S. Fairhurst, Astrophys. J. 675, 1459 (2008) arXiv:0706.1283ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    P. Madau, T. Fragos, Astrophys. J. 840, 39 (2017) arXiv:1606.07887ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    D.M. Siegel, J. Barnes, B.D. Metzger, Nature 569, 241 (2019) arXiv:1810.00098ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    P.J. McMillan, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414, 2446 (2011) arXiv:1102.4340ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    T.M. Heckman, M.D. Lehnert, D.K. Strickland, L. Armus, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 129, 493 (2000) arXiv:astro-ph/0002526ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    N. Murray, E. Quataert, T.A. Thompson, Astrophys. J. 618, 569 (2005) arXiv:astro-ph/0406070ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    J. Chisholm, C.A. Tremonti, C. Leitherer, Y. Chen, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 4831 (2017) arXiv:1702.07351ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    B. Côté, C. West, A. Heger, C. Ritter, B.W. O’Shea, F. Herwig, C. Travaglio, S. Bisterzo, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 463, 3755 (2016) arXiv:1602.04824ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    K. Hotokezaka, P. Beniamini, T. Piran, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 27, 1842005 (2018) arXiv:1801.01141ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    G. Turner, A. Busfield, S.A. Crowther, M. Harrison, S.J. Mojzsis, J. Gilmour, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 261, 491 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    T.T. Hansen, J.D. Simon, J.L. Marshall, T.S. Li, D. Carollo, D.L. DePoy, D.Q. Nagasawa, R.A. Bernstein, A. Drlica-Wagner, F.B. Abdalla et al., Astrophys. J. 838, 44 (2017) arXiv:1702.07430ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    E. Berger, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 52, 43 (2014) arXiv:1311.2603ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    B. Côté, C.L. Fryer, K. Belczynski, O. Korobkin, M. Chruślińska, N. Vassh, M.R. Mumpower, J. Lippuner, T.M. Sprouse, R. Surman et al., Astrophys. J. 855, 99 (2018) arXiv:1710.05875ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    F. van de Voort, E. Quataert, P.F. Hopkins, D. Kereš, C.A. Faucher-Giguère, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 447, 140 (2015) arXiv:1407.7039ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    S. Shen, R.J. Cooke, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, P. Madau, L. Mayer, J. Guedes, Astrophys. J. 807, 115 (2015) arXiv:1407.3796ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    J.J. Cowan, C. Sneden, J.E. Lawler, A. Aprahamian, M. Wiescher, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, F.K. Thielemann, arXiv:1901.01410 (2019)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    F. van de Voort, R. Pakmor, R.J.J. Grand, V. Springel, F.A. Gómez, F. Marinacci, arXiv:1907.01557 (2019)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    G. Cescutti, D. Romano, F. Matteucci, C. Chiappini, R. Hirschi, Astron. Astrophys. 577, A139 (2015) arXiv:1503.02954ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    B. Wehmeyer, M. Pignatari, F.K. Thielemann, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 452, 1970 (2015) arXiv:1501.07749ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Y. Ishimaru, S. Wanajo, N. Prantzos, Astrophys. J. Lett. 804, L35 (2015) arXiv:1504.04559ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Y. Hirai, Y. Ishimaru, T.R. Saitoh, M.S. Fujii, J. Hidaka, T. Kajino, Astrophys. J. 814, 41 (2015) arXiv:1509.08934ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    T. Ojima, Y. Ishimaru, S. Wanajo, N. Prantzos, P. François, Astrophys. J. 865, 87 (2018) arXiv:1808.03390ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Y. Komiya, T. Shigeyama, Astrophys. J. 830, 76 (2016) arXiv:1608.01772ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    M. Bonetti, A. Perego, M. Dotti, G. Cescutti, arXiv:1905.12016 (2019)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    M. Chruslinska, K. Belczynski, J. Klencki, M. Benacquista, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 474, 2937 (2018) arXiv:1708.07885ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    M. Safarzadeh, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, J.J. Andrews, P. Macias, T. Fragos, E. Scannapieco, Astrophys. J. 872, 105 (2019) arXiv:1810.04176ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    M. Zevin, K. Kremer, D.M. Siegel, S. Coughlin, B.T.H. Tsang, C.P.L. Berry, V. Kalogera, arXiv:1906.11299 (2019)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    G.J. Savonije, R.J. Takens, Astron. Astrophys. 47, 231 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    J.P. De Greve, C. De Loore, Astrophys. Space Sci. 50, 75 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    A.J. Delgado, H.C. Thomas, Astron. Astrophys. 96, 142 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    T.M. Tauris, N. Langer, T.J. Moriya, P. Podsiadlowski, S.C. Yoon, S.I. Blinnikov, Astrophys. J. Lett. 778, L23 (2013) arXiv:1310.6356ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    A. Vigna-Gómez, C.J. Neijssel, S. Stevenson, J.W. Barrett, K. Belczynski, S. Justham, S.E. de Mink, B. Müller, P. Podsiadlowski, M. Renzo et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 481, 4009 (2018) arXiv:1805.07974ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    C. Sneden, R.P. Kraft, M.D. Shetrone, G.H. Smith, G.E. Langer, C.F. Prosser, Astron. J. 114, 1964 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    I.U. Roederer, Astrophys. J. Lett. 732, L17 (2011) arXiv:1104.5056ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    J.S. Sobeck, R.P. Kraft, C. Sneden, G.W. Preston, J.J. Cowan, G.H. Smith, I.B. Thompson, S.A. Shectman, G.S. Burley, Astron. J. 141, 175 (2011) arXiv:1103.1008ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    C.C. Worley, V. Hill, J. Sobeck, E. Carretta, Astron. Astrophys. 553, A47 (2013) arXiv:1302.6122ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    R.G. Gratton, E. Carretta, A. Bragaglia, Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 20, 50 (2012) arXiv:1201.6526ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    N. Bastian, C. Lardo, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 56, 83 (2018) arXiv:1712.01286ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    K. Bekki, T. Tsujimoto, Astrophys. J. 844, 34 (2017) arXiv:1706.01194ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology Database, http://sagadatabase.jp
  173. 173.
    T. Suda, Y. Katsuta, S. Yamada, T. Suwa, C. Ishizuka, Y. Komiya, K. Sorai, M. Aikawa, M.Y. Fujimoto, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1159 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    C. Battistini, T. Bensby, Astron. Astrophys. 586, A49 (2016) arXiv:1511.00966ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    B. Côté, K. Belczynski, C.L. Fryer, C. Ritter, A. Paul, B. Wehmeyer, B.W. O’Shea, Astrophys. J. 836, 230 (2017) arXiv:1610.02405ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    B. Côté, M. Eichler, A. Arcones, C.J. Hansen, P. Simonetti, A. Frebel, C.L. Fryer, M. Pignatari, M. Reichert, K. Belczynski, arXiv:1809.03525 (2018)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    R. Schönrich, D.H. Weinberg, arXiv:1901.09938 (2019)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    A.I. MacFadyen, S.E. Woosley, Astrophys. J. 524, 262 (1999) arXiv:astro-ph/9810274ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    K.Z. Stanek, O.Y. Gnedin, J.F. Beacom, A.P. Gould, J.A. Johnson, J.A. Kollmeier, M. Modjaz, M.H. Pinsonneault, R. Pogge, D.H. Weinberg, Acta Astron. 56, 333 (2006) arXiv:astro-ph/0604113ADSGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    D.A. Perley, N.R. Tanvir, J. Hjorth et al., Astrophys. J. 817, 8 (2016) arXiv:1504.02479ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    D. Wanderman, T. Piran, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 406, 1944 (2010) arXiv:0912.0709ADSGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    A. Goldstein, V. Connaughton, M.S. Briggs, E. Burns, Astrophys. J. 818, 18 (2016) arXiv:1512.04464ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    J.T. Palmerio, S.D. Vergani, R. Salvaterra, R.L. Sanders, J. Japelj, A. Vidal-García, P. D’Avanzo, D. Corre, D.A. Perley, A.E. Shapley, arXiv:1901.02457 (2019)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    J.S. Bloom, S.R. Kulkarni, S.G. Djorgovski, Astron. J. 123, 1111 (2002) arXiv:astro-ph/0010176ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    A.S. Fruchter, A.J. Levan, L. Strolger, P.M. Vreeswijk, S.E. Thorsett, D. Bersier, I. Burud, J.M. Castro Cerón, A.J. Castro-Tirado, C. Conselice et al., Nature 441, 463 (2006) arXiv:astro-ph/0603537ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    P. Macias, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, Astrophys. J. Lett. 877, L24 (2019) arXiv:1905.04315ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    C. Sneden, J.J. Cowan, J.E. Lawler, I.I. Ivans, S. Burles, T.C. Beers, F. Primas, V. Hill, J.W. Truran, G.M. Fuller et al., Astrophys. J. 591, 936 (2003) arXiv:astro-ph/0303542ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    C. Winteler, R. Käppeli, A. Perego, A. Arcones, N. Vasset, N. Nishimura, M. Liebendörfer, F.K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. Lett. 750, L22 (2012) arXiv:1203.0616ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    T.A. Thompson, P. Chang, E. Quataert, Astrophys. J. 611, 380 (2004) arXiv:astro-ph/0401555ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    B.D. Metzger, T.A. Thompson, E. Quataert, Astrophys. J. 676, 1130 (2008) arXiv:0708.3395ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    N. Nishimura, T. Takiwaki, F.K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. 810, 109 (2015) arXiv:1501.06567ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    N. Nishimura, H. Sawai, T. Takiwaki, S. Yamada, F.K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. 836, L21 (2017) arXiv:1611.02280ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    P. Mösta, S. Richers, C.D. Ott, R. Haas, A.L. Piro, K. Boydstun, E. Abdikamalov, C. Reisswig, E. Schnetter, Astrophys. J. Lett. 785, L29 (2014) arXiv:1403.1230ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    P. Mösta, L.F. Roberts, G. Halevi, C.D. Ott, J. Lippuner, R. Haas, E. Schnetter, Astrophys. J. 864, 171 (2018) arXiv:1712.09370ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    G. Halevi, P. Mösta, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 477, 2366 (2018) arXiv:1801.08943ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    C. Sneden, J.J. Cowan, I.I. Ivans, G.M. Fuller, S. Burles, T.C. Beers, J.E. Lawler, Astrophys. J. Lett. 533, L139 (2000) arXiv:astro-ph/0003086ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    A. Frebel, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 68, 237 (2018) arXiv:1806.08955ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    C. Travaglio, R. Gallino, E. Arnone, J. Cowan, F. Jordan, C. Sneden, Astrophys. J. 601, 864 (2004) arXiv:astro-ph/0310189ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    K.L. Kratz, K. Farouqi, B. Pfeiffer, J.W. Truran, C. Sneden, J.J. Cowan, Astrophys. J. 662, 39 (2007) arXiv:astro-ph/0703091ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    C. Siqueira Mello, V. Hill, B. Barbuy, M. Spite, F. Spite, T.C. Beers, E. Caffau, P. Bonifacio, R. Cayrel, P. François et al., Astron. Astrophys. 565, A93 (2014) arXiv:1404.0234ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    C. Winteler, R. Käppeli, A. Perego, A. Arcones, N. Vasset, N. Nishimura, M. Liebendörfer, F.K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. Lett. 750, L22 (2012) arXiv:1203.0616ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    A.P. Ji, M.R. Drout, T.T. Hansen, arXiv:1905.01814 (2019)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    S. Rosswog, O. Korobkin, A. Arcones, F.K. Thielemann, T. Piran, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 439, 744 (2014) arXiv:1307.2939ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    A.L. Piro, J.A. Kollmeier, Astrophys. J. 855, 103 (2018) arXiv:1710.05822ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    B. Margalit, B.D. Metzger, Astrophys. J. Lett. 850, L19 (2017) arXiv:1710.05938ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    B. Kiziltan, A. Kottas, M. De Yoreo, S.E. Thorsett, Astrophys. J. 778, 66 (2013) arXiv:1011.4291ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    O. Gottlieb, E. Nakar, T. Piran, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 473, 576 (2018) arXiv:1705.10797ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    E.M. Holmbeck, T.M. Sprouse, M.R. Mumpower, N. Vassh, R. Surman, T.C. Beers, T. Kawano, Astrophys. J. 870, 23 (2019) arXiv:1807.06662ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    H. Schatz, R. Toenjes, B. Pfeiffer, T.C. Beers, J.J. Cowan, V. Hill, K.L. Kratz, Astrophys. J. 579, 626 (2002) arXiv:astro-ph/0104335ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    I.U. Roederer, K.L. Kratz, A. Frebel, N. Christlieb, B. Pfeiffer, J.J. Cowan, C. Sneden, Astrophys. J. 698, 1963 (2009) arXiv:0904.3105ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    L. Mashonkina, N. Christlieb, K. Eriksson, Astron. Astrophys. 569, A43 (2014) arXiv:1407.5379ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    B.D. Metzger, A.L. Piro, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 439, 3916 (2014) arXiv:1311.1519ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    D.M. Siegel, R. Ciolfi, Astrophys. J. 819, 14 (2016) arXiv:1508.07911ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    D.M. Siegel, R. Ciolfi, Astrophys. J. 819, 15 (2016) arXiv:1508.07939ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics LaboratoryColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations