Biology Bulletin Reviews

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 138–147 | Cite as

Biological diversity of ecosystems: Approaches to research and conservation

  • E. Z. Baisheva
  • B. M. Mirkin
  • L. G. Naumova
  • V. B. Martynenko
  • P. S. Shirokikh
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Scientific-methodological and practical approaches to the organization of conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems in Russia and in the European Union countries are discussed. The principles of the organization of ecological networks, the concept of the biotope as the basic unit of conservation, and the experience in selecting important plant areas are considered. Particular attention is given to the specific nature of forest conservation. It is noted that the modern concept of conservation of biological diversity offers not only the creation of protected areas but also the regulated use of agricultural lands.

Keywords

biodiversity conservation of ecosystem forest conservation Nature 2000 ecological networks 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aksenov, D., Dobrynin, D., Dubinin, M., et al., Atlas of Russia’s Intact Forest Landscapes, Washington DC: World Resour. Instit., 2002.Google Scholar
  2. Aleinikov, A.A., Sementsova, M.V., and Yanitskaya, T.O., Polevoi opredelitel’ klyuchevykh biotopov i ob”ektov, sokhranyaemykh pri osvoenii lesosek na territorii Irkutskoi oblasti (Field Handbook of Important Biotopes and the Objects Protected at the Use of Wood-Cutting Area in Irkutsk Oblast), Moscow: WWF Russia, 2011.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, S., Identifying Important Plant Areas: A Site Selection Manual for Europe, and a Basis for Developing Guidelines for Other Regions of the World, London: Plantlife, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. A report “Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, Provisional Technical Rationale, Possible Indicators and Suggested Milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets,” UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27/Add.1, in Tenth Meeting Conf. of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity,” Nagoya, Japan, October 18–29, 2010. http//www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/cop-10/official/cop-10-27-ru.pdf
  5. Artemov, I.A., Korolyuk, A.Yu., Lashchinskii, N.N., et al., Klyuchevye botanicheskie territorii Altae-Sayanskogo ekoregiona: opyt vydeleniya (Important Plant Areas in Altai-Sayan Ecological Region: Zonation Principles), Novosibirsk: Geo, 2009.Google Scholar
  6. Baisheva, E.Z., The bryophytes diversity of natural ecosystems: approaches for estimating of biodiversity and peculiarity of bryophyte conservation, Usp. Sovrem. Biol., 2007, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 316–333.Google Scholar
  7. Belonovskaya, E.A., Sobolev, N.A., and Tishkov, A.A., Geographical principles of creation of ecological networks in Russia and Eastern Europe, Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Geogr., 2012, no. 1, pp. 128–130.Google Scholar
  8. Borovichev, E.A., Belkina, O.A., Kostina, V.A., et al., Important plant areas (IPA) as the modern approach to protection of plant diversity in Murmansk oblast, in Mater. mezhd. nauchno-prakt. konf. “Zelenyi poyas Fennoskandii,” Petrozavodsk, 7–12 okryabrya 2013 goda (Proc. Int. Sci.-Pract. Conf. “The Green Belt of Fennoscandia,” Petrozavodsk, October 7–12, 2013), Petrozavodsk: Karel. Nauchn. Tsentr, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2013, pp. 104–105.Google Scholar
  9. Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds, Off. J. Eur. Commun., 1979, no. L103, pp. 0001–0018.Google Scholar
  10. Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, Off. J. Eur. Commun., 1992, no. L206, pp. 0007–0050.Google Scholar
  11. Evans, T., Judd, N., Nussbaum, R., and Jennings, S., High Conservation Value Forest Toolkit: Practical Guidance, Oxford, UK: Proforest, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. Forests and their resources of Russian Federation in 2011. http://www.rosleshoz.gov.ru/docs/other/77/1.pdf
  13. Forest Code of Russian Federation, Ross. Gazeta, 2006, no. 277.Google Scholar
  14. Gosudarstvennyi doklad “O sostoyanii i ob okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy Rossiiskoi Federatsii v 2011 godu” (Governmental Report “On Status and Protection of Environment in Russian Federation in 2011”). http://www/mnr.gov.ru/regulatory/detail.php
  15. Hansson, L., Key habitats in Swedish managed forests, J. For. Res., Suppl., 2001, no. 3, pp. 52–61.Google Scholar
  16. Heinlen, E.R. and Vitt, D.H., Patterns of rarity in mosses of the Okanogan Highlands of Washington State: an emerging coarse filter approach to rare moss conservation, Bryologist, 2003, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 34–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hochkirch, A., Schmitt, T., Beninde, J., et al., Europe needs a new vision for a Nature 2020 network, Conserv. Lett., 2013, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  18. Important Plant Areas in European Russia-Approaches to Identification, Moscow: IUCN Off. Russia, CIS, 2004, no. 1.Google Scholar
  19. Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats-EUR 28, European Commission DG Environment, 2013. http://www.ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/docs/Int_Manual_EU28.pdf
  20. Ismailova, D.M., Soldatov, V.V., Gosteva, A.A., et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po sokhraneniyu biologicheskogo raznoobraziya v protsesse zagotovki drevesiny na territorii Krasnoyarskogo kraya (Manual on Conservation of Biological Diversity during Wood Cutting in Krasnoyarsk Krai), Krasnoyarsk: Tipogr. Sukhovol’skoi Yu.P., 2012.Google Scholar
  21. Izumrudnaya kniga Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Chast’ 1. Territorii osobogo prirodookhrannogo znacheniya Evropeiskoi Rossii. Predlozheniya po vyyavleniyu (Emerald Book of Russian Federation, Part 1: Important Natural Protected Areas of European Russia. The Suggestions on Identification), Moscow: Inst. Geogr., Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2011–2013.Google Scholar
  22. Jennings, S., Nussbaum, R., Judd, N., and Evans, T., The High Conservation Value Forest Toolkit, Oxford, UK: ProForest, 2003.Google Scholar
  23. Katalog Biotopů Çeské Republiky, Chytrý, M., Kučera, T., and Kočí, M., Eds., Praha: Agent. Ochrany P ír. Krajiny R, 2001.Google Scholar
  24. Konstantinova, N.A., Kostina, V.A., Koroleva, N.E., et al., Important plant areas in Murmansk oblast and their identification, in Informatsionnaya sistema Karel’skogo Nauchnogo Tsentra, Ross. Akad. Nauk (Informational System of Karelian Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences), 2008. http://www.kolasc.net.ru/russian/sever07/sever07_3.pdf Google Scholar
  25. Kryshen’, A.M., Polevoi, A.V., Gnatyuk, E.P., et al., Database of habitats (biotopes) in Karelia, Tr. Karel. Nauchn. Tsentra, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2009, no. 4, pp. 3–10.Google Scholar
  26. Kuznetsov, O.L. and Kutenkov, S.A., Structure of vegetation cover as the basis for classification of peatbog biotopes (by example of Karelia), in Tr. XIII s”ezda Ross. Bot. O-va, Conf. “Nauchnye osnovy okhrany i ratsional’nogo ispol’zovaniya rastitel’nogo pokrova Volzhskogo basseina” (Trans. XIII Congr. Russian Botanical Society and Conf. “Scientific Principles of Protection and Rational Use of Vegetation Cover in Volga River Basin”), Tolyatti: Kassandra, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 248–249.Google Scholar
  27. Markovskii, A.V., Il’ina, O.V., and Zorina, A.A., Polevoi opredelite’ klyuchevykh biotopov Srednei Karelii (Field Guidance to Identification of Important Biotopes of Central Karelia), Moscow: Nauka, 2007.Google Scholar
  28. Markovskii, A.V. and Rodionov, A.V., Preservation of scarce-disturbed forests as the requirement to forest certification (by example of Karelia), Issled. Rossii, 2005. http://zhurnal.ape.relarn.ru/articles/2005/071.pdf Google Scholar
  29. MartÍnez, I., Carreño, F., Escudero, A., and Rubio, A., Are threatened lichen species well-protected in Spain? Effectiveness of a protected areas network, Biol. Conserv., 2006, vol. 133, pp. 500–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Natsional’naya strategiya sokhraneniya bioraznoobraziya Rossii (National Strategy of Preservation of Biological Diversity in Russia), Moscow: Minist. Prirod. Resur. Ross. Fed., 2001.Google Scholar
  31. Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, Strasbourg: Council Eur. Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  32. Pankratov, V., Preservation of biological diversity during wood cuttings, Ustoichivoe Lesopol’zovanie, 2006, no. 12(4), pp. 36–37.Google Scholar
  33. Pautov, Yu.A., Zasukhin, D.P., Klochikhin, A.N., et al., FSC-sertifikatsiya v Rossii: prakticheskie resheniya (FSC-Certification in Russia: Practical Solutions), Syktyvkar: Serebryanaya Taiga, 2007.Google Scholar
  34. Piquer-Rodríguez, M., Kuemmerle, T., Alcaraz-Segura, D., et al., Future land use effects on the connectivity of protected area networks in southeastern Spain, J. Nat. Conserv., 2012, vol. 20, pp. 326–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Prilozhenie k Prikazu Ministerstva Prirodnykh Resursov Rossii ot 06.04.2004 no. 323.2004 “Strategiya sokhraneniya redkikh i nakhodyashchikhsya pod ugrozoi ischeznoveniya vidov zhivotnykh rastenii i gribov” (Appendix to the Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia of April 6, 2004, No. 323.2004 “A Strategy of Preservation of Rare and Endangered Species of the Animals, Plants, and Fungi”).Google Scholar
  36. Ptichnikov, A.V., Bubko, E.V., Zagidullina, A.T., et al., Dobrovol’naya lesnaya sertifikatsiya (FSC-Certification), Moscow: WWF Russia, 2011.Google Scholar
  37. Rai, E.A., Torkhov, S.V., Burova, N.V., et al., Klyuchevye biotopy lesnykh ekosistem Arkhangel’skoi oblasti i rekomendatsii po ikh okhrane (Important Biotopes of Forest Ecosystems of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Recommendations to Their Protection), Moscow: WWF Russia, 2008.Google Scholar
  38. Rubio-Salcedo, M., Martínez, I., Carreño, F., and Escudero, A., Poor effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network protecting Mediterranean lichen species, J. Nat. Conserv., 2013, vol. 21, pp. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saksonov, S.V., Lysenko, T.M., Il’ina, V.N., et al., Zelenaya kniga Samarskoi oblasti (The Green Book of Samara Oblast), Samara: Samar. Nauchn. Tsentr, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2006.Google Scholar
  40. Sobolev, N.A., Malachite rim for the Emerald network, Stepnoi Byull., 2013, no. 37, pp. 9–11.Google Scholar
  41. Svedrup-Thygeson, A., Key habitats in the Norwegian production forest: a case study, Scand. J. For. Res., 2002, no. 17, pp. 166–178.Google Scholar
  42. Teleganova, V.V., Valuable bryological complexes, territories, and biotopes of Kaluga oblast, Izv. Kaluzh. O-va Izuch. Prirod., 2009, book 9, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  43. The Habitats Directive: Selection of Special Areas of Conservation in the UK, McLeod, C.R., Yeo, M., Brown, A.E., et al., Eds., Peterborough: Joint Nat. Conserv. Comm., 2005, 2nd ed. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/SACselection Google Scholar
  44. Vakhrameeva, M.G. and Kulikova, G.G., Problems of protection of vegetation cover, Itogi Nauki Tekh., Ser.: Bot., 1991, vol. 11, pp. 3–198.Google Scholar
  45. Vyyavlenie i obsledovanie biologicheski tsennykh lesov na Severo-Zapade evropeiskoi chasti Rossii. Tom 1. Metodika vyyavleniya i kartografirovaniya (Identification and Investigation of Biologically Valuable Forests in the Northeast of European Russia, Vol. 1: Analysis Method of Identification and Mapping), St. Petersburg: Pobeda, 2009.Google Scholar
  46. Wildlife in a Changing World-an Analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Vié, J.-C., Hilton-Taylor, C., and Stuart, S.N., Eds., Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 2009.Google Scholar
  47. Yaroshenko, A.Yu., Potapov, P.V., and Turubanova, S.A., Malonarushennye lesnye territorii Evropeiskogo Severa Rossii (Intact Forest Areas of the North of European Russia), Moscow: Greenpeace Russia, 2001.Google Scholar
  48. Zelenaya kniga Bryanskoi oblasti (rastitel’nye soobshchestva, nuzhdayushchiesya v okhrane) (The Green Book of Bryansk Oblast: Endangered Plant Communities), Bulokhov, A.D., Ed., Bryansk: Bryansk. Obl. Poligr. Ob”ed., 2012.Google Scholar
  49. Zelenaya kniga Sibiri: redkie i nuzhdayushchekhsya v okhrane rastitel’nye soobshchestva (The Green Book of Siberia: Rare and Endangered Plant Communities), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1996.Google Scholar
  50. Zelena kniga Ukraini (The Green Book of Ukraine), Didukha, Ya.P., Ed., Kyiv: Al’terpres, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Z. Baisheva
    • 1
  • B. M. Mirkin
    • 1
  • L. G. Naumova
    • 2
  • V. B. Martynenko
    • 1
  • P. S. Shirokikh
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biology, Ufa Scientific CenterRussian Academy of SciencesUfaRussia
  2. 2.Bashkir State Pedagogical UniversityUfaRussia

Personalised recommendations