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The enhancement of v4 in nuclear collisions at the highest densities signals a first-order phase transition

  • Yasushi NaraEmail author
  • Jan Steinheimer
  • Horst Stoecker
Open Access
Letter

Abstract.

The beam energy dependence of \(v_{4}\) (the quadrupole moment of the transverse radial flow) is sensitive to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) in mid-central Au + Au collisions at the energy range of \( 3 < \sqrt{s_{NN}} < 30\) GeV, which is investigated within the hadronic transport model JAM. Different equations of state, namely, a free hadron gas, a first-order phase transition and a crossover are compared. An enhancement of \(v_{4}\) at \(\sqrt{s_{NN}} \approx 6\) GeV is predicted for an EoS with a first-order phase transition. This enhanced \(v_{4}\) flow is driven by both the enhancement of \(v_{2}\) as well as the positive contribution to \(v_{4}\) from the squeeze-out of spectator particles which turn into participants due to the admixture of the strong collective flow in the shocked, compressed nuclear matter.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasushi Nara
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jan Steinheimer
    • 2
  • Horst Stoecker
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Akita International UniversityYuwa, Akita-cityJapan
  2. 2.Frankfurt Institute for Advanced StudiesFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Institut für Theoretishe PhysikJohann Wolfgang Goethe UniversitätFrankfurt am MainGermany
  4. 4.GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbHDarmstadtGermany

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