Heavy-element chemistry --Status and perspectives
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In the past ten years, nuclear chemists have made considerable progress in developing fast on-line separation techniques, which allowed to chemically characterize the first four transactinide elements Rf (rutherfordium, Z = 104), Db (dubnium, Z = 105), Sg (seaborgium, Z = 106), and recently also Bh (bohrium, Z = 107). In all cases the isolated nuclides were unambiguously identified by observing genetically linked decay chains. Nuclides with production cross-sections of less than 100 pb and half-lives as short as a few seconds have been chemically isolated. Thus, chemists have discovered or significantly contributed to the characterization of the nuclear-decay properties of a number of transactinide nuclei. New techniques with greatly improved overall efficiencies should allow chemists to extend their studies to even heavier elements such as Hs (hassium, Z = 108) and to the recently discovered superheavy elements with Z = 112 and 114, which can be produced only with picobarn cross-sections.
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